Maritime Zones Act 2009

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No. 10-2009 MARITIME ZONE ACT No.pmd
MARTITIME ZONES ACT 2009

Arrangement of Sections

PART I - PRELIMINARY

1. Short title

2. Interpretation

PART II - UNCLOS AND THE STATUS OF THE KINGDOM

3. Application of UNCLOS to the Kingdom

PART III - BASELINES

4. Baselines

5. Closing lines for internal waters

PART IV - INTERNAL WATERS, ARCHIPELAGIC WATERS,
HISTORIC WATERS AND TERRITORIAL SEA

6. Historic waters

7. Territorial sea

8. Legal status and ownership

9. Sovereignty in internal waters

10. Sovereignty in archipelagic waters

PART V - CONTIGUOUS ZONE AND EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE

11. Contiguous zone

12. Exclusive Economic Zone

13. rights, jurisdiction and duties

14. Exercise of jurisdiction

PART VI - CONTINENTAL SHELF

15. Continental shelf

16. Rights

17. Exercise of jurisdiction

PART VII - MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, UNDERWATER
CULTURAL HERITAGE AND BOUNDARIES WITH OTHER
STATES

18. Marine scientific research in the maritime zones

19. Underwater cultural heritage

20. Maritime cultural zone

21. Delimitation of the boundaries of maritime zones with other States

“continental shelf” means the seabed and subsoil of the submarine
area referred to in section 15;

“exclusive economic zone” means the zone prescribed in accordance
with section 12;

“historic waters” means waters prescribed or declared in accordance
with section 6;

“innocent passage” has the meaning given to that expression by article
19 of UNCLOS which is set out in Schedule I;

“internal waters” means:

(a) in respect of archipelagic waters, all waters landward of the closing
lines: and

(b) in any other case, all waters landward of any baselines;

“low-water line” means the lowest astronomical tide level on the coast
of the Kingdom as recommended by the International Hydrographic
Organisation;

“maritime cultural zone” means the area of sea referred to in
section 20;

“maritime zones” means the:

(a) archipelagic waters;

(b) contiguous zone;

(c) exclusive economic zone;

(d) continental shelf;

(e) historic waters;

(f) internal waters;

(g) maritime cultural zone; and

(h) territorial sea;

“natural resources” means –

(a) the mineral and other non-living resources of the seabed and
subsoil; and

(b) the living organisms belonging to sedentary species;

“nautical mile” means a distance of 1.852 kilometers;

“radioactive materials” means waste that, as a result of being
radioactive, is subject to an international control system or international
instrument applying specifically to radioactive materials

“sedentary species” means organisms that, at their harvestable stage –

i2 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009

AN ACT
TO MAKE PROVISION FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE
MARITIME ZONES OF THE KINGDOM AND IN THE EXERCISE
OF THE SOVEREIGN RIGHTS OF THE KINGDOM AND, THE
EXPLORATION, EXPLOITATION, PROTECTION, PRESERVATION,
CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF THOSE ZONES AND
FOR MATTERS CONCERNED WITH THOSE PURPOSE

BE IT ENACTED by the King and Legislative Assembly of Tonga in the
Legislature of the Kingdom as follows:

PART I - PRELIMINARY

1. Short title

(1) This Act may be cited as the Maritime Zones Act 2009.

(2) This Act shall come into force on a date to be proclaimed by his
Majesty in Council.

2. Interpretation

(1) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires:

“archipelagic baselines” means baselines determined in accordance
with section 4(a);

“archipelagic waters” means any waters, other than internal waters,
enclosed by archipelagic baselines;

“baselines” means baselines prescribed in accordance with section 4;

“closing lines” means the lines referred to in section 5;

“contiguous zone” means the area of sea referred to in section 11;

PART VIII - REGULATIONS

22. Regulations

PART IX - OFFENCES AND CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY

23. Offences

24. Responsibility

PART X - TRANSITIONAL

25. Transitional and saving provisions

SCHEDULE 1 - PART II OF THE LAW OF THE SEA CONVENTION TERRITO-
RIAL SEA AND CONTIGUOUS ZONE

SCHEDULE 2 - PART IV OF THE LAW OF THE SEA CONVENTION

SCHEDULE 3 - PART V OF THE LAW OF THE SEA CONVENTION

SCHEDULE 4 - PART VI OF THE LAW OF THE SEA CONVENTION

SCHEDULE 5 - UNESCO CONVENTION ON THE PROTECTION OF THE
UNDERWATER CULTURAL HERITAGE (2001)

SCHEDULE 6 - RULES CONCERNING ACTIVITIES DIRECTED AT UNDER-
WATER CULTURAL HERITAGE

I assent,

GEORGE TUPOU V,

23rd April, 2010.

Tonga. No. 10 of 2009ii

(a) are immobile on or under the seabed; or

(b) are unable to move except in constant physical contact with the
seabed or the subsoil.

“territorial sea” means the sea referred to in section 7;

“UNCLOS” means the United Nations Convention on the Law of the
Sea of 10 December 1982; and

“UNESCO Convention” means the UNESCO Convention on the
Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage 2001.

(2) The provisions of UNCLOS and the UNESCO Convention mentioned
in this Act and other relevant provisions of those conventions are set out
in the Schedules to this Act.

PART II – UNCLOS AND THE STATUS OF THE KINGDOM

3. Application of UNCLOS to the Kingdom

(1) UNCLOS and any protocols, annexes, appendices and addenda to
UNCLOS, are incorporated into and have the force of law in the
Kingdom.

(2) The Kingdom, being a State constituted wholly by one or more
archipelagos and other islands, declares itself to be an archipelagic State
for the purpose of the application of UNCLOS to the Kingdom.

(3) The Kingdom also declares that it has an exclusive economic zone as
provided for by UNCLOS.

(4) A copy of UNCLOS shall be kept by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
and may be made available to the public for inspection.

PART III – BASELINES

4. Baselines

Subject to section 22(1)(a), the baselines which shall be used to determine the
maritime zones of the Kingdom shall consist of a combination of the following:

(a) straight archipelagic baselines determined in the manner prescribed in
Article 47 of UNCLOS; or

(b) normal baselines, being –

(i) baselines that follow the low-water line in the manner mentioned in
Article 5 of UNCLOS;

(ii) baselines that follow the seaward low-water line of fringing reefs
in the manner mentioned in Article 6 of UNCLOS; and

(iii) straight baselines prescribed in the manner mentioned in Article 7
of UNCLOS.

(2) The Kingdom has jurisdiction in the exclusive economic zone, in
accordance with international law, in respect of:

(a) the establishment and use of artificial islands, installations and
structures;

(b) marine scientific research; and

(c) the protection and preservation of the marine environment.

(3) The Kingdom also has jurisdiction in the exclusive economic zone in
respect of such other rights and duties as is provided for by international
law.

(4) The rights set out in this section with respect to the seabed and subsoil
are exercisable in accordance with international law, in particular, Part
VI of UNCLOS.

14. Exercise of jurisdiction

(1) To enable the Kingdom to exercise the sovereign rights and jurisdiction
it has in the exclusive economic zone, there is hereby extended to that
zone, to the extent recognized by international law, the law in force in
the Kingdom.

(2) The laws of the Kingdom applies to artificial islands, installations and
structures in the exclusive economic zone as if they were in the territorial
sea.

(3) In exercising its rights and performing its duties in the exclusive economic
zone, the Kingdom shall:

(a) have due regard to the rights and duties of other States; and

(b) act in a manner compatible with international law.

PART VI – CONTINENTAL SHELF

15. Continental shelf

The continental shelf of the Kingdom comprises the seabed and subsoil of
the submarine area, that extends beyond its territorial sea, throughout the
natural prolongation of its land territory:

(a) subject to paragraph 2 of article 76 of UNCLOS, to the outer edge
of the continental margin; or

(b) to a distance of 200 nautical miles from the baselines, from which
the breadth of the territorial sea is measured, where the outer edge
of the continental margin does not extend up to that distance.

16. Rights

(1) The Kingdom may, in accordance with international law and in particular
article 77 of UNCLOS, exercise exclusive sovereign rights over the
continental shelf to explore it and to exploit its natural resources.

6 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 3

5. Closing lines for internal waters

Subject to section 22(b), the closing lines may be determined by using all or
any of the methods mentioned in articles 9, 10 and 11 of UNCLOS.

PART IV – INTERNAL WATERS, ARCHIPELAGIC WATERS,
HISTORIC WATERS AND TERRITORIAL SEA

6. Historic waters

(1) It is hereby declared that those parts of the sea that are within an area
mentioned in subsection (2) are historic waters notwithstanding the fact
that they may also be part of any other maritime zone.

(2) The areas referred to in subsection (1) are:

(a) the areas proclaimed by the Proclamation published on the 24th day
of August, 1887 limiting and defining the extent of the Kingdom,
being the islands, rocks, reefs, foreshores and waters lying between
the fifteenth and twenty-third and half degrees of south latitudes
and the one hundred and seventy-third and the one hundred and
seventy-seventh degrees of west longitude; and

(b) the area bounded by the Proclamation made on the 15th day of
June, 1972 affirming and proclaiming Teleki Tokelau and Teleki
Tonga to be part of the Kingdom.

7. Territorial sea

(1) The territorial sea of the Kingdom shall be the sea between the baselines,
prescribed under section 4, and a line every point of which is at a
distance of 12 nautical miles from the nearest point of the baselines.

(2) Subject to UNCLOS, ships of all States, whether coastal or land-locked,
shall enjoy the right of innocent passage through the territorial seas of
the Kingdom.

8. Legal status and ownership

(1) Subject to the exceptions specified in UNCLOS, the sovereignty of the
Kingdom extends to and has always extended to internal waters,
archipelagic waters, historic waters and the territorial sea.

(2) Subject to the exceptions specified in UNCLOS, the sovereignty of the
Kingdom, extends to and has always extended to the air space over internal
waters, archipelagic waters, historic waters and the territorial sea, as well as
to their beds and subsoil, and the resources contained in them.

(3) Unless a contrary intention appears, any law in force in the Kingdom
extends to internal waters, archipelagic waters, historic waters and the
territorial sea.

(4) The air space over internal waters, archipelagic waters, historic waters
and the territorial sea, and their beds and subsoil, and the resources
contained in them, are vested in and have always been vested in the
Crown.

(5) Sub-section (4) is subject to the grant of an interest whether made by or
pursuant to any enactment or otherwise and whether made before or
after the commencement of this Act.

9. Sovereignty in internal waters

If any straight closing lines prescribed in accordance with section 5, has the
effect of enclosing as internal waters areas that had not previously been
considered as such, a right of innocent passage as provided for in UNCLOS
shall exist in those waters.

