43 USC Ch. 34: TRANS-ALASKA PIPELINE


Published: 2015-07-06

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43 USC Ch. 34: TRANS-ALASKA PIPELINE

From Title 43—PUBLIC LANDS

CHAPTER 34—TRANS-ALASKA PIPELINE

Sec.

1651.
Congressional findings and declaration.

1652.
Authorizations for construction.

1653.
Liability for damages.

1654.
Antitrust laws.

1655.
Roads and airports.

1656.
Civil penalties.

        

§1651. Congressional findings and declaration

The Congress finds and declares that:

(a) The early development and delivery of oil and gas from Alaska's North Slope to domestic markets is in the national interest because of growing domestic shortages and increasing dependence upon insecure foreign sources.

(b) The Department of the Interior and other Federal agencies, have, over a long period of time, conducted extensive studies of the technical aspects and of the environmental, social, and economic impacts of the proposed trans-Alaska oil pipeline, including consideration of a trans-Canada pipeline.

(c) The earliest possible construction of a trans-Alaska oil pipeline from the North Slope of Alaska to Port Valdez in that State will make the extensive proven and potential reserves of low-sulfur oil available for domestic use and will best serve the national interest.

(d) A supplemental pipeline to connect the North Slope with a trans-Canada pipeline may be needed later and it should be studied now, but it should not be regarded as an alternative for a trans-Alaska pipeline that does not traverse a foreign country.

(Pub. L. 93–153, title II, §202, Nov. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 584.)

Short Title of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–380, title VIII, §8001, Aug. 18, 1990, 104 Stat. 564, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 1642 and 1656 of this title, amending sections 1350 and 1653 of this title and section 3145 of Title 16, Conservation, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 1653 of this title] may be cited as the 'Trans-Alaska Pipeline System Reform Act of 1990'."

Short Title

Pub. L. 93–153, title II, §201, Nov. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 584, provided that: "This title [enacting this chapter] may be cited as the 'Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act'."

Separability

Pub. L. 93–153, title IV, §411, Nov. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 594, provided that: "If any provision of this Act [enacting this chapter, section 1456a of this title, and section 3512 of Title 44, Public Printing and Documents, amending section 1608 of this title, sections 45, 46, 53, and 56 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, section 185 of Title 30, Mineral Lands and Mining, section 3502 of Title 44, and section 391a of former Title 46, Shipping, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1608 and 1651 of this title, section 1904 of Title 12, Banks and Banking, section 45 of Title 15, section 791a of Title 16, Conservation, and section 1221 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters] or the applicability thereof is held invalid the remainder of this Act shall not be affected thereby."
Presidential Task Force

Pub. L. 101–380, title VIII, §8103, Aug. 18, 1990, 104 Stat. 567, established a Presidential Task Force on the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System, to conduct an audit of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System and make recommendations to the President, Congress, and the Governor of Alaska, authorized appropriations for the Task Force, and required it to transmit its final report to the President, Congress, and the Governor no later than 2 years after the date on which funding was made available.
North Slope Crude Oil; Report on Equitable Allocation

Pub. L. 94–586, §18, Oct. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 2916, directed that the President, within 6 months of Oct. 22, 1976, determine special expediting procedures necessary to insure the equitable allocation of North Slope crude oil to the Northern Tier States of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Illinois, Indiana, and Idaho to carry out the provisions of section 410 of Pub. L. 93–153 [set out below], and to report his findings to Congress, such report to include a statement demonstrating the impact that the delivery system would have on reducing the dependency of New England and the Middle Atlantic States on foreign oil imports.
Trans-Canada Pipeline; Negotiations With Canada; Feasibility Study

