401 KAR 48:070.
Design requirements for contained landfills.
RELATES TO: KRS
224.01, 224.10, 224.40, 224.43, 224.99
AUTHORITY: KRS 224.10-100, 224.40-305
FUNCTION, AND CONFORMITY: KRS Chapter 224 requires the cabinet to adopt rules
and administrative regulations for the management, processing or disposal of
wastes. KRS 224.40-305 requires that persons engaging in the management,
processing and disposal of waste obtain a permit. This chapter establishes the
minimum technical standards for solid waste sites or facilities. This
administrative regulation sets forth the design requirements for contained
General. The owner or operator of a contained landfill shall ensure a design
for disposal of solid wastes meeting the requirements of 401 KAR Chapters 47
Surface Water. Owners or operators shall design landfills to ensure that:
water flows and leachate are separated;
contours minimize surface water running onto or through the operational or
completed fill area;
run-on and run-off ditches pass a 100 year twenty-four (24) hour storm flow;
water sediment basins meet the following criteria:
(a) The minimum
retarding storage volume and the principal spillway discharge shall be such
that emergency spillway discharge shall not occur during the twenty-five (25)
year twenty-four (24) hour storm event;
emergency spillway shall be capable of passing a 100 year twenty-four (24) hour
storm event with no flow overtopping the structure; and
(c) The sediment
storage volume and project operating period shall be stated. The minimum
storage volume shall provide for one (1) year of operation. A shorter period
may be approved when a maintenance program is included to restore the sediment
(5) All designs
shall be verified by the unit hydrograph method of calculation unless another
method is approved by the cabinet.
(6) The edge of
the downhill toe of the slope of a sediment pond dam is at least fifty (50)
feet from the property line.
Seismic Impact Zones. At a new contained solid waste landfill unit located in a
seismic impact zone, all containment structures, including liners, leachate
collection systems, and surface water control systems shall be designed to
resist the maximum anticipated horizontal acceleration in lithified material
for the site.
Unstable Areas. The owner or operator of a contained solid waste landfill unit
located in an unstable area shall demonstrate to the cabinet that engineering
measures have been incorporated into the unit's design to ensure the stability
of the liners, leachate collection systems, final cover, run-on and run-off
systems, and any other component necessary for the protection of human health
and the environment. The owner or operator shall consider the following
factors, at a minimum, when determining whether an area is unstable:
(1) On-site or
local soil conditions that may result in significant differential settling;
(2) On-site or
local geologic or geomorphologic features; and
(3) On-site or
local human-made features (both surface and subsurface).
Separate Areas for Handling Nonresidential Wastes. The applicant shall design
an area separate from the daily working face to allow the safe handling of
certain wastes. Separate areas are required for the handling of:
containing burning waste;
(2) Wastes from
pick-up trucks and automobiles; and
and recyclable materials when the facility intends to manage these materials.
Equipment Requirements. (1) Sufficient equipment shall be available to spread
and compact all wastes within two (2) hours of receipt.
Steel-wheeled compactors designed for landfill operation shall be specified for
residential solid waste compaction.
(3) The owner or
operator shall provide the landfill equipment required to:
(a) Handle all
daily, interim, long-term and final cover requirements;
(b) Maintain all
roads and drainage features;
(c) Provide dust
leachate and methane gas systems; and
compact waste at peak receipt rates. These rates shall be determined in tons
per hour and kept on file with the cabinet.
equipment shall be available for waste spreading and compaction, application of
daily cover and maintenance of leachate systems within twenty-four (24) hours
of primary equipment incapacitation.
compactors shall have a minimum gross ground pressure of 325 pounds per linear
inch of wheel width.
equipment used for compaction shall have a minimum gross weight of 30,000
pounds and a minimum of 130 engine horsepower.
(7) The primary
working face equipment used for waste spreading and compaction shall have the
standard landfill guard package offered by the manufacturer, or an otherwise
reasonable adaptation, to provide protection from waste damage hazards and
other landfill operating hazards.
(8) The operator
shall propose an equipment operating and maintenance recordkeeping system. The
system shall, at a minimum, track the availability of each piece of equipment
in subsections (1) and (4) of this section.
equipment used for waste compaction shall have a specified maximum rated
Compaction. For residential solid waste, the in-place waste density goal shall
be to achieve greater than 1200 pounds per cubic yard in the completed cells.
The density shall be determined by dividing the total weight of waste received
by the cubic yards of airspace used. The landfill density shall be computed
Section 8. Soil
Requirements. The design of borrow areas and disposal cells shall ensure that
enough soil is available to meet the requirements for liner and cap
construction in 401 KAR 48:080 and the requirements for cover in 401 KAR
Personnel and Equipment Buildings. (1) Each landfill shall have buildings for
its employees which provide the following:
conditioning or tight, insect repelling screens on all doors and windows.
Screen access doors shall have automatic closures. Screened buildings shall
have proper mechanical ventilation;
landfill site shall include a building for maintenance of the equipment. The
building shall be large enough to hold the largest piece of equipment required
for site operation. The building shall be heated for winter repair operations.
building shall have an alarm installed in accordance with the manufacturer's
recommendations to detect the presence of explosive gases.