10. Sovereignty in archipelagic waters

(1) The exercise by the Kingdom of its sovereignty in archipelagic waters is
subject to:

(a) any rights set out in any agreement between the Kingdom and any
other State; and

(b) any rights in respect of submarine cables,

existing at the time the archipelagic waters are established.

(2) The exercise by the Kingdom of its sovereignty in archipelagic waters is
also subject to the right of innocent passage.

PART V – CONTIGUOUS ZONE AND EXCLUSIVE
ECONOMIC ZONE

11. Contiguous zone

The contiguous zone of the Kingdom shall be the area of sea between the
territorial sea and a line every point of which is at a distance of 24 nautical
miles from the nearest point of the baselines.

12. Exclusive Economic Zone

(1) The exclusive economic zone of the Kingdom shall be the area beyond
and adjacent to the territorial sea of the Kingdom out to a line every point
of which is at a distance of 200 nautical miles from the nearest point of
the baselines.

(2) The King in Council may, by Order, prescribe the exclusive economic
zone outer limit line as determined in accordance with subsection (1).

13. Rights, jurisdiction and duties

(1) The Kingdom has in its exclusive economic zone sovereign rights, in
accordance with Article 56 of UNCLOS and other applicable rules of
international law:

(a) to explore and exploit, conserve and manage the natural resources,
whether living or non-living, of the waters superjacent to the seabed
and of the seabed and its subsoil; and

(b) with regard to other activities, to the economic exploitation and
exploration of the zone, such as the production of energy from the
water, currents and winds.

4 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 5

(2) The Kingdom has, in accordance with Article 80 of UNCLOS, the
exclusive right to construct and to authorize and to regulate the
construction, operation and use in the continental shelf of –

(a) artificial islands;

(b) installations and structures for the purposes provided for in article
77 of UNCLOS; and

(c) installations and structures that may interfere with the exercise of
the rights of the Kingdom in the continental shelf.

(3) The Kingdom has exclusive jurisdiction over such artificial islands,
installations and structures, including jurisdiction with regard to customs,
fiscal, health, safety and immigration laws and regulations.

17. Exercise of jurisdiction

(1) Subject to subsection (2), the law in force in the Kingdom extends to its
continental shelf.

(2) It extends to the extent –

(a) necessary to enable the Kingdom to exercise the sovereign rights
and jurisdiction it has in the continental shelf; and

(b) to the extent recognized by international law.

(3) The laws of the Kingdom applies to artificial islands, installations and
structures on the continental shelf as if they were in the territorial sea.

PART VII – MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH,
UNDERWATER CULTURAL HERITAGE AND

BOUNDARIES WITH OTHER STATES

18. Marine scientific research in the maritime zones

(1) The Kingdom has sovereign rights, as provided by international law
and in particular article 245 of UNCLOS, to regulate, authorise and
conduct marine scientific research in the territorial sea.

(2) The Kingdom, in the exercise of its jurisdiction has the right, as provided
by international law and in particular article 246 of UNCLOS, to regulate,
authorise and conduct marine scientific research –

(a) in its exclusive economic zone; and

(b) on its continental shelf,

in accordance with the relevant provisions of UNCLOS.

19. Underwater cultural heritage

The Kingdom, as provided by international law and in particular paragraph 1
of Article 7 of the UNESCO Convention, in the exercise of its sovereignty,
has the exclusive right to regulate and authorise activities directed at
underwater cultural heritage in internal waters, archipelagic waters and the
territorial sea.

(c) ensure that those given consent make the results of their
work available to the Kingdom; and

(d) ensure that in appropriate cases, property rights that the
Kingdom has in any flora or fauna are recognised and
vested in the Kingdom,

(m) notwithstanding any other enactment, to protect and preserve the
marine environment and to prevent, reduce and control pollution of
the marine environment:

(i) from land-based sources, including rivers, estuaries, pipelines
and outfall structures;

(ii) from or in connection with seabed activities subject to its
jurisdiction and from artificial islands, installations and
structures under its jurisdiction, pursuant to articles 60 and 80
of UNCLOS;

(iii) by dumping; and

(iv) from or through the atmosphere, applicable to the air space
under its sovereignty and to vessels flying its flag or vessels
or aircraft of its registry;

(n) to regulate and authorise activities directed at underwater cultural
heritage in internal waters, archipelagic waters and the territorial
sea;

(o) (i) in accordance with article 8 of the UNESCO Convention, to
regulate and authorise activities directed at underwater cultural
heritage within the contiguous zone; and

(ii) shall ensure that the Rules Concerning Activities Directed at
Underwater Cultural Heritage set out in the Annex to the
UNESCO Convention are applied,

(p) in accordance with international law and in particular article 10 of
the UNESCO Convention, to prohibit or authorise any activity
directed at underwater cultural heritage in the exclusive economic
zone or the continental shelf to prevent interference with the
sovereign rights and jurisdiction of the Kingdom, as provided for
by international law including UNCLOS; and

(q) as may be necessary or convenient for carrying out the purposes of
this Act.

(2) Subject to subsection 1 (i),(j),(l),(m),(n) and (o), the regulations may –

(a) provide that an Act, and any subsidiary enactment made under it,
that extends to a maritime zone shall extend to that zone with such
amendment as are prescribed by the regulations;

(b) prescribe fees, forms and procedures;

10 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 7

20. Maritime cultural zone

The maritime cultural zone of the Kingdom is the area of sea coincident with
the contiguous zone.

21. Delimitation of the boundaries of maritime zones with other States

In accordance with international law and in particular UNCLOS, the
delimitation of any maritime zone between the Kingdom and any State with
an opposite or adjacent coast is to be effected by agreement on the basis of
international law, as referred to in Article 38 of the Statute of the International
Court of Justice, in order to achieve an equitable solution.

PART VIII – REGULATIONS

22. Regulations

(1) His Majesty in Council may make regulations:

(a) prescribing the baselines from which the maritime zones of the
Kingdom are to be determined;

(b) prescribing closing lines to delimit internal waters;

(c) in accordance with international law, prescribing the limits of

any historic waters of the Kingdom;

(d) (i) to designate the sea lanes and air routes to be used by foreign
ships and aircraft in passage through or over any archipelagic
waters, historical waters, territorial sea and internal waters;
and

(ii) to prescribe traffic separation schemes to be observed by
ships in passage through narrow channels in the sea lanes;

(e) regulating the passage of ships carrying hazardous waste, and
nuclear and radioactive materials through all or any part of the
archipelagic waters, historical waters, territorial sea and internal
waters;

(f) providing that ships carrying radioactive materials are not to pass
through any part of the archipelagic waters, historical waters,
territorial sea or internal waters unless:

(i) prior notification of the intended passage of the ship through
those waters or sea has been given in accordance with the
regulations; and

(ii) prior authorisation and consent for the passage, specifying
the route to be taken by the ship, has been given;

(g) suspending temporarily the innocent passage of foreign ships in a
specified area of any archipelagic waters, historical waters, territorial
sea or internal waters if the suspension is necessary to protect the
security of the Kingdom.

(h) in the case of paragraph (d),(e),(f) and (g), providing for the action
that may be taken, including stopping and boarding ships, to ensure
compliance;

(i) that permit in the contiguous zone the exercise of controls necessary
to:

(i) prevent infringement of the customs, fiscal, immigration or
sanitary laws and regulations within the Kingdom, its territorial
sea, archipelagic waters, historical waters and internal waters;
and

(ii) punish any infringement of those laws and regulations
committed within the Kingdom, its territorial sea, archipelagic
waters and internal waters;

(j) (i) that provide for the authorisation of persons to explore for
non-living natural resources in the exclusive economic zone
or continental shelf or to recover or attempt to recover any
such resources in accordance with terms and conditions
determined by the Prime Minister with the consent of Cabinet;

(ii) that delineate the course to be followed by any person when
laying pipelines or cables in the exclusive economic zone or
continental shelf;

(iii) that provide for the authorisation and regulation of any drilling
in the exclusive economic zone or continental shelf; and

(iv) that regulate the construction, operation and use of:

(a) artificial islands;

(b) installations and structures for the purposes provided
for in article 56 or 77 of UNCLOS; and

(c) installations and structures that may interfere with the
exercise of the rights of the Kingdom in its exclusive
economic zone or continental shelf;

(k) to determine the outer limits of its continental shelf in accordance
with article 76 of UNCLOS and may provide for the outer limits to
be determined by either of the methods mention in paragraph 4 of
article 76 of UNCLOS.

(l) (i) that ensure that marine scientific research is not conducted in
any maritime zone except with and in accordance with the
express consent of the Prime Minister acting with the approval
of the Cabinet; and

(ii) (a) establish procedures that ensure that consent for marine
scientific research is not delayed or denied unreasonably;

(b) comply with the provisions of articles 245 to 253 of
UNCLOS so far as they relate to any proposed marine
scientific research;

8 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 9

(c) provide for the payment of royalties and other charges, and the
manner in which they are to be calculated;

(d) provide for the confiscation of property in respect of an offence
committed in a maritime zone;

(e) provide for the appointment of officers necessary for the
administration of the regulations and prescribe their powers and
duties;

(f) include savings, transitional, ancillary, consequential and
supplementary provisions.

(3) The lines delineating maritime zones shall be prescribed in regulations:

(a) as lists of geographical coordinates of points, specifying the geodetic
datum;

(b) by reference to charts of a scale or scales adequate for ascertaining
the position of the baselines and other limits; or

(c) where it is appropriate or necessary to do so, by using both the
methods mentioned in paragraphs (a) and (b).

(4) Due publicity shall be given to the lists of geographical coordinates or
such charts, or both, in accordance with UNCLOS.

(5) A copy of the regulations and of the charts shall be deposited with the
Secretary-General of the United Nations.

PART IX – OFFENCES AND CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY

23. Offences

(1) A person who contravenes a provision of any regulations made under
this Act is guilty of an offence.

(2) A person guilty of an offence under subsection (1) is liable –

(a) in the case of an individual, to a fine not exceeding $100,000 or to
imprisonment for a term not exceeding 15 years; or

(b) in the case of a body corporate, to a fine not exceeding $500,000.

24. Responsibility

(1) If an offence under section 23 that has been committed by a body
corporate is proved to have been committed with the consent or
connivance of, or to be attributable to any neglect on the part of:

(a) a director, manager, secretary or other similar officer of the body
corporate; or

(b) a person who was purporting to act in any such capacity,

that person, as well as the body corporate, is guilty of the offence and is
liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly.

2. Where because of the presence of a delta and other natural conditions the
coastline is highly unstable, the appropriate points may be selected along the
furthest seaward extent of the low-water line and, notwithstanding subsequent
regression of the low-water line, the straight baselines shall remain effective
until changed by the coastal State in accordance with this Convention.

