Trade Marks Act 1994

Link to law: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1994/26/contents

Introductory Text

Part I Registered trade marks

Introductory

1. Trade marks.
2. Registered trade marks.

Grounds for refusal of registration

3. Absolute grounds for refusal of registration.
4. Specially protected emblems.
5. Relative grounds for refusal of registration.
6. Meaning of “earlier trade mark”.
7. Raising of relative grounds in case of honest concurrent use.
8. Power to require that relative grounds be raised in opposition proceedings.

Effects of registered trade mark

9. Rights conferred by registered trade mark.
10. Infringement of registered trade mark.
11. Limits on effect of registered trade mark.
12. Exhaustion of rights conferred by registered trade mark.
13. Registration subject to disclaimer or limitation.

Infringement proceedings

14. Action for infringement.
15. Order for erasure, &c. of offending sign.
16. Order for delivery up of infringing goods, material or articles.
17. Meaning of “infringing goods, material or articles”.
18. Period after which remedy of delivery up not available.
19. Order as to disposal of infringing goods, material or articles.
20. Jurisdiction of sheriff court or county court in Northern Ireland.
21. Remedy for groundless threats of infringement proceedings.

Registered trade mark as object of property

22. Nature of registered trade mark.
23. Co-ownership of registered trade mark.
24. Assignment, &c. of registered trade mark.
25. Registration of transactions affecting registered trade mark.
26. Trusts and equities.
27. Application for registration of trade mark as an object of property.

Licensing

28. Licensing of registered trade mark.
29. Exclusive licences.
30. General provisions as to rights of licensees in case of infringement.
31. Exclusive licensee having rights and remedies of assignee.

Application for registered trade mark

32. Application for registration.
33. Date of filing.
34. Classification of trade marks.

Priority

35. Claim to priority of Convention application.
36. Claim to priority from other relevant overseas application.

Registration procedure

37. Examination of application.
38. Publication, opposition proceedings and observations.
39. Withdrawal, restriction or amendment of application.
40. Registration.
41. Registration: supplementary provisions.

Duration, renewal and alteration of registered trade mark

42. Duration of registration.
43. Renewal of registration.
44. Alteration of registered trade mark.

Surrender, revocation and invalidity

45. Surrender of registered trade mark.
46. Revocation of registration.
47. Grounds for invalidity of registration.
48. Effect of acquiescence.

Collective marks
49. Collective marks.

Certification marks
50. Certification marks.

Part II Community trade marks and international matters

Community trade marks

51. Meaning of “Community trade mark”.
52. Power to make provision in connection with Community Trade Mark Regulation.

The Madrid Protocol: international registration

53. The Madrid Protocol.
54. Power to make provision giving effect to Madrid Protocol.

The Paris Convention: supplementary provisions

55. The Paris Convention.
56. Protection of well-known trade marks: Article 6bis.
57. National emblems, &c. of Convention countries: Article 6ter.
58. Emblems, &c. of certain international organisations: Article 6ter.
59. Notification under Article 6ter of the Convention.
60. Acts of agent or representative: Article 6septies.

Miscellaneous
61. Stamp duty.

Part III Administrative and other supplementary provisions

The registrar
62. The registrar.

The register

63. The register.
64. Rectification or correction of the register.
65. Adaptation of entries to new classification.

Powers and duties of the registrar

66. Power to require use of forms.
67. Information about applications and registered trade marks.
68. Costs and security for costs.
69. Evidence before registrar.
70. Exclusion of liability in respect of official acts.
71. Registrar’s annual report.

Legal proceedings and appeals

72. Registration to be prima facie evidence of validity.
73. Certificate of validity of contested registration.
74. Registrar’s appearance in proceedings involving the register.
75. The court.
76. Appeals from the registrar.
77. Persons appointed to hear and determine appeals.

Rules, fees, hours of business, &c.

78. Power of Secretary of State to make rules.
79. Fees.
80. Hours of business and business days.
81. The trade marks journal.

Trade mark agents

82. Recognition of agents.
83. The register of trade mark agents.
84. Unregistered persons not to be described as registered trade mark agents.
85. Power to prescribe conditions, &c. for mixed partnerships and bodies corporate.
86. Use of the term “trade mark attorney”.
87. Privilege for communications with registered trade mark agents.
88. Power of registrar to refuse to deal with certain agents.

Importation of infringing goods, material or articles

89. Infringing goods, material or articles may be treated as prohibited goods.
90. Power of Commissioners of Customs and Excise to make regulations.
91. Power of Commissioners of Customs and Excise to disclose information.

Offences

92. Unauthorised use of trade mark, &c. in relation to goods.
92A. Search warrants
93. Enforcement function of local weights and measures authority.
94. Falsification of register, &c.
95. Falsely representing trade mark as registered.
96. Supplementary provisions as to summary proceedings in Scotland.

Forfeiture of counterfeit goods, &c.

97. Forfeiture: England and Wales or Northern Ireland.
98. Forfeiture: Scotland.

Part IV Miscellaneous and general provisions

Miscellaneous

99. Unauthorised use of Royal arms, &c.
100. Burden of proving use of trade mark.
101. Offences committed by partnerships and bodies corporate.

Interpretation

102. Adaptation of expressions for Scotland.
103. Minor definitions.
104. Index of defined expressions.

Other general provisions

105. Transitional provisions.
106. Consequential amendments and repeals.
107. Territorial waters and the continental shelf.
108. Extent.
109. Commencement.
110. Short title.

