§ 13.1-662. Voting entitlement of shares.
A. Except as provided in subsections B, C, D and E or unless the articles of incorporation provide otherwise, each outstanding share, regardless of class, is entitled to one vote on each matter voted on at a shareholders' meeting.
B. Unless the articles of incorporation provide otherwise, in the election of directors each outstanding share, regardless of class, is entitled to one vote for as many persons as there are directors to be elected at that time and for whose election the shareholder has a right to vote.
C. Shares that have been called for redemption are not entitled to vote on any matter and, except as to any right of conversion, shall not be deemed outstanding shares after notice of redemption is mailed to the holders and a sum sufficient to redeem the shares has been deposited with a bank, trust company, or other financial institution with irrevocable instruction and authority to pay the holders the redemption price on surrender of the shares. Such instruction may provide that the amount so deposited and any interest thereon not claimed within a specified period, not less than two years, after the redemption date shall be repaid to the corporation whose shares are so redeemed, and the persons entitled thereto shall thereafter have only the right to receive the redemption price as unsecured creditors of such corporation.
D. The shares of a corporation are not entitled to vote if they are owned, directly or indirectly, by a second corporation, domestic or foreign, and the first corporation owns, directly or indirectly, a majority of the shares entitled to vote for directors of the second corporation.
E. If a corporation holds in a fiduciary capacity its own shares or shares of a second corporation that owns directly or indirectly a majority of shares entitled to vote for directors of the first corporation, such shares shall not be deemed to be outstanding and entitled to vote unless:
1. The corporation has authority to vote the shares only in accordance with directions of the principal or beneficiary; or
2. A co-fiduciary exists, pursuant to § 6.2-1011 or otherwise, in which event the co-fiduciary may vote the shares.
F. Shares standing in the name of another corporation, domestic or foreign, may be voted by such officer, agent or proxy as the bylaws of such corporation may prescribe, or, in the absence of such provision, as the board of directors of such corporation may determine.
G. Shares standing in the name of a partnership may be voted by any partner. Shares standing in the name of a limited liability company may be voted as the articles of organization or an operating agreement may prescribe, or in the absence of any such provision as the managers, or if there are no managers, the members of the limited liability company may determine.
H. Shares held by two or more persons as joint tenants or tenants in common or tenants by the entirety may be voted by any of such persons. If more than one of such tenants votes such shares, the vote shall be divided among them in proportion to the number of such tenants voting.
I. Shares held by an administrator, executor, guardian, conservator, committee or curator representing the shareholder may be voted by such person without a transfer of such shares into such person's name. Shares standing in the name of a trustee may be voted by the trustee, but no trustee is entitled to vote shares held by the trustee without a transfer of such shares into the trustee's name.
J. Shares standing in the name of a receiver or a trustee in proceedings under the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978 may be voted by such person. Shares held by or under the control of a receiver or a trustee in proceedings under the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978 may be voted by such person without the transfer thereof into such person's name if authority to do so is contained in an order of the court by which such person was appointed.
K. Nothing herein contained shall prevent trustees or other fiduciaries holding shares registered in the name of a nominee pursuant to § 6.2-1010 from causing such shares to be voted by such nominee as the trustee or other fiduciary may direct. Such nominee may vote shares as directed by a trustee or other fiduciary without the necessity of transferring the shares to the name of the trustee or other fiduciary.
L. A shareholder whose shares are pledged is entitled to vote such shares until the shares have been transferred into the name of the pledgee, and thereafter the pledgee is entitled to vote the shares so transferred.
M. The articles of incorporation may provide that the holders of bonds or debentures shall be entitled to vote on specified matters and such right shall not be terminated except upon consent of the holders of two-thirds in aggregate principal amount.
N. Subject to the provisions of § 13.1-665, when shares are held by more than one of the fiduciaries referred to in this section, the shares shall be voted as determined by a majority of such fiduciaries, except that: (i) if they are equally divided as to a vote, the vote of the shares is divided equally and (ii) if only one of such fiduciaries is present in person or by proxy at a meeting, the fiduciary shall be entitled to vote all the shares. A proxy apparently executed by one of several of such fiduciaries shall be presumed to be valid until challenged and the burden of proving invalidity shall rest on the challenger.
Code 1950, §§ 13-192 to 13-198, 13-203, 13.1-32; 1956, c. 428; 1958, c. 564; 1975, c. 500; 1984, c. 366; 1985, c. 522; 1990, c. 267; 1997, c. 801; 2005, c. 765.