3. The drawing of straight baselines must not depart to any appreciable extent
from the general direction of the coast, and the sea areas lying within the lines
must be sufficiently closely linked to the land domain to be subject to the
regime of internal waters.

4. Straight baselines shall not be drawn to and from low-tide elevations, unless
lighthouses or similar installations which are permanently above sea level
have been built on them or except in instances where the drawing of baselines
to and from such elevations has received general international recognition.

5. Where the method of straight baselines is applicable under paragraph 1,
account may be taken, in determining particular baselines, of economic interests
peculiar to the region concerned, the reality and the importance of which are
clearly evidenced by long usage.

6. The system of straight baselines may not be applied by a State in such a
manner as to cut off the territorial sea of another State from the high seas or
an exclusive economic zone.

Article 8 - Internal waters

1. Except as provided in Part IV, waters on the landward side of the baseline of
the territorial sea form part of the internal waters of the State.

2. Where the establishment of a straight baseline in accordance with the method
set forth in article 7 has the effect of enclosing as internal waters areas which
had not previously been considered as such, a right of innocent passage as
provided in this Convention shall exist in those waters.

Article 9 - Mouths of rivers

If a river flows directly into the sea, the baseline shall be a straight line across
the mouth of the river between points on the low-water line of its banks.

Article 10 - Bays

1. This article relates only to bays the coasts of which belong to a single State.

2. For the purposes of this Convention, a bay is a well-marked indentation
whose penetration is in such proportion to the width of its mouth as to
contain land-locked waters and constitute more than a mere curvature of the
coast. An indentation shall not, however, be regarded as a bay unless its area
is as large as, or larger than, that of the semi-circle whose diameter is a line
drawn across the mouth of that indentation.

3. For the purpose of measurement, the area of an indentation is that lying
between the low-water mark around the shore of the indentation and a line
joining the low-water mark of its natural entrance points. Where, because of

14 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 11

(2) If the affairs of a body corporate are managed by its members, subsection
(1) applies in relation to the acts and defaults of a member in connection
with the member’s functions of management as if the member were a
director of the body corporate.

PART X – TRANSITIONAL

25. Transitional and saving provisions

(1) Subject to sections 4 and 22(1)(a) the baselines, territorial sea, exclusive
economic zone and continental shelf shall, for the purposes of this Act,
be taken to be those that existed under the Territorial Sea and Exclusive
Economic Zone Act and the Continental Shelf Act immediately before
the commencement of this Act.

(2) Any area of sea designated by His Majesty in Council for the purposes
of the Continental Shelf Act shall, on the commencement of this Act, be
taken to have been designated to be and as always to have been part of
the continental shelf of the Kingdom.

(3) Any agreements or regulations made for the purposes of the Territorial
Sea and Exclusive Economic Zone Act and the Continental Shelf Act,
and in force immediately before the commencement of this Act, shall
continue in force as if made under this Act to the extent they are not
inconsistent with this Act, and may be repealed or replaced in accordance
with this Act.

Passed in the Legislative Assembly this 29 day of October 2009.

SCHEDULE 1
PART II OF THE LAW OF THE SEA CONVENTION

TERRITORIAL SEA AND CONTIGUOUS ZONE

SECTION 1
GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 2 - Legal status of the territorial sea, of the air space
over the territorial sea and of its bed and subsoil

1. The sovereignty of a coastal State extends, beyond its land territory and
internal waters and, in the case of an archipelagic State, its archipelagic
waters, to an adjacent belt of sea, described as the territorial sea.

2. This sovereignty extends to the air space over the territorial sea as well as to
its bed and subsoil.

3. The sovereignty over the territorial sea is exercised subject to this Convention
and to other rules of international law.

SECTION 2
LIMITS OF THE TERRITORIAL SEA

Article 3 - Breadth of the territorial sea

Every State has the right to establish the breadth of its territorial sea up to a
limit not exceeding 12 nautical miles, measured from baselines determined in
accordance with this Convention.

Article 4 - Outer limit of the territorial sea

The outer limit of the territorial sea is the line every point of which is at a
distance from the nearest point of the baseline equal to the breadth of the
territorial sea.

Article 5 - Normal baseline

Except where otherwise provided in this Convention, the normal baseline for
measuring the breadth of the territorial sea is the low-water line along the coast as
marked on large-scale charts officially recognized by the coastal State.

Article 6 - Reefs

In the case of islands situated on atolls or of islands having fringing reefs, the
baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea is the seaward low-
water line of the reef, as shown by the appropriate symbol on charts officially
recognised by the coastal State.

Article 7 - Straight baselines

1. In localities where the coastline is deeply indented and cut into, or if there is
a fringe of islands along the coast in its immediate vicinity, the method of
straight baselines joining appropriate points may be employed in drawing the
baseline from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.

12 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 13

the presence of islands, an indentation has more than one mouth, the semi-
circle shall be drawn on a line as long as the sum total of the lengths of the
lines across the different mouths. Islands within an indentation shall be
included as if they were part of the water area of the indentation.

4. If the distance between the low-water marks of the natural entrance points of
a bay does not exceed 24 nautical miles, a closing line may be drawn between
these two low-water marks, and the waters enclosed thereby shall be considered
as internal waters.

5. Where the distance between the low-water marks of the natural entrance
points of a bay exceeds 24 nautical miles, a straight baseline of 24 nautical
miles shall be drawn within the bay in such a manner as to enclose the
maximum area of water that is possible with a line of that length.

6. The foregoing provisions do not apply to so-called “historic” bays, or in any
case where the system of straight baselines provided for in article 7 is applied.

Article 11 - Ports

For the purpose of delimiting the territorial sea, the outermost permanent
harbour works which form an integral part of the harbour system are regarded
as forming part of the coast. Off-shore installations and artificial islands shall
not be considered as permanent harbour works.

Article12 - Roadsteads

Roadsteads which are normally used for the loading, unloading and anchoring
of ships, and which would otherwise be situated wholly or partly outside the
outer limit of the territorial sea, are included in the territorial sea.

Article 13 - Low-tide elevations

1. A low-tide elevation is a naturally formed area of land which is surrounded
by and above water at low tide but submerged at high tide. Where a low-tide
elevation is situated wholly or partly at a distance not exceeding the breadth
of the territorial sea from the mainland or an island, the low-water line on that
elevation may be used as the baseline for measuring the breadth of the
territorial sea.

2. Where a low-tide elevation is wholly situated at a distance exceeding the
breadth of the territorial sea from the mainland or an island, it has no territorial
sea of its own.

Article 14-Combination of methods for determining baselines

The coastal State may determine baselines in turn by any of the methods
provided for in the foregoing articles to suit different conditions.

Article 15-Delimitation of the territorial sea between States
with opposite or adjacent coasts

Where the coasts of two States are opposite or adjacent to each other, neither
of the two States is entitled, failing agreement between them to the contrary,

(f) the preservation of the environment of the coastal State and the
prevention, reduction and control of pollution thereof;

(g) marine scientific research and hydrographic surveys;

(h) the prevention of infringement of the customs, fiscal, immigration or
sanitary laws and regulations of the coastal State.

2. Such laws and regulations shall not apply to the design, construction, manning
or equipment of foreign ships unless they are giving effect to generally
accepted international rules or standards.

3. The coastal State shall give due publicity to all such laws and regulations.

4. Foreign ships exercising the right of innocent passage through the territorial
sea shall comply with all such laws and regulations and all generally accepted
international regulations relating to the prevention of collisions at sea.

Article 22 - Sea lanes and traffic separation schemes
in the territorial sea

1. The coastal State may, where necessary having regard to the safety of
navigation, require foreign ships exercising the right of innocent passage
through its territorial sea, to use such sea lanes and traffic separation schemes
as it may designate or prescribe for the regulation of the passage of ships.

2. In particular, tankers, nuclear-powered ships and ships carrying nuclear or
other inherently dangerous or noxious substances or materials may be required
to confine their passage to such sea lanes.

3. In the designation of sea lanes and the prescription of traffic separation
schemes under this article, the coastal State shall take into account:

(a) the recommendations of the competent international organisation;

(b) any channels customarily used for international navigation;

(c) the special characteristics of particular ships and channels; and

(d) the density of traffic.

4. The coastal State shall clearly indicate such sea lanes and traffic separation
schemes on charts to which due publicity shall be given.

Article 23 - Foreign nuclear-powered ships and ships carrying
nuclear or other inherently dangerous or noxious substances

Foreign nuclear-powered ships and ships carrying nuclear or other inherently
dangerous or noxious substances shall, when exercising the right of innocent
passage through the territorial sea, carry documents and observe special
precautionary measures established for such ships by international agreements.

Article 24 - Duties of the coastal State

1. The coastal State shall not hamper the innocent passage of foreign ships
through the territorial sea except in accordance with this Convention. In
particular, in the application of this Convention or of any laws or regulations
adopted in conformity with this Convention, the coastal State shall not:

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to extend its territorial sea beyond the median line every point of which is
equidistant from the nearest points on the baselines from which the breadth
of the territorial seas of each of the two States is measured. The above
provision does not apply, however, where it is necessary by reason of historic
title or other special circumstances to delimit the territorial seas of the two
States in a way which is at variance therewith.

Article 16 - Charts and lists of geographical coordinates

1. The baselines for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea determined in
accordance with articles 7, 9 and 10, or the limits derived therefrom, and the
lines of delimitation drawn in accordance with articles 12 and 15 shall be
shown on charts of a scale or scales adequate for ascertaining their position.
Alternatively, a list of geographical coordinates of points, specifying the
geodetic datum, may be substituted.

2. The coastal State shall give due publicity to such charts or lists of geographical
coordinates and shall deposit a copy of each such chart or list with the
Secretary-General of the United Nations.

SECTION 3
INNOCENT PASSAGE IN THE TERRITORIAL SEA

SUBSECTION A. RULES APPLICABLE TO ALL SHIPS

Article 17 - Right of innocent passage

Subject to this Convention, ships of all States, whether coastal or land-
locked, enjoy the right of innocent passage through the territorial sea.

Article 18 - Meaning of passage

1. Passage means navigation through the territorial sea for the purpose of:

(a) traversing that sea without entering internal waters or calling at a roadstead
or port facility outside internal waters; or

(b) proceeding to or from internal waters or a call at such roadstead or port
facility.

2. Passage shall be continuous and expeditious. However, passage includes
stopping and anchoring, but only in so far as the same are incidental to
ordinary navigation or are rendered necessary by force majeure or distress or
for the purpose of rendering assistance to persons, ships or aircraft in danger
or distress.

Article 19 - Meaning of innocent passage

1. Passage is innocent so long as it is not prejudicial to the peace, good order or
security of the coastal State. Such passage shall take place in conformity with
this Convention and with other rules of international law.