Pub. L. 93–153, title III, Nov. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 588, authorized the President to enter into negotiations with the Government of Canada to determine Canadian willingness to permit construction of pipelines or other transportation systems across its territory to bring gas and oil from Alaska's North Slope to the United States; the need for intergovernmental agreements to protect interests of any parties involved with construction, operation, and maintenance of such natural gas or oil transportation systems; terms and conditions for construction across Canadian territory; desirability of joint studies to insure environmental protection, reduce regulatory uncertainty, and insure meeting energy requirements; quantity of oil and gas for which Canada would guarantee transit; and acquisition of other energy sources so as to make unnecessary the shipment of oil from the Alaska pipeline by tanker into the Puget Sound area. The President was to report to Congress on actions taken and recommendations for further action. In addition, the Secretary of the Interior was to investigate, and to report to Congress within 2 years of Nov. 16, 1973, as to the feasibility of oil or gas pipelines from the North Slope of Alaska to connect with a pipeline through Canada that would deliver oil or gas to United States markets. Nothing in title III was to limit the authority of the Secretary or any other Federal official to grant a gas or oil pipeline right-of-way or permit, which that official was otherwise authorized by law to grant.
Exclusion of Persons From Trans-Alaska Pipeline Activities on Basis of Race, Creed, Color, National Origin, or Sex Prohibited

Pub. L. 93–153, title IV, §403, Nov. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 590, provided that: "The Secretary of the Interior shall take such affirmative action as he deems necessary to assure that no person shall, on the grounds of race, creed, color, national origin, or sex, be excluded from receiving, or participating in any activity conducted under, any permit, right-of-way, public land order, or other Federal authorization granted or issued under title II [this chapter]. The Secretary of the Interior shall promulgate such rules as he deems necessary to carry out the purposes of this subsection and may enforce this subsection, and any rules promulgated under this subsection, through agency and department provisions and rules which shall be similar to those established and in effect under title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [section 2000d et seq. of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare]."
Equitable Allocation of North Slope Crude Oil

Pub. L. 93–153, title IV, §410, Nov. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 594, provided that: "The Congress declares that the crude oil on the North Slope of Alaska is an important part of the Nation's oil resources, and that the benefits of such crude oil should be equitably shared, directly or indirectly, by all regions of the country. The President shall use any authority he may have to insure an equitable allocation of available North Slope and other crude oil resources and petroleum products among all regions and all of the several States."

§1652. Authorizations for construction

(a) Congressional declaration of purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to insure that, because of the extensive governmental studies already made of this project and the national interest in early delivery of North Slope oil to domestic markets, the trans-Alaska oil pipeline be constructed promptly without further administrative or judicial delay or impediment. To accomplish this purpose it is the intent of the Congress to exercise its constitutional powers to the fullest extent in the authorizations and directions herein made and in limiting judicial review of the actions taken pursuant thereto.

(b) Issuance, administration, and enforcement of rights-of-way, permits, leases, and other authorizations

The Congress hereby authorizes and directs the Secretary of the Interior and other appropriate Federal officers and agencies to issue and take all necessary action to administer and enforce rights-of-way, permits, leases, and other authorizations that are necessary for or related to the construction, operation, and maintenance of the trans-Alaska oil pipeline system, including roads and airstrips, as that system is generally described in the Final Environmental Impact Statement issued by the Department of the Interior on March 20, 1972. The route of the pipeline may be modified by the Secretary to provide during construction greater environmental protection.

(c) Applicability of statutes governing rights-of-way for pipelines through Federal lands; other statutory terms and conditions; waiver of procedural requirements; supersedure of administrative authorizations for construction

Rights-of-way, permits, leases, and other authorizations issued pursuant to this chapter by the Secretary shall be subject to the provisions of section 185 of title 30, as amended by Pub. L. 93–153 (except the provisions of subsections (h)(1), (k), (q), (w)(2), and (x)); all authorizations issued by the Secretary and other Federal officers and agencies pursuant to this chapter shall include the terms and conditions required, and may include the terms and conditions permitted, by the provisions of law that would otherwise be applicable if this chapter had not been enacted, and they may waive any procedural requirements of law or regulation which they deem desirable to waive in order to accomplish the purposes of this chapter. The direction contained in subsection (b) of this section shall supersede the provisions of any law or regulation relating to an administrative determination as to whether the authorizations for construction of the trans-Alaska oil pipeline shall be issued.