SCHEDULES

SCHEDULE 1
Collective marks

General
1.The provisions of this Act apply to collective marks subject...

Signs of which a collective mark may consist
2.In relation to a collective mark the reference in section...

Indication of geographical origin
3.(1) Notwithstanding section 3(1)(c), a collective mark may be registered...

Mark not to be misleading as to character or significance
4.(1) A collective mark shall not be registered if the...

Regulations governing use of collective mark
5.(1) An applicant for registration of a collective mark must...

Approval of regulations by registrar

6.(1) A collective mark shall not be registered unless the...
7.(1) The registrar shall consider whether the requirements mentioned in...
8.The regulations shall be published and notice of opposition may...

Regulations to be open to inspection
9.The regulations governing the use of a registered collective mark...

Amendment of regulations
10.(1) An amendment of the regulations governing the use of...

Infringement: rights of authorised users

11.The following provisions apply in relation to an authorised user...
12.(1) The following provisions (which correspond to the provisions of...

Grounds for revocation of registration
13.Apart from the grounds of revocation provided for in section...

Grounds for invalidity of registration
14.Apart from the grounds of invalidity provided for in section...

SCHEDULE 2
Certification marks

General
1.The provisions of this Act apply to certification marks subject...

Signs of which a certification mark may consist
2.In relation to a certification mark the reference in section...

Indication of geographical origin
3.(1) Notwithstanding section 3(1)(c), a certification mark may be registered...

Nature of proprietor’s business
4.A certification mark shall not be registered if the proprietor...

Mark not to be misleading as to character or significance
5.(1) A certification mark shall not be registered if the...

Regulations governing use of certification mark
6.(1) An applicant for registration of a certification mark must...

Approval of regulations, &c.

7.(1) A certification mark shall not be registered unless—
8.(1) The registrar shall consider whether the requirements mentioned in...
9.The regulations shall be published and notice of opposition may...

Regulations to be open to inspection
10.The regulations governing the use of a registered certification mark...

Amendment of regulations
11.(1) An amendment of the regulations governing the use of...

Consent to assignment of registered certification mark
12.The assignment or other transmission of a registered certification mark...

Infringement: rights of authorised users

13.The following provisions apply in relation to an authorised user...
14.In infringement proceedings brought by the proprietor of a registered...

Grounds for revocation of registration
15.Apart from the grounds of revocation provided for in section...

Grounds for invalidity of registration
16.Apart from the grounds of invalidity provided for in section...

SCHEDULE 3
Transitional provisions

Introductory
1.(1) In this Schedule— “existing registered mark” means a trade...

Existing registered marks

2.(1) Existing registered marks (whether registered in Part A or...
3.(1) A condition entered on the former register in relation...

Effects of registration: infringement
4.(1) Sections 9 to 12 of this Act (effects of...

Infringing goods, material or articles
5.Section 16 of this Act (order for delivery up of...

Rights and remedies of licensee or authorised user
6.(1) Section 30 (general provisions as to rights of licensees...

Co-ownership of registered mark
7.The provisions of section 23 of this Act (co-ownership of...

Assignment, &c. of registered mark
8.(1) Section 24 of this Act (assignment or other transmission...

Licensing of registered mark
9.(1) Sections 28 and 29(2) of this Act (licensing of...

Pending applications for registration
10.(1) An application for registration of a mark under the...

Conversion of pending application
11.(1) In the case of a pending application for registration...

Trade marks registered according to old classification
12.The registrar may exercise the powers conferred by rules under...

Claim to priority from overseas application

13.Section 35 of this Act (claim to priority of Convention...
14.(1) Where before the commencement of this Act a person...

Duration and renewal of registration
15.(1) Section 42(1) of this Act (duration of original period...

Pending application for alteration of registered mark
16.An application under section 35 of the 1938 Act (alteration...

Revocation for non-use
17.(1) An application under section 26 of the 1938 Act...

Application for rectification, &c.
18.(1) An application under section 32 or 34 of the...

Regulations as to use of certification mark
19.(1) Regulations governing the use of an existing registered certification...

Sheffield marks
20.(1) For the purposes of this Schedule the Sheffield register...

Certificate of validity of contested registration
21.A certificate given before the commencement of this Act under...

Trade mark agents
22.(1) Rules in force immediately before the commencement of this...

SCHEDULE 4
Consequential amendments

General adaptation of existing references
1.(1) References in statutory provisions passed or made before the...

Patents and Designs Act 1907 (c.29)
2.(1) The Patents and Designs Act 1907 is amended as...

Patents, Designs, Copyright and Trade Marks (Emergency) Act 1939(c.107)
3.(1) The Patents, Designs, Copyright and Trade Marks (Emergency) Act...

Trade Descriptions Act 1968 (c.29)
4.In the Trade Descriptions Act 1968, in section 34 (exemption...

Solicitors Act 1974 (c.47)
5.(1) Section 22 of the Solicitors Act 1974 (preparation of...

House of Commons Disqualification Act 1975 (c.24)
6.In Part III of Schedule 1 to the House of...

Restrictive Trade Practices Act 1976 (c.34)
7.In Schedule 3 to the Restrictive Trade Practices Act 1976...

Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (c.48)
8.(1) The Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 is amended...

Tribunals and Inquiries Act 1992 (c.53)
9.In Part I of Schedule 1 to the Tribunals and...

SCHEDULE 5
Repeals and revocations
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