2. Passage of a foreign ship shall be considered to be prejudicial to the peace,
good order or security of the coastal State if in the territorial sea it engages in
any of the following activities:

(a) any threat or use of force against the sovereignty, territorial integrity or
political independence of the coastal State, or in any other manner in
violation of the principles of international law embodied in the Charter
of the United Nations;

(b) any exercise or practice with weapons of any kind;

(c) any act aimed at collecting information to the prejudice of the defence or
security of the coastal State;

(d) any act of propaganda aimed at affecting the defence or security of the
coastal State;

(e) the launching, landing or taking on board of any aircraft;

(f) the launching, landing or taking on board of any military device;

(g) the loading or unloading of any commodity, currency or person contrary
to the customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations of
the coastal State;

(h) any act of wilful and serious pollution contrary to this Convention;

(i) any fishing activities;

(j) the carrying out of research or survey activities;

(k) any act aimed at interfering with any systems of communication or any
other facilities or installations of the coastal State;

(l) any other activity not having a direct bearing on passage.

Article 20 - Submarines and other underwater vehicles

In the territorial sea, submarines and other underwater vehicles are required
to navigate on the surface and to show their flag.

Article 21 - Laws and regulations of the coastal State relating
to innocent passage

1. The coastal State may adopt laws and regulations, in conformity with the
provisions of this Convention and other rules of international law, relating to
innocent passage through the territorial sea, in respect of all or any of the
following:

(a) the safety of navigation and the regulation of maritime traffic;

(b) the protection of navigational aids and facilities and other facilities or
installations;

(c) the protection of cables and pipelines;

(d) the conservation of the living resources of the sea;

(e) the prevention of infringement of the fisheries laws and regulations of
the coastal State;

16 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 17

(a) impose requirements on foreign ships which have the practical effect of
denying or impairing the right of innocent passage; or

(b) discriminate in form or in fact against the ships of any State or against
ships carrying cargoes to, from or on behalf of any State.

2. The coastal State shall give appropriate publicity to any danger to navigation,
of which it has knowledge, within its territorial sea.

Article 25 - Rights of protection of the coastal State

1. The coastal State may take the necessary steps in its territorial sea to prevent
passage which is not innocent.

2. In the case of ships proceeding to internal waters or a call at a port facility
outside internal waters, the coastal State also has the right to take the necessary
steps to prevent any breach of the conditions to which admission of those
ships to internal waters or such a call is subject.

3. The coastal State may, without discrimination in form or in fact among
foreign ships, suspend temporarily in specified areas of its territorial sea the
innocent passage of foreign ships if such suspension is essential for the
protection of its security, including weapons exercises. Such suspension
shall take effect only after having been duly published.

Article 26 - Charges which may be levied upon foreign ships

1. No charge may be levied upon foreign ships by reason only of their passage
through the territorial sea.

2. Charges may be levied upon a foreign ship passing through the territorial sea
as payment only for specific services rendered to the ship. These charges
shall be levied without discrimination.

SUBSECTION B
RULES APPLICABLE TO MERCHANT SHIPS AND GOVERNMENT

SHIPS OPERATED FOR COMMERCIAL PURPOSES

Article 27 - Criminal jurisdiction on board a foreign ship

1. The criminal jurisdiction of the coastal State should not be exercised on board
a foreign ship passing through the territorial sea to arrest any person or to
conduct any investigation in connection with any crime committed on board
the ship during its passage, save only in the following cases:

(a) if the consequences of the crime extend to the coastal State;

(b) if the crime is of a kind to disturb the peace of the country or the good
order of the territorial sea;

(c) if the assistance of the local authorities has been requested by the master
of the ship or by a diplomatic agent or consular officer of the flag State;
or

(d) if such measures are necessary for the suppression of illicit traffic in
narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances.

SCHEDULE 2
PART IV OF THE LAW OF THE SEA CONVENTION

ARCHIPELAGIC STATES

Article 46 - Use of terms

For the purposes of this Convention:

(a) “archipelagic State” means a State constituted wholly by one or more
archipelagos and may include other islands;

(b) “archipelago” means a group of islands, including parts of islands,
interconnecting waters and other natural features which are so closely
interrelated that such islands, waters and other natural features form an
intrinsic geographical, economic and political entity, or which historically
have been regarded as such.

Article 47 - Archipelagic baselines

1. An archipelagic State may draw straight archipelagic baselines joining the
outermost points of the outermost islands and drying reefs of the archipelago
provided that within such baselines are included the main islands and an area
in which the ratio of the area of the water to the area of the land, including
atolls, is between 1 to 1 and 9 to 1.

2. The length of such baselines shall not exceed 100 nautical miles, except that up
to 3 per cent of the total number of baselines enclosing any archipelago may
exceed that length, up to a maximum length of 125 nautical miles.

3. The drawing of such baselines shall not depart to any appreciable extent from
the general configuration of the archipelago.

4. Such baselines shall not be drawn to and from low-tide elevations, unless
lighthouses or similar installations which are permanently above sea level have
been built on them or where a low-tide elevation is situated wholly or partly at
a distance not exceeding the breadth of the territorial sea from the nearest
island.

5. The system of such baselines shall not be applied by an archipelagic State in
such a manner as to cut off from the high seas or the exclusive economic zone
the territorial sea of another State.

6. If a part of the archipelagic waters of an archipelagic State lies between two
parts of an immediately adjacent neighbouring State, existing rights and all
other legitimate interests which the latter State has traditionally exercised in
such waters and all rights stipulated by agreement between those States shall
continue and be respected.

7. For the purpose of computing the ratio of water to land under paragraph l, land
areas may include waters lying within the fringing reefs of islands and atolls,
including that part of a steep-sided oceanic plateau which is enclosed or nearly
enclosed by a chain of limestone islands and drying reefs lying on the perimeter
of the plateau.

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2. The above provisions do not affect the right of the coastal State to take any
steps authorised by its laws for the purpose of an arrest or investigation on
board a foreign ship passing through the territorial sea after leaving internal
waters.

3. In the cases provided for in paragraphs 1 and 2, the coastal State shall, if the
master so requests, notify a diplomatic agent or consular officer of the flag
State before taking any steps, and shall facilitate contact between such agent
or officer and the ship’s crew. In cases of emergency this notification may be
communicated while the measures are being taken.

4. In considering whether or in what manner an arrest should be made, the local
authorities shall have due regard to the interests of navigation.

5. Except as provided in Part XII or with respect to violations of laws and
regulations adopted in accordance with Part V, the coastal State may not take
any steps on board a foreign ship passing through the territorial sea to arrest
any person or to conduct any investigation in connection with any crime
committed before the ship entered the territorial sea, if the ship, proceeding
from a foreign port, is only passing through the territorial sea without entering
internal waters.

Article 28 - Civil jurisdiction in relation to foreign ships

1. The coastal State should not stop or divert a foreign ship passing through the
territorial sea for the purpose of exercising civil jurisdiction in relation to a
person on board the ship.

2. The coastal State may not levy execution against or arrest the ship for the
purpose of any civil proceedings, save only in respect of obligations or
liabilities assumed or incurred by the ship itself in the course or for the
purpose of its voyage through the waters of the coastal State.

3. Paragraph 2 is without prejudice to the right of the coastal State, in accordance
with its laws, to levy execution against or to arrest, for the purpose of any
civil proceedings, a foreign ship lying in the territorial sea, or passing through
the territorial sea after leaving internal waters.

SUBSECTION C
RULES APPLICABLE TO WARSHIPS AND OTHER

GOVERNMENT SHIPS OPERATED FOR
NON-COMMERCIAL PURPOSES

Article 29 - Definition of warships

For the purposes of this Convention, “warship” means a ship belonging to
the armed forces of a State bearing the external marks distinguishing such
ships of its nationality, under the command of an officer duly commissioned
by the government of the State and whose name appears in the appropriate
service list or its equivalent, and manned by a crew which is under regular
armed forces discipline.

Article 30 - Non-compliance by warships with the
laws and regulations of the coastal State

If any warship does not comply with the laws and regulations of the coastal
State concerning passage through the territorial sea and disregards any request
for compliance therewith which is made to it, the coastal State may require it
to leave the territorial sea immediately.

Article 31 - Responsibility of the flag State for damage caused
by a warship or other government ship operated for

non-commercial purposes

The flag State shall bear international responsibility for any loss or damage to
the coastal State resulting from the non-compliance by a warship or other
government ship operated for non-commercial purposes with the laws and
regulations of the coastal State concerning passage through the territorial sea
or with the provisions of this Convention or other rules of international law.

Article 32 - Immunities of warships and other government ships
operated for non-commercial purposes

With such exceptions as are contained in subsection A and in articles 30 and
31, nothing in this Convention affects the immunities of warships and other
government ships operated for non-commercial purposes.

SECTION 4
CONTIGUOUS ZONE

Article 33 - Contiguous zone

1. In a zone contiguous to its territorial sea, described as the contiguous zone,
the coastal State may exercise the control necessary to:

(a) prevent infringement of its customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary
laws and regulations within its territory or territorial sea;

(b) punish infringement of the above laws and regulations committed within
its territory or territorial sea.

2. The contiguous zone may not extend beyond 24 nautical miles from the
baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.

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8. The baselines drawn in accordance with this article shall be shown on charts of
a scale or scales adequate for ascertaining their position. Alternatively, lists of
geographical coordinates of points, specifying the geodetic datum, may be
substituted.

9. The archipelagic State shall give due publicity to such charts or lists of
geographical coordinates and shall deposit a copy of each such chart or list
with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 48 - Measurement of the breadth of the territorial sea, the
contiguous zone, the exclusive economic zone and the

continental shelf

The breadth of the territorial sea, the contiguous zone, the exclusive economic
zone and the continental shelf shall be measured from archipelagic baselines
drawn in accordance with article 47.

Article 49 - Legal status of archipelagic waters, of the air space
over archipelagic waters and of their bed and subsoil

1. The sovereignty of an archipelagic State extends to the waters enclosed by the
archipelagic baselines drawn in accordance with article 47, described as
archipelagic waters, regardless of their depth or distance from the coast.

2. This sovereignty extends to the air space over the archipelagic waters, as well
as to their bed and subsoil, and the resources contained therein.

3. This sovereignty is exercised subject to this Part.

4. The regime of archipelagic sea lanes passage established in this Part shall not
in other respects affect the status of the archipelagic waters, including the sea
lanes, or the exercise by the archipelagic State of its sovereignty over such
waters and their air space, bed and subsoil, and the resources contained therein.

Article 50 - Delimitation of internal waters

Within its archipelagic waters, the archipelagic State may draw closing lines
for the delimitation of internal waters, in accordance with articles 9, 10 and 11.