(d) National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 bypassed; issuance of authorizations for construction and operation not to be subject to judicial review; time limits on charges of invalidity or unconstitutionality; jurisdiction; hearings; review

The actions taken pursuant to this chapter which relate to the construction and completion of the pipeline system, and to the applications filed in connection therewith necessary to the pipeline's operation at full capacity, as described in the Final Environmental Impact Statement of the Department of the Interior, shall be taken without further action under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.]; and the actions of the Federal officers concerning the issuance of the necessary rights-of-way, permits, leases, and other authorizations for construction and initial operation at full capacity of said pipeline system shall not be subject to judicial review under any law except that claims alleging the invalidity of this section may be brought within sixty days following November 16, 1973, and claims alleging that an action will deny rights under the Constitution of the United States, or that the action is beyond the scope of authority conferred by this chapter, may be brought within sixty days following the date of such action. A claim shall be barred unless a complaint is filed within the time specified. Any such complaint shall be filed in a United States district court, and such court shall have exclusive jurisdiction to determine such proceeding in accordance with the procedures hereinafter provided, and no other court of the United States, of any State, territory, or possession of the United States, or of the District of Columbia, shall have jurisdiction of any such claim whether in a proceeding instituted prior to or on or after November 16, 1973. Such court shall not have jurisdiction to grant any injunctive relief against the issuance of any right-of-way, permit, lease, or other authorization pursuant to this section except in conjunction with a final judgment entered in a case involving a claim filed pursuant to this section. An interlocutory or final judgment, decree, or order of such district court may be reviewed only upon petition for a writ of certiorari to the Supreme Court of the United States.

(e) Amendment or modification of rights-of-way, permits, leases, or other authorizations

The Secretary of the Interior and the other Federal officers and agencies are authorized at any time when necessary to protect the public interest, pursuant to the authority of this section and in accordance with its provisions, to amend or modify any right-of-way, permit, lease, or other authorization issued under this chapter.

(Pub. L. 93–153, title II, §203, Nov. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 584; Pub. L. 98–620, title IV, §402(46), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3360; Pub. L. 100–352, §6(c), June 27, 1988, 102 Stat. 663.)

References in Text

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsec. (d), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (section 4321 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of Title 42 and Tables.

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–352 amended last sentence generally. Prior to amendment, last sentence read as follows: "Any review of an interlocutory or final judgment, decree, or order of such district court may be had only upon direct appeal to the Supreme Court of the United States."
1984—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–620 struck out provision that any such proceeding had to be assigned for hearing at the earliest possible date, had to take precedence over all other matters pending on the docket of the district court at that time, and had to be expedited in every way by such court.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–352 effective ninety days after June 27, 1988, except that such amendment not to apply to cases pending in Supreme Court on such effective date or affect right to review or manner of reviewing judgment or decree of court which was entered before such effective date, see section 7 of Pub. L. 100–352, set out as a note under section 1254 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.
Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–620 not applicable to cases pending on Nov. 8, 1984, see section 403 of Pub. L. 98–620, set out as a note under section 1657 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§1653. Liability for damages

(a) Activities along or in vicinity of pipeline right-of-way; strict liability; limitation on liability; subrogation; emergency subsistence and other aid; exemption for State of Alaska

(1) Except when the holder of the pipeline right-of-way granted pursuant to this chapter can prove that damages in connection with or resulting from activities along or in the vicinity of the proposed trans-Alaskan pipeline right-of-way were caused solely by an act of war or negligence of the United States, other government entity, or the damaged party, such holder shall be strictly liable to all damaged parties, public or private, without regard to fault for such damages, and without regard to ownership of any affected lands, structures, fish, wildlife, or biotic or other natural resources relied upon by Alaska Natives, Native organizations, or others for subsistence or economic purposes. Claims for such injury or damages may be determined by arbitration or judicial proceedings.

