401 KAR 48:070. Design requirements for contained landfills

Link to law: http://www.lrc.ky.gov/kar/401/048/070.htm
Published: 2015

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      401 KAR 48:070.

Design requirements for contained landfills.



224.01, 224.10, 224.40, 224.43, 224.99


AUTHORITY: KRS 224.10-100, 224.40-305


FUNCTION, AND CONFORMITY: KRS Chapter 224 requires the cabinet to adopt rules

and administrative regulations for the management, processing or disposal of

wastes. KRS 224.40-305 requires that persons engaging in the management,

processing and disposal of waste obtain a permit. This chapter establishes the

minimum technical standards for solid waste sites or facilities. This

administrative regulation sets forth the design requirements for contained



      Section 1.

General. The owner or operator of a contained landfill shall ensure a design

for disposal of solid wastes meeting the requirements of 401 KAR Chapters 47

and 48.


      Section 2.

Surface Water. Owners or operators shall design landfills to ensure that:

      (1) Surface

water flows and leachate are separated;

      (2) Surface

contours minimize surface water running onto or through the operational or

completed fill area;

      (3) Surface

run-on and run-off ditches pass a 100 year twenty-four (24) hour storm flow;

      (4) Surface

water sediment basins meet the following criteria:

      (a) The minimum

retarding storage volume and the principal spillway discharge shall be such

that emergency spillway discharge shall not occur during the twenty-five (25)

year twenty-four (24) hour storm event;

      (b) The

emergency spillway shall be capable of passing a 100 year twenty-four (24) hour

storm event with no flow overtopping the structure; and

      (c) The sediment

storage volume and project operating period shall be stated. The minimum

storage volume shall provide for one (1) year of operation. A shorter period

may be approved when a maintenance program is included to restore the sediment

storage volume.

      (5) All designs

shall be verified by the unit hydrograph method of calculation unless another

method is approved by the cabinet.

      (6) The edge of

the downhill toe of the slope of a sediment pond dam is at least fifty (50)

feet from the property line.


      Section 3.

Seismic Impact Zones. At a new contained solid waste landfill unit located in a

seismic impact zone, all containment structures, including liners, leachate

collection systems, and surface water control systems shall be designed to

resist the maximum anticipated horizontal acceleration in lithified material

for the site.


      Section 4.

Unstable Areas. The owner or operator of a contained solid waste landfill unit

located in an unstable area shall demonstrate to the cabinet that engineering

measures have been incorporated into the unit's design to ensure the stability

of the liners, leachate collection systems, final cover, run-on and run-off

systems, and any other component necessary for the protection of human health

and the environment. The owner or operator shall consider the following

factors, at a minimum, when determining whether an area is unstable:

      (1) On-site or

local soil conditions that may result in significant differential settling;

      (2) On-site or

local geologic or geomorphologic features; and

      (3) On-site or

local human-made features (both surface and subsurface).


      Section 5.

Separate Areas for Handling Nonresidential Wastes. The applicant shall design

an area separate from the daily working face to allow the safe handling of

certain wastes. Separate areas are required for the handling of:

      (1) Loads

containing burning waste;

      (2) Wastes from

pick-up trucks and automobiles; and

      (3) Salvageable

and recyclable materials when the facility intends to manage these materials.


      Section 6.

Equipment Requirements. (1) Sufficient equipment shall be available to spread

and compact all wastes within two (2) hours of receipt.


Steel-wheeled compactors designed for landfill operation shall be specified for

residential solid waste compaction.

      (3) The owner or

operator shall provide the landfill equipment required to:

      (a) Handle all

daily, interim, long-term and final cover requirements;

      (b) Maintain all

roads and drainage features;

      (c) Provide dust


      (d) Maintain

leachate and methane gas systems; and

      (e) Properly

compact waste at peak receipt rates. These rates shall be determined in tons

per hour and kept on file with the cabinet.

      (4) Back-up

equipment shall be available for waste spreading and compaction, application of

daily cover and maintenance of leachate systems within twenty-four (24) hours

of primary equipment incapacitation.

      (5) Landfill

compactors shall have a minimum gross ground pressure of 325 pounds per linear

inch of wheel width.

      (6) Any

equipment used for compaction shall have a minimum gross weight of 30,000

pounds and a minimum of 130 engine horsepower.

      (7) The primary

working face equipment used for waste spreading and compaction shall have the

standard landfill guard package offered by the manufacturer, or an otherwise

reasonable adaptation, to provide protection from waste damage hazards and

other landfill operating hazards.

      (8) The operator

shall propose an equipment operating and maintenance recordkeeping system. The

system shall, at a minimum, track the availability of each piece of equipment

in subsections (1) and (4) of this section.

      (9) Any

equipment used for waste compaction shall have a specified maximum rated



      Section 7.

Compaction. For residential solid waste, the in-place waste density goal shall

be to achieve greater than 1200 pounds per cubic yard in the completed cells.

The density shall be determined by dividing the total weight of waste received

by the cubic yards of airspace used. The landfill density shall be computed



      Section 8. Soil

Requirements. The design of borrow areas and disposal cells shall ensure that

enough soil is available to meet the requirements for liner and cap

construction in 401 KAR 48:080 and the requirements for cover in 401 KAR



      Section 9.

Personnel and Equipment Buildings. (1) Each landfill shall have buildings for

its employees which provide the following:

      (a) Air

conditioning or tight, insect repelling screens on all doors and windows.

Screen access doors shall have automatic closures. Screened buildings shall

have proper mechanical ventilation;

      (b) Safe

drinking water;

      (c) Sanitary

facilities; and

      (d) Heat.