Article 51 - Existing agreements, traditional fishing rights and
existing submarine cables

1. Without prejudice to article 49, an archipelagic State shall respect existing
agreements with other States and shall recognise traditional fishing rights and
other legitimate activities of the immediately adjacent neighbouring States in
certain areas falling within archipelagic waters. The terms and conditions for
the exercise of such rights and activities, including the nature, the extent and
the areas to which they apply, shall, at the request of any of the States concerned,
be regulated by bilateral agreements between them. Such rights shall not be
transferred to or shared with third States or their nationals.

2. An archipelagic State shall respect existing submarine cables laid by other
States and passing through its waters without making a landfall. An archipelagic
State shall permit the maintenance and replacement of such cables upon receiving
due notice of their location and the intention to repair or replace them.

(i) the establishment and use of artificial islands, installations and
structures;

(ii) marine scientific research;

(iii) the protection and preservation of the marine environment;

(c) other rights and duties provided for in this Convention.

2. In exercising its rights and performing its duties under this Convention in the
exclusive economic zone, the coastal State shall have due regard to the rights
and duties of other States and shall act in a manner compatible with the
provisions of this Convention.

3. The rights set out in this article with respect to the seabed and subsoil shall be
exercised in accordance with Part VI.

Article 57 - Breadth of the exclusive economic zone

The exclusive economic zone shall not extend beyond 200 nautical miles from
the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.

Article 58 - Rights and duties of other States in the exclusive
economic zone

1. In the exclusive economic zone, all States, whether coastal or land-locked,
enjoy, subject to the relevant provisions of this Convention, the freedoms
referred to in article 87 of navigation and overflight and of the laying of
submarine cables and pipelines, and other internationally lawful uses of the sea
related to these freedoms, such as those associated with the operation of ships,
aircraft and submarine cables and pipelines, and compatible with the other
provisions of this Convention.

2. Articles 88 to 115 and other pertinent rules of international law apply to the
exclusive economic zone in so far as they are not incompatible with this Part.

3. In exercising their rights and performing their duties under this Convention in
the exclusive economic zone, States shall have due regard to the rights and
duties of the coastal State and shall comply with the laws and regulations
adopted by the coastal State in accordance with the provisions of this Convention
and other rules of international law in so far as they are not incompatible with
this Part.

Article 59 - Basis for the resolution of conflicts regarding the
attribution of rights and jurisdiction in the exclusive economic zone

In cases where this Convention does not attribute rights or jurisdiction to the
coastal State or to other States within the exclusive economic zone, and a
conflict arises between the interests of the coastal State and any other State or
States, the conflict should be resolved on the basis of equity and in the light of
all the relevant circumstances, taking into account the respective importance of
the interests involved to the parties as well as to the international community as
a whole.

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Article 52 - Right of innocent passage

1. Subject to article 53 and without prejudice to article 50, ships of all States enjoy
the right of innocent passage through archipelagic waters, in accordance with
Part II, section 3.

2. The archipelagic State may, without discrimination in form or in fact among
foreign ships, suspend temporarily in specified areas of its archipelagic waters
the innocent passage of foreign ships if such suspension is essential for the
protection of its security. Such suspension shall take effect only after having
been duly published.

Article 53 - Right of archipelagic sea lanes passage

1. An archipelagic State may designate sea lanes and air routes thereabove, suitable
for the continuous and expeditious passage of foreign ships and aircraft through
or over its archipelagic waters and the adjacent territorial sea.

2. All ships and aircraft enjoy the right of archipelagic sea lanes passage in such
sea lanes and air routes.

3. Archipelagic sea lanes passage means the exercise in accordance with this
Convention of the rights of navigation and overflight in the normal mode
solely for the purpose of continuous, expeditious and unobstructed transit
between one part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone and another
part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone.

4. Such sea lanes and air routes shall traverse the archipelagic waters and the
adjacent territorial sea and shall include all normal passage routes used as
routes for international navigation or overflight through or over archipelagic
waters and, within such routes, so far as ships are concerned, all normal
navigational channels, provided that duplication of routes of similar convenience
between the same entry and exit points shall not be necessary.

5. Such sea lanes and air routes shall be defined by a series of continuous axis
lines from the entry points of passage routes to the exit points. Ships and
aircraft in archipelagic sea lanes passage shall not deviate more than 25 nautical
miles to either side of such axis lines during passage, provided that such ships
and aircraft shall not navigate closer to the coasts than 10 per cent of the
distance between the nearest points on islands bordering the sea lane.

6. An archipelagic State which designates sea lanes under this article may also
prescribe traffic separation schemes for the safe passage of ships through
narrow channels in such sea lanes.

7. An archipelagic State may, when circumstances require, after giving due
publicity thereto, substitute other sea lanes or traffic separation schemes for
any sea lanes or traffic separation schemes previously designated or prescribed
by it.

8. Such sea lanes and traffic separation schemes shall conform to generally
accepted international regulations.

9. In designating or substituting sea lanes or prescribing or substituting traffic
separation schemes, an archipelagic State shall refer proposals to the competent
international organisation with a view to their adoption. The organisation may
adopt only such sea lanes and traffic separation schemes as may be agreed with
the archipelagic State, after which the archipelagic State may designate,
prescribe or substitute them.

10. The archipelagic State shall clearly indicate the axis of the sea lanes and the
traffic separation schemes designated or prescribed by it on charts to which
due publicity shall be given.

11. Ships in archipelagic sea lanes passage shall respect applicable sea lanes and
traffic separation schemes established in accordance with this article.

12. If an archipelagic State does not designate sea lanes or air routes, the right of
archipelagic sea lanes passage may be exercised through the routes normally
used for international navigation.

Article 54 - Duties of ships and aircraft during their passage,
research and survey activities, duties of the archipelagic State and

laws and regulations of the archipelagic State relating to
archipelagic sea lanes passage

Articles 39, 40, 42 and 44 apply mutatis mutandis to archipelagic sea lanes
passage.

Schedule 3
PART V OF THE LAW OF THE SEA CONVENTION

EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE

Article 55 - Specific legal regime of the exclusive economic zone

The exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial
sea, subject to the specific legal regime established in this Part, under which the
rights and jurisdiction of the coastal State and the rights and freedoms of other
States are governed by the relevant provisions of this Convention.

Article 56 - Rights, jurisdiction and duties of the coastal State in the
exclusive economic zone

1. In the exclusive economic zone, the coastal State has:

(a) sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring and exploiting, conserving
and managing the natural resources, whether living or non-living, of the
waters superjacent to the seabed and of the seabed and its subsoil, and
with regard to other activities for the economic exploitation and exploration
of the zone, such as the production of energy from the water, currents and
winds;

(b) jurisdiction as provided for in the relevant provisions of this Convention
with regard to:

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Article 60 - Artificial islands, installations and structures in
the exclusive economic zone

1. In the exclusive economic zone, the coastal State shall have the exclusive right to
construct and to authorize and regulate the construction, operation and use of:

(a) artificial islands;

(b) installations and structures for the purposes provided for in article 56 and
other economic purposes;

(c) installations and structures which may interfere with the exercise of the
rights of the coastal State in the zone.

2. The coastal State shall have exclusive jurisdiction over such artificial islands,
installations and structures, including jurisdiction with regard to customs,
fiscal, health, safety and immigration laws and regulations.

3. Due notice must be given of the construction of such artificial islands,
installations or structures, and permanent means for giving warning of their
presence must be maintained. Any installations or structures which are
abandoned or disused shall be removed to ensure safety of navigation, taking
into account any generally accepted international standards established in this
regard by the competent international organization. Such removal shall also
have due regard to fishing, the protection of the marine environment and the
rights and duties of other States. Appropriate publicity shall be given to the
depth, position and dimensions of any installations or structures not entirely
removed.

4. The coastal State may, where necessary, establish reasonable safety zones
around such artificial islands, installations and structures in which it may take
appropriate measures to ensure the safety both of navigation and of the artificial
islands, installations and structures.

5. The breadth of the safety zones shall be determined by the coastal State, taking
into account applicable international standards. Such zones shall be designed
to ensure that they are reasonably related to the nature and function of the
artificial islands, installations or structures, and shall not exceed a distance of
500 metres around them, measured from each point of their outer edge, except
as authorized by generally accepted international standards or as recommended
by the competent international organization. Due notice shall be given of the
extent of safety zones.

6. All ships must respect these safety zones and shall comply with generally
accepted international standards regarding navigation in the vicinity of artificial
islands, installations, structures and safety zones.

7. Artificial islands, installations and structures and the safety zones around them
may not be established where interference may be caused to the use of recognized
sea lanes essential to international navigation.

8. Artificial islands, installations and structures do not possess the status of
islands. They have no territorial sea of their own, and their presence does not
affect the delimitation of the territorial sea, the exclusive economic zone or the
continental shelf.

Article 63 - Stocks occurring within the exclusive economic zones of
two or more coastal States or both within the exclusive economic

zone and in an area beyond and adjacent to it

1. Where the same stock or stocks of associated species occur within the exclusive
economic zones of two or more coastal States, these States shall seek, either
directly or through appropriate subregional or regional organizations, to agree
upon the measures necessary to coordinate and ensure the conservation and
development of such stocks without prejudice to the other provisions of this Part.

2. Where the same stock or stocks of associated species occur both within the
exclusive economic zone and in an area beyond and adjacent to the zone, the
coastal State and the States fishing for such stocks in the adjacent area shall
seek, either directly or through appropriate subregional or regional organizations,
to agree upon the measures necessary for the conservation of these stocks in
the adjacent area.

Article 64 - Highly migratory species

1. The coastal State and other States whose national fish in the region for the
highly migratory species listed in Annex I shall cooperate directly or through
appropriate international organizations with a view to ensuring conservation
and promoting the objective of optimum utilization of such species throughout
the region, both within and beyond the exclusive economic zone. In regions
for which no appropriate international organization exists, the coastal State and
other States whose nationals harvest these species in the region shall cooperate
to establish such an organization and participate in its work.

2. The provisions of paragraph 1 apply in addition to the other provisions of this
Part.

Article 65 - Marine mammals

Nothing in this Part restricts the right of a coastal State or the competence of an
international organization, as appropriate, to prohibit, limit or regulate the
exploitation of marine mammals more strictly than provided for in this part.
States shall cooperate with a view to the conservation of marine mammals and
in the case of cetaceans shall in particular work through the appropriate
international organizations for their conservation, management and study.

Article 66 - Anadromous stocks

1. States in whose rivers anadromous stocks originate shall have the primary
interest in and responsibility for such stocks.