(2) Liability under paragraph (1) of this subsection shall be limited to $350,000,000 for any one incident, and the holders of the right-of-way or permit shall be liable for any claim allowed in proportion to their ownership interest in the right-of-way or permit. Liability of such holders for damages in excess of $350,000,000 shall be in accord with ordinary rules of negligence.

(3) In any case where liability without fault is imposed pursuant to this subsection and the damages involved were caused by the negligence of a third party, the rules of subrogation shall apply in accordance with the law of the jurisdiction where the damage occurred.

(4) Upon order of the Secretary, the holder of a right-of-way or permit shall provide emergency subsistence and other aid to an affected Alaska Native, Native organization, or other person pending expeditious filing of, and determination of, a claim under this subsection.

(5) Where the State of Alaska is the holder of a right-of-way or permit under this chapter, the State shall not be subject to the provisions of this subsection, but the holder of the permit or right-of-way for the trans-Alaska pipeline shall be subject to this subsection with respect to facilities constructed or activities conducted under rights-of-way or permits issued to the State to the extent that such holder engages in the construction, operation, maintenance, and termination of facilities, or in other activities under rights-of-way or permits issued to the State.

(b) Control and removal of pollutants at expense of right-of-way holder

If any area in the State of Alaska within or without the right-of-way or permit area granted under this chapter is polluted by any activities related to the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System, including operation of the terminal, conducted by or on behalf of the holder to whom such right-of-way or permit was granted, and such pollution damages or threatens to damage aquatic life, wildlife, or public or private property, the control and total removal of the pollutant shall be at the expense of such holder, including any administrative and other costs incurred by the Secretary or any other Federal or State officer or agency. Upon failure of such holder to adequately control and remove such pollutant, the Secretary, in cooperation with other Federal, State, or local agencies, or in cooperation with such holder, or both, shall have the right to accomplish the control and removal at the expense of such holder.

(Pub. L. 93–153, title II, §204, Nov. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 586; Pub. L. 101–380, title VIII, §§8101, 8102(a)(1), (4), (b)–(e), Aug. 18, 1990, 104 Stat. 565–567.)

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–380, §8101(a), substituted "caused solely by" for "caused by".
Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–380, §8101(b), substituted "$350,000,000" for "$50,000,000" in two places.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–380, §8101(c), inserted "in the State of Alaska" after "any area", "related to the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System, including operation of the terminal," after "any activities", and "or State" after "any other Federal".
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–380, §8102(a)(1), struck out subsec. (c) which related to liability for discharges of oil loaded at terminal facilities and to establishment of Trans-Alaska Pipeline Liability Fund.
Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 101–380, §8102(b), substituted "caused solely by" for "caused by".
Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 101–380, §8102(d), inserted at end "The Fund shall expeditiously pay claims under this subsection, including such $14,000,000, if the owner or operator of a vessel has not paid any such claim within 90 days after such claim has been submitted to such owner or operator. Upon payment of any such claim, the Fund shall be subrogated under applicable State and Federal laws to all rights of any person entitled to recover under this subsection. In any action brought by the Fund against an owner or operator or an affiliate thereof to recover amounts under this paragraph, the Fund shall be entitled to recover prejudgment interest, costs, reasonable attorney's fees, and, in the discretion of the court, penalties."
Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 101–380, §8102(e), designated existing provisions as par. (A) and added pars. (B) and (C).
Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 101–380, §8102(a)(4), inserted before period at end of second sentence ", except that after August 18, 1990, the amount to be accumulated shall be $100,000,000 or the amount determined by the trustees and certified to the Congress by the Comptroller General as necessary to pay claims arising from incidents occurring prior to August 18, 1990, and administrative costs, whichever is less".
Subsec. (c)(13), (14). Pub. L. 101–380, §8102(c), added pars. (13) and (14).