Explosive Gas Program. (1) The application for a contained landfill unit shall
include a quarterly methane monitoring program to ensure that the standards of
Section 11 of 401 KAR 47:030 are met.
(2) The methane
monitoring system shall be developed based on the following factors:
hydrogeologic conditions surrounding the disposal site;
hydraulic conditions surrounding the disposal site; and
(d) The location
of facility structures and property boundaries.
(3) The minimum
frequency of monitoring shall be quarterly.
(4) A gas
venting system shall be designed for all landfills. A minimum of one (1) vent
shall be required per acre of landfill to be filled unless otherwise approved
by the cabinet.
Roads. (1) The owner or operator shall design a road from the publicly
maintained highway to the landfill, if one does not exist.
landfill shall have an all weather perimeter road around all waste disposal
areas and to all monitoring and sediment control structures.
roads shall be all weather and designed for construction to within 200 feet of
the daily working face.
(4) Narrow roads
shall have properly spaced sections of sufficient width to allow passage of two
(2) vehicles in the opposite direction.
(5) Roads shall
be designed to carry the normal traffic and to properly drain.
(6) Enough space
on the landfill property shall be provided for trucks awaiting entry. The landfill
shall be designed to ensure that trucks can enter the site without delay from
Safety and Communication Plan. The landfill safety and communication plan shall
(1) The safe
operating and maintenance procedures for heavy equipment;
to protect employees in a manner complying with the Kentucky Labor Cabinet OSHA
description of equipment to achieve emergency communication. At a minimum the
applicant shall specify an on-site telephone or a two-way radio connection to
an off-site telephone. The radio base station shall be monitored during
landfill operations; and
(4) A fire
fighting contingency plan containing a topographic map denoting the location of
the landfill, a site map and an emergency contact. The operator shall mail a
copy of the safety and communications plan to the local fire chief. The plan
shall include the location of fire fighting water sources, roads, and major
Scales. Scales shall be provided to weigh all incoming wastes.
Leachate Storage Tanks. In addition to the requirements set forth in this
administrative regulation, 401 KAR 47:180 and 401 KAR 47:190, an application
for a permit to construct a contained landfill that includes a tank for
leachate storage shall contain:
estimated volume of leachate to be generated and a proposed system to record
actual quantities stored and removed;
(2) A schedule
of liquid removal;
description of the final treatment and disposal of the liquid stored;
description of the liquid storage facility design;
(5) A method to
measure the quantity of leachate extracted or removed and disposed;
(6) A closure
plan for the tanks; and
criteria to ensure that on-ground, in-ground, underground, and above ground
tanks are constructed of materials, and installed in such a manner, that the
tank system shall contain the stored liquid for the active life of the site to
include closure care. A procedure for periodic testing of the tank system shall
be employed to assure the tank system does not leak.
Closure. (1) The operator of a contained solid waste landfill shall close each
landfill unit and phase in a manner that minimizes the need for further
maintenance and minimizes the closure care formation and release of leachate
and explosive gases to air, groundwater, or surface water to the extent
necessary to protect human health and the environment as required by 401 KAR
47:030 and 401 KAR 48:300.
(2) The owner or
operator shall prepare a closure plan that describes the steps necessary to
close all units and phases of the contained solid waste landfill at any point
during its active life in accordance with the closure performance standard in
subsection (1) of this section. The closure plan shall contain:
(a) An overall
description of the methods, procedures, and processes that shall be used to
close each unit and phase of a contained solid waste landfill in accordance
with the closure performance standard in subsection (1) of this section and the
final cap system requirements in Section 9 of 401 KAR 48:080;
(b) An estimate
of the maximum extent of operation that shall be open at any time during the
active life of the landfill; and
(c) A schedule
for completing all activities necessary to satisfy the closure performance
modification to the closure plan shall be approved by the cabinet. A copy of
the most recent approved closure plan shall be kept at the facility until
closure of the contained landfill has been certified in accordance with
subsection (5) of this section and the owner or operator has been released from
financial assurance requirements for closure under 401 KAR 48:310.
(4) The owner or
operator shall begin closure activities of each landfill unit, in accordance
with the approved closure plan, no later than thirty (30) days following the
final receipt of wastes at that landfill unit. Closure of each unit shall be
completed within 180 days of final receipt of waste. Extensions may be approved
by the cabinet if the delay in closure is due to adverse weather conditions.
closure of each contained solid waste landfill unit, the owner or operator
shall submit to the cabinet a certification by a professional engineer that
closure has been completed in accordance with the approved closure plan.
Alternative Specifications. Alternative specifications may be used only after
approval by the cabinet upon a demonstration by a qualified registered
professional engineer that they shall result in performance with regard to
safety, stability and environmental protection equal to or better than that
resulting from designs complying with the specifications of this administrative
regulation. (16 Ky.R. 1772; Am. 2209; 2371; eff. 5-8-90.)