2. The State of origin of anadromous stocks shall ensure their conservation by
the establishment of appropriate regulatory measures for fishing in all waters
landward of the outer limits of its exclusive economic zone and for fishing
provided for in paragraph 3(b). The State of origin may, after consultations
with the other States referred to in paragraphs 3 and 4 fishing these stocks,
establish total allowable catches for stocks originating in its rivers.

30 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 27

Article 61-Conservation of the living resources

1. The coastal State shall determine the allowable catch of the living resources in
its exclusive economic zone.

2. The coastal State, taking into account the best scientific evidence available to it,
shall ensure through proper conservation and management measures that the
maintenance of the living resources in the exclusive economic zone is not
endangered by over-exploitation. As appropriate, the coastal State and competent
international organizations, whether subregional, regional or global, shall
cooperate to this end.

3. Such measures shall also be designed to maintain or restore populations of
harvested species at levels which can produce the maximum sustainable yield,
as qualified by relevant environmental and economic factors, including the
economic needs of coastal fishing communities and the special requirements
of developing States, and taking into account fishing patterns, the
interdependence of stocks and any generally recommended international
minimum standards, whether subregional, regional or global.

4. In taking such measures the coastal State shall take into consideration the
effects on species associated with or dependent upon harvested species with a
view to maintaining or restoring populations of such associated or dependent
species above levels at which their reproduction may become seriously
threatened.

5. Available scientific information, catch and fishing effort statistics, and other
data relevant to the conservation of fish stocks shall be contributed and
exchanged on a regular basis through competent international organizations,
whether subregional, regional or global, where appropriate and with
participation by all States concerned, including States whose nationals are
allowed to fish in the exclusive economic zone.

Article 62 - Utilization of the living resources

1. The coastal State shall promote the objective of optimum utilization of the
living resources in the exclusive economic zone without prejudice to article 61.

2. The coastal State shall determine its capacity to harvest the living resources of
the exclusive economic zone. Where the coastal State does not have the capacity
to harvest the entire allowable catch, it shall, through agreements or other
arrangements and pursuant to the terms, conditions, laws and regulations
referred to in paragraph 4, give other States access to the surplus of the
allowable catch, having particular regard to the provisions of articles 69 and
70, especially in relation to the developing States mentioned therein.

3. In giving access to other States to its exclusive economic zone under this
article, the coastal State shall take into account all relevant factors, including,
inter alia, the significance of the living resources of the area to the economy of
the coastal State concerned and its other national interests, the provisions of
articles 69 and 70, the requirements of developing States in the subregion or

region in harvesting part of the surplus and the need to minimize economic
dislocation in States whose nationals have habitually fished in the zone or
which have made substantial efforts in research and identification of stocks.

4. Nationals of other States fishing in the exclusive economic zone shall comply
with the conservation measures and with the other terms and conditions
established in the laws and regulations of the coastal State. These laws and
regulations shall be consistent with this Convention and may relate, inter alia,
to the following:

(a) licensing of fishermen, fishing vessels and equipment, including payment
of fees and other forms of remuneration, which, in the case of developing
coastal States, may consist of adequate compensation in the field of
financing, equipment and technology relating to the fishing industry;

(b) determining the species which may be caught, and fixing quotas of catch,
whether in relation to particular stocks or groups of stocks or catch per
vessel over a period of time or to the catch by nationals of any State
during a specified period;

(c) regulating seasons and areas of fishing, the types, sizes and amount of
gear, and the types, sizes and number of fishing vessels that may be used;

(d) fixing the age and size of fish and other species that may be caught;

(e) specifying information required of fishing vessels, including catch and
effort statistics and vessel position reports;

(f) requiring, under the authorization and control of the coastal State, the
conduct of specified fisheries research programmes and regulating the
conduct of such research, including the sampling of catches, disposition
of samples and reporting of associated scientific data;

(g) the placing of observers or trainees on board such vessels by the coastal
State;

(h) the landing of all or any part of the catch by such vessels in the ports of the
coastal State;

(i) terms and conditions relating to joint ventures or other cooperative
arrangements;

(j) requirements for the training of personnel and the transfer of fisheries
technology, including enhancement of the coastal State’s capability of
undertaking fisheries research;

(k) enforcement procedures.

5. Coastal States shall give due notice of conservation and management laws and
regulations.

28 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 29

3. (a) Fisheries for anadromous stocks shall be conducted only in waters
landward of the outer limits of exclusive economic zones, except in cases
where this provision would result in economic dislocation for a State
other than the State of origin. With respect to such fishing beyond the
outer limits of the exclusive economic zone, States concerned shall maintain
consultations with a view to achieving agreement on terms and conditions
of such fishing giving due regard to the conservation requirements and
the needs of the State of origin in respect of these stocks.

(b) The State of origin shall cooperate in minimizing economic dislocation in
such other States fishing these stocks, taking into account the normal
catch and the mode of operations of such States, and all the areas in which
such fishing has occurred.

(c) States referred to in subparagraph (b), participating by agreement with
the State of origin in measures to renew anadromous stocks, particularly
by expenditures for that purpose, shall be given special consideration by
the State of origin in the harvesting of stocks originating in its rivers.

(d) Enforcement of regulations regarding anadromous stocks beyond the
exclusive economic zone shall be by agreement between the State of
origin and the other States concerned.

4. In cases where anadromous stocks migrate into or through the waters landward
of the outer limits of the exclusive economic zone of a State other than the State
of origin, such State shall cooperate with the State of origin with regard to the
conservation and management of such stocks.

5. The State of origin of anadromous stocks and other States fishing these stocks
shall make arrangements for the implementation of the provisions of this
article, where appropriate, through regional organizations.

Article 67 - Catadromous species

1. A coastal State in whose waters catadromous species spend the greater part of
their life cycle shall have responsibility for the management of these species
and shall ensure the ingress and egress of migrating fish.

2. Harvesting of catadromous species shall be conducted only in waters landward
of the outer limits of exclusive economic zones. When conducted in exclusive
economic zones, harvesting shall be subject to this article and the other
provisions of this Convention concerning fishing in these zones.

3. In cases where catadromous fish migrate through the exclusive economic zone
of another State, whether as juvenile or maturing fish, the management, including
harvesting, of such fish shall be regulated by agreement between the State
mentioned in paragraph 1 and the other State concerned. Such agreement shall
ensure the rational management of the species and take into account the
responsibilities of the State mentioned in paragraph 1 for the maintenance of
these species.

Article 68 - Sedentary species

This Part does not apply to sedentary species as defined in article 77,
paragraph 4.

zone, has taken into account the need to minimize detrimental effects on fishing
communities and economic dislocation in States whose nationals have habitually
fished in the zone.

6. The above provisions are without prejudice to arrangements agreed upon in
subregions or regions where the coastal States may grant to geographically
disadvantaged States of the same subregion or region equal or preferential
rights for the exploitation of the living resources in the exclusive economic
zones.

Article 71 - Non-applicability of articles 69 and 70

The provisions of articles 69 and 70 do not apply in the case of a coastal State
whose economy is overwhelmingly dependent on the exploitation of the living
resources of its exclusive economic zone.

Article 72 - Restrictions on transfer of rights

1. Rights provided under articles 69 and 70 to exploit living resources shall not
be directly or indirectly transferred to third States or their nationals by lease or
licence, by establishing joint ventures or in any other manner which has the
effect of such transfer unless otherwise agreed by the States concerned.

2. The foregoing provision does not preclude the States concerned from obtaining
technical or financial assistance from third States or international organizations
in order to facilitate the exercise of the rights pursuant to articles 69 and 70,
provided that it does not have the effect referred to in paragraph 1.

Article 73 - Enforcement of laws and regulations of the coastal State

1. The coastal State may, in the exercise of its sovereign rights to explore, exploit,
conserve and manage the living resources in the exclusive economic zone, take
such measures, including boarding, inspection, arrest and judicial proceedings,
as may be necessary to ensure compliance with the laws and regulations
adopted by it in conformity with this Convention.

2. Arrested vessels and their crews shall be promptly released upon the posting
of reasonable bond or other security.

3. Coastal State penalties for violations of fisheries laws and regulations in the
exclusive economic zone may not include imprisonment, in the absence of
agreements to the contrary by the States concerned, or any other form of
corporal punishment.

4. In cases of arrest or detention of foreign vessels the coastal State shall promptly
notify the flag State, through appropriate channels, of the action taken and of
any penalties subsequently imposed.

Article 74 - Delimitation of the exclusive economic zone between
States with opposite or adjacent coasts

1. The delimitation of the exclusive economic zone between States with opposite
or adjacent coasts shall be effected by agreement on the basis of international
law, as referred to in Article 38 of the Statute of the International Court of
Justice, in order to achieve an equitable solution.

34 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 31

Article 69 - Right of land-locked States

1. Land-locked States shall have the right to participate, on an equitable basis, in
the exploitation of an appropriate part of the surplus of the living resources of
the exclusive economic zones of coastal States of the same subregion or
region, taking into account the relevant economic and geographical
circumstances of all the States concerned and in conformity with the provisions
of this article and of articles 61 and 62.

2. The terms and modalities of such participation shall be established by the
States concerned through bilateral, subregional or regional agreements taking
into account, inter alia:

(a) the need to avoid effects detrimental to fishing communities or fishing
industries of the coastal State;

(b) the extent to which the land-locked State, in accordance with the provisions
of this article, is participating or is entitled to participate under existing
bilateral, subregional or regional agreements in the exploitation of living
resources of the exclusive economic zones of other coastal States;

(c) the extent to which other land-locked States and geographically
disadvantaged States are participating in the exploitation of the living
resources of the exclusive economic zone of the coastal State and the
consequent need to avoid a particular burden for any single coastal State
or a part of it;

(d) the nutritional needs of the populations of the respective States.

3. When the harvesting capacity of a coastal State approaches a point which
would enable it to harvest the entire allowable catch of the living resources in
its exclusive economic zone, the coastal State and other States concerned shall
cooperate in the establishment of equitable arrangements on a bilateral,
subregional or regional basis to allow for participation of developing land-
locked States of the same subregion or region in the exploitation of the living
resources of the exclusive economic zones of coastal States of the subregion or
region, as may be appropriate in the circumstances and on terms satisfactory to
all parties. In the implementation of this provision the factors mentioned in
paragraph 2 shall also be taken into account.

4. Developed land-locked States shall, under the provisions of this article, be
entitled to participate in the exploitation of living resources only in the exclusive
economic zones of developed coastal States of the same subregion or region
having regard to the extent to which the coastal State, in giving access to other
States to the living resources of its exclusive economic zone, has taken into
account the need to minimize detrimental effects on fishing communities and
economic dislocation in States whose nationals have habitually fished in the
zone.