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–380 applicable to incidents occurring after Aug. 18, 1990, see section 1020 of Pub. L. 101–380, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2701 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters.
Pub. L. 101–380, title VIII, §8102(a)(5)(A), Aug. 18, 1990, 104 Stat. 566, provided that: "The repeal by paragraph (1) [repealing subsec. (c) of this section] shall be effective 60 days after the date on which the Comptroller General of the United States certifies to the Congress [certified July 5, 2000] that—
"(i) all claims arising under section 204(c) of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act (43 U.S.C. 1653(c)) have been resolved,
"(ii) all actions for the recovery of amounts subject to section 204(c) of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act have been resolved, and
"(iii) all administrative expenses reasonably necessary for and incidental to the implementation of section 204(c) of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act have been paid."

Savings Provision

Pub. L. 101–380, title VIII, §8102(a)(3), Aug. 18, 1990, 104 Stat. 566, provided that: "The repeal made by paragraph (1) [repealing subsec. (c) of this section] shall have no effect on any right to recover or responsibility that arises from incidents subject to section 204(c) of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act (43 U.S.C. 1653(c)) occurring prior to the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 18, 1990]."

Bulk Fuel Storage Tanks

Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(g) [title III, §329(a), (b)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–439, 2681-470, provided that:
"(a) Transfer of Funds.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the remainder of the balance in the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Liability Fund that is transferred and deposited into the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund under section 8102(a)(2)(B)(ii) of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (43 U.S.C. 1653 note) after June 16, 1998 shall be used in accordance with this section.
"(b) Use of Interest Only.—The interest produced from the investment of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Liability Fund balance that is transferred and deposited into the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund under section 8102(a)(2)(B)(ii) of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–380] (43 U.S.C. 1653 note) after June 16, 1998 shall be transferred annually by the National Pollution Funds Center to the Denali Commission for a program, to be developed in consultation with the Coast Guard, to repair or replace bulk fuel storage tanks in Alaska which are not in compliance with federal law, including the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 [33 U.S.C. 2701 et seq.], or State law."
[For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.]
Disposition of Fund Balance

Pub. L. 101–380, title VIII, §8102(a)(2), Aug. 18, 1990, 104 Stat. 565, as amended by Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(g) [title III, §329(c)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–439, 2681-471, provided that:
"(A) Reservation of amounts.—The trustees of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Liability Fund (hereafter in this subsection referred to as the 'TAPS Fund') shall reserve the following amounts in the TAPS Fund—
"(i) necessary to pay claims arising under section 204(c) of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act (43 U.S.C. 1653(c)); and
"(ii) administrative expenses reasonably necessary for and incidental to the implementation of section 204(c) of that Act.
"(B) Disposition of the balance.—After the Comptroller General of the United States certifies that the requirements of subparagraph (A) have been met, the trustees of the TAPS Fund shall dispose of the balance in the TAPS Fund after the reservation of amounts are made under subparagraph (A) by—
"(i) rebating the pro rata share of the balance to the State of Alaska for its contributions as an owner of oil, which, except as otherwise provided under article IX, section 15, of the Alaska Constitution, shall be used for the remediation of above-ground storage tanks; and then
"(ii) transferring and depositing the remainder of the balance into the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund established under section 9509 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 9509).
"(C) Disposition of the reserved amounts.—After payment of all claims arising from an incident for which funds are reserved under subparagraph (A) and certification by the Comptroller General of the United States that the claims arising from that incident have been paid, the excess amounts, if any, for that incident shall be disposed of as set forth under subparagraphs (A) and (B).
"(D) Authorization.—The amounts transferred and deposited in the Fund shall be available for the purposes of section 1012 of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 [33 U.S.C. 2712] after funding sections 5001 [33 U.S.C. 2731] and 8103 [43 U.S.C. 1651 note] to the extent that funds have not otherwise been provided for the purposes of such sections."
Liabilities of Trustees of TAPS Fund

