6244.2800 ANIMAL HEALTH AND HUSBANDRY.
The food shall be wholesome, palatable, and free from contamination and of sufficient quantity and nutritive value to maintain all animals in good health. The diet shall be prepared with consideration of the age, species, condition, size, and type of the animal. Animals shall be fed at least once a day except as dictated by hibernation, veterinary treatment, normal fasts, or other professionally accepted practices.
Food and food receptacles, if used, shall be sufficient in quantity and located so as to be accessible to all animals in the enclosure and shall be placed so as to minimize contamination. Food receptacles shall be kept clean and sanitary at all times. If self-feeders are used, adequate measures shall be taken to prevent molding, contamination, and deterioration or caking of food.
If potable water is not accessible to the animals at all times, it must be provided as often as necessary for the health and comfort of the animal. Frequency of watering shall consider age, species, condition, size, and type of the animal. All water receptacles shall be kept clean and sanitary.
Excreta shall be removed from primary enclosures as often as necessary to prevent contamination of the animals contained therein and to minimize disease hazards and to reduce odors. When enclosures are cleaned by hosing or flushing, adequate measures shall be taken to protect the animals confined in such enclosures from being directly sprayed with the stream of water or wetter involuntarily.
Subsequent to the presence of an animal with an infectious or transmissible disease, cages, rooms, and hard-surfaced pens or runs shall be sanitized either by washing them with hot water (180 degrees Fahrenheit at source) and soap or detergent, as in a mechanical washer, or by washing all soiled surfaces with a detergent solution followed by a safe and effective disinfectant, or by cleaning all soiled surfaces with saturated live steam under pressure. Pens or runs using gravel, sand, or dirt, shall be sanitized when necessary as directed by the attending veterinarian.
Areas in which animals are kept shall be kept clean and in good repair in order to protect the animals from injury and to facilitate the prescribed husbandry practices set forth in this subpart. Accumulations of trash shall be placed in designated areas and cleared as necessary to protect the health of the animals.
A safe and effective program for the control of insects, ectoparasites (such as flies, ticks, and fleas), and avian and mammalian pests shall be established and maintained.
Animals housed in the same primary enclosure must be compatible. Animals shall not be housed near animals that interfere with their health or cause them discomfort.
Programs of disease prevention and parasite control, euthanasia, and adequate veterinary care shall be established and maintained under the supervision of a licensed veterinarian. The pest control program shall be reviewed by the veterinarian for the safe use of materials and methods. Animals subject to rabies or distemper (skunks, raccoons, and members of the dog and cat families) shall receive vaccinations against these diseases by a licensed veterinarian, and records of this vaccination program shall be kept on the premises and made available to conservation officers at all reasonable times.
Animals shall be observed every day by the person in charge of the care of the animals or by someone working under that person's direct supervision. Sick or diseased, stressed, injured, or lame animals shall be provided with veterinary care or humanely destroyed.
Handling of animals shall be done expeditiously and carefully in a way so as not to cause unnecessary discomfort, behavioral stress, or physical harm to the animal. Care should be exercised also to avoid harm to the handler.
Animals within reach of the public shall only be displayed for periods of time and under conditions consistent with the animals' health and not leading to their discomfort.
During public display, the animals must be handled so there is minimal risk of harm to the public with sufficient distance allowed between animal acts and the viewing public to assume safety to both the public and the animals.