5. The above provisions are without prejudice to arrangements agreed upon in
subregions or regions where the coastal States may grant to land-locked States
of the same subregion or region equal or preferential rights for the exploitation
of the living resources in the exclusive economic zones.

Article 70 - Right of geographically disadvantaged States

1. Geographically disadvantaged States shall have the right to participate, on an
equitable basis, in the exploitation of an appropriate part of the surplus of the
living resources of the exclusive economic zones of coastal States of the same
subregion or region, taking into account the relevant economic and geographical
circumstances of all the States concerned and in conformity with the provisions
of this article and of articles 61 and 62.

2. For the purposes of this Part, “geographically disadvantaged States” means
coastal States, including States bordering enclosed or semi-enclosed seas,
whose geographical situation makes them dependent upon the exploitation of
the living resources of the exclusive economic zones of other States in the
subregion or region for adequate supplies of fish for the nutritional purposes
of their populations or parts thereof, and coastal States which can claim no
exclusive economic zones of their own.

3. The terms and modalities of such participation shall be established by the
States concerned through bilateral, subregional or regional agreements taking
into account, inter alia:

(a) the need to avoid effects detrimental to fishing communities or fishing
industries of the coastal State;

(b) the extent to which the geographically disadvantaged State, in accordance
with the provisions of this article, is participating or is entitled to participate
under existing bilateral, subregional or regional agreements in the
exploitation of living resources of the exclusive economic zones of other
coastal States;

(c) the extent to which other geographically disadvantaged States and land-
locked States are participating in the exploitation of the living resources
of the exclusive economic zone of the coastal State and the consequent
need to avoid a particular burden for any single coastal State or a part of it;

(d) the nutritional needs of the populations of the respective States.

4. When the harvesting capacity of a coastal State approaches a point which
would enable it to harvest the entire allowable catch of the living resources in
its exclusive economic zone, the coastal State and other States concerned shall
cooperate in the establishment of equitable arrangements on a bilateral,
subregional or regional basis to allow for participation of developing
geographically disadvantaged States of the same subregion or region in the
exploitation of the living resources of the exclusive economic zones of coastal
States of the subregion or region, as may be appropriate in the circumstances
and on terms satisfactory to all parties. In the implementation of this provision
the factors mentioned in paragraph 3 shall also be taken into account.

5. Developed geographically disadvantaged States shall, under the provisions of
this article, be entitled to participate in the exploitation of living resources only
in the exclusive economic zones of developed coastal States of the same
subregion or region having regard to the extent to which the coastal State, in
giving access to other States to the living resources of its exclusive economic

32 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 33

2. If no agreement can be reached within a reasonable period of time, the States
concerned shall resort to the procedures provided for in Part XV.

3. Pending agreement as provided for in paragraph 1, the States concerned, in a
spirit of understanding and cooperation, shall make every effort to enter into
provisional arrangements of a practical nature and, during this transitional
period, not to jeopardize or hamper the reaching of the final agreement. Such
arrangements shall be without prejudice to the final delimitation.

4. Where there is an agreement in force between the States concerned, questions
relating to the delimitation of the exclusive economic zone shall be determined
in accordance with the provisions of that agreement.

Article 75 - Charts and lists of geographical coordinates

1. Subject to this Part, the outer limit lines of the exclusive economic zone and the
lines of delimitation drawn in accordance with article 74 shall be shown on
charts of a scale or scales adequate for ascertaining their position. Where
appropriate, lists of geographical coordinates of points, specifying the geodetic
datum, may be substituted for such outer limit lines or lines of delimitation.

2. The coastal State shall give due publicity to such charts or lists of geographical
coordinates and shall deposit a copy of each such chart or list with the Secretary-
General of the United Nations.

SCHEDULE 4
PART VI OF THE LAW OF THE SEA CONVENTION

CONTINENTAL SHELF

ARTICLE 76 - DEFINITION OF THE CONTINENTAL SHELF

4. (a) For the purposes of this Convention, the coastal State shall establish the
outer edge of the continental margin wherever the margin extends beyond
200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the
territorial sea is measured, by either:

(i) a line delineated in accordance with paragraph 7 by reference to the
outermost fixed points at each of which the thickness of sedimentary
rocks is at least 1 per cent of the shortest distance from such point to
the foot of the continental slope; or

(ii) a line delineated in accordance with paragraph 7 by reference to
fixed points not more than 60 nautical miles from the foot of the
continental slope.

(b) In the absence of evidence to the contrary, the foot of the continental slope
shall be determined as the point of maximum change in the gradient at its
base.

5. The fixed points comprising the line of the outer limits of the continental shelf
on the seabed, drawn in accordance with paragraph 4 (a)(i) and (ii), either shall
not exceed 350 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the
territorial sea is measured or shall not exceed 100 nautical miles from the 2,500
metre isobath, which is a line connecting the depth of 2,500 metres.

3. A developing State which is a net importer of a mineral resource produced
from its continental shelf is exempt from making such payments or contributions
in respect of that mineral resource.

4. The payments or contributions shall be made through the Authority, which
shall distribute them to States Parties to this Convention, on the basis of
equitable sharing criteria, taking into account the interests and needs of
developing States, particularly the least developed and the land-locked among
them.

Article 83 - Delimitation of the continental shelf between States with
opposite or adjacent coasts

1. The delimitation of the continental shelf between States with opposite or
adjacent coasts shall be effected by agreement on the basis of international law,
as referred to in Article 38 of the Statute of the International Court of Justice,
in order to achieve an equitable solution.

2. If no agreement can be reached within a reasonable period of time, the States
concerned shall resort to the procedures provided for in Part XV.

3. Pending agreement as provided for in paragraph 1, the States concerned, in a
spirit of understanding and cooperation, shall make every effort to enter into
provisional arrangements of a practical nature and, during this transitional
period, not to jeopardize or hamper the reaching of the final agreement. Such
arrangements shall be without prejudice to the final delimitation.

4. Where there is an agreement in force between the States concerned, questions
relating to the delimitation of the continental shelf shall be determined in
accordance with the provisions of that agreement.

Article 84 - Charts and lists of geographical coordinates

1. Subject to this Part, the outer limit lines of the continental shelf and the lines of
delimitation drawn in accordance with article 83 shall be shown on charts of a
scale or scales adequate for ascertaining their position. Where appropriate, lists
of geographical coordinates of points, specifying the geodetic datum, may be
substituted for such outer limit lines or lines of delimitation.

2. The coastal State shall give due publicity to such charts or lists of geographical
coordinates and shall deposit a copy of each such chart or list with the Secretary-
General of the United Nations and, in the case of those showing the outer limit
lines of the continental shelf, with the Secretary-General of the Authority.

Article 85 - tunnel

This Part does not prejudice the right of the coastal State to exploit the subsoil
by means of tunnelling, irrespective of the depth of water above the subsoil.

38 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 35

6. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 5, on submarine ridges, the outer
limit of the continental shelf shall not exceed 350 nautical miles from the
baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured. This
paragraph does not apply to submarine elevations that are natural components
of the continental margin, such as its plateaux, rises, caps, banks and spurs.

7. The coastal State shall delineate the outer limits of its continental shelf, where
that shelf extends beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the
breadth of the territorial sea is measured, by straight lines not exceeding 60
nautical miles in length, connecting fixed points, defined by coordinates of
latitude and longitude.

8. Information on the limits of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles
from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured
shall be submitted by the coastal State to the Commission on the Limits of the
Continental Shelf set up under Annex II on the basis of equitable geographical
representation. The Commission shall make recommendations to coastal States
on matters related to the establishment of the outer limits of their continental
shelf. The limits of the shelf established by a coastal State on the basis of these
recommendations shall be final and binding.

9. The coastal State shall deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations
charts and relevant information, including geodetic data, permanently describing
the outer limits of its continental shelf. The Secretary-General shall give due
publicity thereto.

10. The provisions of this article are without prejudice to the question of delimitation
of the continental shelf between States with opposite or adjacent coasts.

Article 77 - Rights of the coastal State over the continental shelf

1. The coastal State exercises over the continental shelf sovereign rights for the
purpose of exploring it and exploiting its natural resources.

2. The rights referred to in paragraph 1 are exclusive in the sense that if the coastal
State does not explore the continental shelf or exploit its natural resources, no
one may undertake these activities without the express consent of the coastal
State.

3. The rights of the coastal State over the continental shelf do not depend on
occupation, effective or notional, or on any express proclamation.

4. The natural resources referred to in this Part consist of the mineral and other
non-living resources of the seabed and subsoil together with living organisms
belonging to sedentary species, that is to say, organisms which, at the harvestable
stage, either are immobile on or under the seabed or are unable to move except
in constant physical contact with the seabed or the subsoil.

Article 78 - Legal status of the superjacent waters and air space
and the rights and freedoms of other States

1. The rights of the coastal State over the continental shelf do not affect the legal
status of the superjacent waters or of the air space above those waters.

2. The exercise of the rights of the coastal State over the continental shelf must
not infringe or result in any unjustifiable interference with navigation and other
rights and freedoms of other States as provided for in this Convention.

Article 79 - Submarine cables and pipelines on the continental shelf

1. All States are entitled to lay submarine cables and pipelines on the continental
shelf, in accordance with the provisions of this article.

2. Subject to its right to take reasonable measures for the exploration of the
continental shelf, the exploitation of its natural resources and the prevention,
reduction and control of pollution from pipelines, the coastal State may not
impede the laying or maintenance of such cables or pipelines.

3. The delineation of the course for the laying of such pipelines on the continental
shelf is subject to the consent of the coastal State.

4. Nothing in this Part affects the right of the coastal State to establish conditions
for cables or pipelines entering its territory or territorial sea, or its jurisdiction
over cables and pipelines constructed or used in connection with the exploration
of its continental shelf or exploitation of its resources or the operations of
artificial islands, installations and structures under its jurisdiction.

5. When laying submarine cables or pipelines, States shall have due regard to
cables or pipelines already in position. In particular, possibilities of repairing
existing cables or pipelines shall not be prejudiced.

Article 80 - Artificial islands, installations and structures
on the continental shelf

Article 60 applies mutatis mutandis to artificial islands, installations and
structures on the continental shelf.

Article 81 - Drilling on the continental shelf

The coastal State shall have the exclusive right to authorize and regulate drilling
on the continental shelf for all purposes.

Article 82 - Payments and contributions with respect to the
exploitation of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles

1. The coastal State shall make payments or contributions in kind in respect of the
exploitation of the non-living resources of the continental shelf beyond 200
nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is
measured.

2. The payments and contributions shall be made annually with respect to all
production at a site after the first five years of production at that site. For the
sixth year, the rate of payment or contribution shall be 1 per cent of the value
or volume of production at the site. The rate shall increase by 1 per cent for
each subsequent year until the twelfth year and shall remain at 7 per cent
thereafter. Production does not include resources used in connection with
exploitation.