Pub. L. 101–380, title VIII, §8102(a)(5)(B), Aug. 18, 1990, 104 Stat. 566, provided that: "Upon the effective date of the repeal pursuant to subparagraph (A) [see Effective Date of 1990 Amendment note above], the trustees of the TAPS Fund shall be relieved of all responsibilities under section 204(c) of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act [43 U.S.C. 1653(c)], but not any existing legal liability."
Preservation of Rights and Remedies of Contributors to TAPS Fund

Pub. L. 101–380, title VIII, §8102(a)(6), Aug. 18, 1990, 104 Stat. 566, provided that: "This subsection [amending this section and enacting provisions set out as notes above] is intended expressly to preserve any and all rights and remedies of contributors to the TAPS Fund under section 1491 of title 28, United States Code (commonly referred to as the 'Tucker Act')."

§1654. Antitrust laws

The grant of a right-of-way, permit, lease, or other authorization pursuant to this chapter shall grant no immunity from the operation of the Federal anti-trust laws.

(Pub. L. 93–153, title II, §205, Nov. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 588.)

§1655. Roads and airports

A right-of-way, permit, lease, or other authorization granted under section 1652(b) of this title for a road or airstrip as a related facility of the trans-Alaska pipeline may provide for the construction of a public road or airstrip.

(Pub. L. 93–153, title II, §206, Nov. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 588.)

§1656. Civil penalties

(a) Penalty

Except as provided in subsection (c)(4) of this section, the Secretary of the Interior may assess and collect a civil penalty under this section with respect to any discharge of oil—

(1) in transit from fields or reservoirs supplying oil to the trans-Alaska pipeline; or

(2) during transportation through the trans-Alaska pipeline or handling at the terminal facilities, that causes damage to, or threatens to damage, natural resources or public or private property.

(b) Persons liable

In addition to the person causing or permitting the discharge, the owner or owners of the oil at the time the discharge occurs shall be jointly, severally, and strictly liable for the full amount of penalties assessed pursuant to this section, except that the United States and the several States, and political subdivisions thereof, shall not be liable under this section.

(c) Amount

(1) The amount of the civil penalty shall not exceed $1,000 per barrel of oil discharged.

(2) In determining the amount of civil penalty under this section, the Secretary shall consider the seriousness of the damages from the discharge, the cause of the discharge, any history of prior violations of applicable rules and laws, and the degree of success of any efforts by the violator to minimize or mitigate the effects of such discharge.

(3) The Secretary may reduce or waive the penalty imposed under this section if the discharge was solely caused by an act of war, act of God, or third party action beyond the control of the persons liable under this section.

(4) No civil penalty assessed by the Secretary pursuant to this section shall be in addition to a penalty assessed pursuant to section 1321(b) of title 33.

(d) Procedures

A civil penalty may be assessed and collected under this section only after notice and opportunity for a hearing on the record in accordance with section 554 of title 5. In any proceeding for the assessment of a civil penalty under this section, the Secretary may issue subpoenas for the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of relevant papers, books, and documents and may promulgate rules for discovery procedures. Any person who requested a hearing with respect to a civil penalty under this subsection and who is aggrieved by an order assessing the civil penalty may file a petition for judicial review of such order with the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia circuit or for any other circuit in which such person resides or transacts business. Such a petition may only be filed within the 30-day period beginning on the date the order making such assessment was issued.

(e) State law

(1) Nothing in this section shall be construed or interpreted as preempting any State or political subdivision thereof from imposing any additional liability or requirements with respect to the discharge, or threat of discharge, of oil or other pollution by oil.

(2) Nothing in this section shall affect or modify in any way the obligations or liabilities of any person under other Federal or State law, including common law, with respect to discharges of oil.

(Pub. L. 93–153, title II, §207, as added Pub. L. 101–380, title VIII, §8202, Aug. 18, 1990, 104 Stat. 571.)

Effective Date

Section applicable to incidents occurring after Aug. 18, 1990, see section 1020 of Pub. L. 101–380, set out as a note under section 2701 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters.
 

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