      (2) Each

landfill site shall include a building for maintenance of the equipment. The

building shall be large enough to hold the largest piece of equipment required

for site operation. The building shall be heated for winter repair operations.

      (3) Each

building shall have an alarm installed in accordance with the manufacturer's

recommendations to detect the presence of explosive gases.


      Section 10.

Explosive Gas Program. (1) The application for a contained landfill unit shall

include a quarterly methane monitoring program to ensure that the standards of

Section 11 of 401 KAR 47:030 are met.

      (2) The methane

monitoring system shall be developed based on the following factors:

      (a) Soil


      (b) The

hydrogeologic conditions surrounding the disposal site;

      (c) The

hydraulic conditions surrounding the disposal site; and

      (d) The location

of facility structures and property boundaries.

      (3) The minimum

frequency of monitoring shall be quarterly.

      (4) A gas

venting system shall be designed for all landfills. A minimum of one (1) vent

shall be required per acre of landfill to be filled unless otherwise approved

by the cabinet.


      Section 11.

Roads. (1) The owner or operator shall design a road from the publicly

maintained highway to the landfill, if one does not exist.

      (2) Each

landfill shall have an all weather perimeter road around all waste disposal

areas and to all monitoring and sediment control structures.

      (3) Internal

roads shall be all weather and designed for construction to within 200 feet of

the daily working face.

      (4) Narrow roads

shall have properly spaced sections of sufficient width to allow passage of two

(2) vehicles in the opposite direction.

      (5) Roads shall

be designed to carry the normal traffic and to properly drain.

      (6) Enough space

on the landfill property shall be provided for trucks awaiting entry. The landfill

shall be designed to ensure that trucks can enter the site without delay from

public roadways.


      Section 12.

Safety and Communication Plan. The landfill safety and communication plan shall


      (1) The safe

operating and maintenance procedures for heavy equipment;

      (2) Procedures

to protect employees in a manner complying with the Kentucky Labor Cabinet OSHA


      (3) A

description of equipment to achieve emergency communication. At a minimum the

applicant shall specify an on-site telephone or a two-way radio connection to

an off-site telephone. The radio base station shall be monitored during

landfill operations; and

      (4) A fire

fighting contingency plan containing a topographic map denoting the location of

the landfill, a site map and an emergency contact. The operator shall mail a

copy of the safety and communications plan to the local fire chief. The plan

shall include the location of fire fighting water sources, roads, and major

site features.


      Section 13.

Scales. Scales shall be provided to weigh all incoming wastes.


      Section 14.

Leachate Storage Tanks. In addition to the requirements set forth in this

administrative regulation, 401 KAR 47:180 and 401 KAR 47:190, an application

for a permit to construct a contained landfill that includes a tank for

leachate storage shall contain:

      (1) The

estimated volume of leachate to be generated and a proposed system to record

actual quantities stored and removed;

      (2) A schedule

of liquid removal;

      (3) A

description of the final treatment and disposal of the liquid stored;

      (4) A

description of the liquid storage facility design;

      (5) A method to

measure the quantity of leachate extracted or removed and disposed;

      (6) A closure

plan for the tanks; and

      (7) Design

criteria to ensure that on-ground, in-ground, underground, and above ground

tanks are constructed of materials, and installed in such a manner, that the

tank system shall contain the stored liquid for the active life of the site to

include closure care. A procedure for periodic testing of the tank system shall

be employed to assure the tank system does not leak.


      Section 15.

Closure. (1) The operator of a contained solid waste landfill shall close each

landfill unit and phase in a manner that minimizes the need for further

maintenance and minimizes the closure care formation and release of leachate

and explosive gases to air, groundwater, or surface water to the extent

necessary to protect human health and the environment as required by 401 KAR

47:030 and 401 KAR 48:300.

      (2) The owner or

operator shall prepare a closure plan that describes the steps necessary to

close all units and phases of the contained solid waste landfill at any point

during its active life in accordance with the closure performance standard in

subsection (1) of this section. The closure plan shall contain:

      (a) An overall

description of the methods, procedures, and processes that shall be used to

close each unit and phase of a contained solid waste landfill in accordance

with the closure performance standard in subsection (1) of this section and the

final cap system requirements in Section 9 of 401 KAR 48:080;

      (b) An estimate

of the maximum extent of operation that shall be open at any time during the

active life of the landfill; and

      (c) A schedule

for completing all activities necessary to satisfy the closure performance


      (3) Any

modification to the closure plan shall be approved by the cabinet. A copy of

the most recent approved closure plan shall be kept at the facility until

closure of the contained landfill has been certified in accordance with

subsection (5) of this section and the owner or operator has been released from

financial assurance requirements for closure under 401 KAR 48:310.

      (4) The owner or

operator shall begin closure activities of each landfill unit, in accordance

with the approved closure plan, no later than thirty (30) days following the

final receipt of wastes at that landfill unit. Closure of each unit shall be

completed within 180 days of final receipt of waste. Extensions may be approved

by the cabinet if the delay in closure is due to adverse weather conditions.

      (5) Following

closure of each contained solid waste landfill unit, the owner or operator

shall submit to the cabinet a certification by a professional engineer that

closure has been completed in accordance with the approved closure plan.


      Section 16.

Alternative Specifications. Alternative specifications may be used only after

approval by the cabinet upon a demonstration by a qualified registered

professional engineer that they shall result in performance with regard to

safety, stability and environmental protection equal to or better than that

resulting from designs complying with the specifications of this administrative

regulation. (16 Ky.R. 1772; Am. 2209; 2371; eff. 5-8-90.)