36 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 37

SCHEDULE 5

UNESCO CONVENTION ON THE PROTECTION OF THE
UNDERWATER CULTURAL HERITAGE (2001)

CONVENTION ON THE PROTECTION OF THE UNDERWATER
CULTURAL HERITAGE

UNESCO
Paris, 2 November 2001
CONVENTION ON THE
PROTECTION OF THE UNDERWATER CULTURAL HERITAGE

The General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization, meeting in Paris from 15 October to 3 November 2001,
at its 31st session,

Acknowledging the importance of underwater cultural heritage as an integral
part of the cultural heritage of humanity and a particularly important element in
the history of peoples, nations, and their relations with each other concerning
their common heritage,

Realizing the importance of protecting and preserving the underwater cultural
heritage and that responsibility therefor rests with all States,

Noting growing public interest in and public appreciation of underwater cultural
heritage,

Convinced of the importance of research, information and education to the
protection and preservation of underwater cultural heritage,

Convinced of the public’s right to enjoy the educational and recreational benefits
of responsible non-intrusive access to in situ underwater cultural heritage, and
of the value of public education to contribute to awareness, appreciation and
protection of that heritage,

Aware of the fact that underwater cultural heritage is threatened by unauthorized
activities directed at it, and of the need for stronger measures to prevent such
activities,

Conscious of the need to respond appropriately to the possible negative impact
on underwater cultural heritage of legitimate activities that may incidentally
affect it,

Deeply concerned by the increasing commercial exploitation of underwater
cultural heritage, and in particular by certain activities aimed at the sale,
acquisition or barter of underwater cultural heritage,

Aware of the availability of advanced technology that enhances discovery of
and access to underwater cultural heritage,

Believing that cooperation among States, international organizations, scientific
institutions, professional organizations, archaeologists, divers, other interested
parties and the public at large is essential for the protection of underwater
cultural heritage,

9. States Parties shall ensure that proper respect is given to all human remains
located in maritime waters.

10. Responsible non-intrusive access to observe or document in situ underwater
cultural heritage shall be encouraged to create public awareness, appreciation,
and protection of the heritage except where such access is incompatible with its
protection and management.

11. No act or activity undertaken on the basis of this Convention shall constitute
grounds for claiming, contending or disputing any claim to national sovereignty
or jurisdiction.

Article 3 – Relationship between this Convention and the
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

Nothing in this Convention shall prejudice the rights, jurisdiction and duties of
States under international law, including the United Nations Convention on
the Law of the Sea. This Convention shall be interpreted and applied in the
context of and in a manner consistent with international law, including the
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.

Article 4 - Relationship to law of salvage and law of finds

Any activity relating to underwater cultural heritage to which this Convention
applies shall not be subject to the law of salvage or law of finds, unless it:

(a) is authorized by the competent authorities, and

(b) is in full conformity with this Convention, and

(c) ensures that any recovery of the underwater cultural heritage achieves its
maximum protection.

Article 5 - Activities incidentally affecting underwater cultural heritage

Each State Party shall use the best practicable means at its disposal to prevent
or mitigate any adverse effects that might arise from activities under its
jurisdiction incidentally affecting underwater cultural heritage.

Article 6 - Bilateral, regional or other multilateral agreements

1. States Parties are encouraged to enter into bilateral, regional or other multilateral
agreements or develop existing agreements, for the preservation of underwater
cultural heritage. All such agreements shall be in full conformity with the
provisions of this Convention and shall not dilute its universal character.
States may, in such agreements, adopt rules and regulations which would
ensure better protection of underwater cultural heritage than those adopted in
this Convention.

2. The Parties to such bilateral, regional or other multilateral agreements may
invite States with a verifiable link, especially a cultural, historical or
archaeological link, to the underwater cultural heritage concerned to join such
agreements.

42 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 39

Considering that survey, excavation and protection of underwater cultural
heritage necessitate the availability and application of special scientific methods
and the use of suitable techniques and equipment as well as a high degree of
professional specialization, all of which indicate a need for uniform governing
criteria,

Realizing the need to codify and progressively develop rules relating to the
protection and preservation of underwater cultural heritage in conformity with
international law and practice, including the UNESCO Convention on the
Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of
Ownership of Cultural Property of 14 November 1970, the UNESCO
Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage of
16 November 1972 and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
of 10 December 1982,

Committed to improving the effectiveness of measures at international, regional
and national levels for the preservation in situ or, if necessary for scientific or
protective purposes, the careful recovery of underwater cultural heritage,

Having decided at its twenty-ninth session that this question should be made
the subject of an international convention,

Adopts this second day of November 2001 this Convention.

Article 1 – Definitions

For the purposes of this Convention:

1. (a) “Underwater cultural heritage” means all traces of human existence having
a cultural, historical or archaeological character which have been partially
or totally under water, periodically or continuously, for at least 100 years
such as:

(i) sites, structures, buildings, artefacts and human remains, together
with their archaeological and natural context;

(ii) vessels, aircraft, other vehicles or any part thereof, their cargo or other
contents, together with their archaeological and natural context; and

(iii) objects of prehistoric character.

(b) Pipelines and cables placed on the seabed shall not be considered as
underwater cultural heritage.

(c) Installations other than pipelines and cables, placed on the seabed and still
in use, shall not be considered as underwater cultural heritage.

2. (a) “States Parties” means States which have consented to be bound by this
Convention and for which this Convention is in force.

(b) This Convention applies mutatis mutandis to those territories referred to
in Article 26, paragraph 2(b), which become Parties to this Convention in
accordance with the conditions set out in that paragraph, and to that extent
“States Parties” refers to those territories.

3. “UNESCO” means the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization.

4. “Director-General” means the Director-General of UNESCO.

5. “Area” means the seabed and ocean floor and subsoil thereof, beyond the
limits of national jurisdiction.

6. “Activities directed at underwater cultural heritage” means activities having
underwater cultural heritage as their primary object and which may, directly or
indirectly, physically disturb or otherwise damage underwater cultural heritage.

7. “Activities incidentally affecting underwater cultural heritage” means activities
which, despite not having underwater cultural heritage as their primary object
or one of their objects, may physically disturb or otherwise damage underwater
cultural heritage.

8. “State vessels and aircraft” means warships, and other vessels or aircraft that
were owned or operated by a State and used, at the time of sinking, only for
government non-commercial purposes, that are identified as such and that
meet the definition of underwater cultural heritage.

9. “Rules” means the Rules concerning activities directed at underwater cultural
heritage, as referred to in Article 33 of this Convention.

Article 2 – Objectives and general principles

1. This Convention aims to ensure and strengthen the protection of underwater
cultural heritage.

2. States Parties shall cooperate in the protection of underwater cultural heritage.

3. States Parties shall preserve underwater cultural heritage for the benefit of
humanity in conformity with the provisions of this Convention.

4. States Parties shall, individually or jointly as appropriate, take all appropriate
measures in conformity with this Convention and with international law that
are necessary to protect underwater cultural heritage, using for this purpose the
best practicable means at their disposal and in accordance with their capabilities.

5. The preservation in situ of underwater cultural heritage shall be considered as
the first option before allowing or engaging in any activities directed at this
heritage.

6. Recovered underwater cultural heritage shall be deposited, conserved and
managed in a manner that ensures its long-term preservation.

7. Underwater cultural heritage shall not be commercially exploited.

8. Consistent with State practice and international law, including the United
Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, nothing in this Convention shall be
interpreted as modifying the rules of international law and State practice
pertaining to sovereign immunities, nor any State’s rights with respect to its
State vessels and aircraft.

40 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 41

3. This Convention shall not alter the rights and obligations of States Parties
regarding the protection of sunken vessels, arising from other bilateral, regional
or other multilateral agreements concluded before its adoption, and, in particular,
those that are in conformity with the purposes of this Convention.

Article 7 - Underwater cultural heritage in internal waters,
archipelagic waters and territorial sea

1. States Parties, in the exercise of their sovereignty, have the exclusive right to
regulate and authorize activities directed at underwater cultural heritage in their
internal waters, archipelagic waters and territorial sea.

2. Without prejudice to other international agreements and rules of international
law regarding the protection of underwater cultural heritage, States Parties
shall require that the Rules be applied to activities directed at underwater
cultural heritage in their internal waters, archipelagic waters and territorial sea.

3. Within their archipelagic waters and territorial sea, in the exercise of their
sovereignty and in recognition of general practice among States, States Parties,
with a view to cooperating on the best methods of protecting State vessels and
aircraft, should inform the flag State Party to this Convention and, if applicable,
other States with a verifiable link, especially a cultural, historical or archaeological
link, with respect to the discovery of such identifiable State vessels and aircraft.

Article 8 - Underwater cultural heritage in the contiguous zone

Without prejudice to and in addition to Articles 9 and 10, and in accordance
with Article 303, paragraph 2, of the United Nations Convention on the Law
of the Sea, States Parties may regulate and authorize activities directed at
underwater cultural heritage within their contiguous zone. In so doing, they
shall require that the Rules be applied.

Article 9 - Reporting and notification in the exclusive economic
zone and on the continental shelf

1. All States Parties have a responsibility to protect underwater cultural heritage
in the exclusive economic zone and on the continental shelf in conformity with
this Convention.

Accordingly:

(a) a State Party shall require that when its national, or a vessel flying its flag,
discovers or intends to engage in activities directed at underwater cultural
heritage located in its exclusive economic zone or on its continental shelf,
the national or the master of the vessel shall report such discovery or
activity to it;

(b) in the exclusive economic zone or on the continental shelf of another State
Party:

(i) States Parties shall require the national or the master of the vessel to
report such discovery or activity to them and to that other State
Party;

cultural heritage concerned, particular regard being paid to the preferential
rights of States of cultural, historical or archaeological origin.

Article 12 - Protection of underwater cultural heritage in the Area

1. No authorization shall be granted for any activity directed at underwater cultural
heritage located in the Area except in conformity with the provisions of this
Article.

2. The Director-General shall invite all States Parties which have declared an
interest under Article 11, paragraph 4, to consult on how best to protect the
underwater cultural heritage, and to appoint a State Party to coordinate such
consultations as the “Coordinating State”. The Director-General shall also
invite the International Seabed Authority to participate in such consultations.

3. All States Parties may take all practicable measures in conformity with this
Convention, if necessary prior to consultations, to prevent any immediate
danger to the underwater cultural heritage, whether arising from human activity
or any other cause including looting.

4. The Coordinating State shall:

(a) implement measures of protection which have been agreed by the
consulting States, which include the Coordinating State, unless the
consulting States, which include the Coordinating State, agree that another
State Party shall implement those measures; and

(b) issue all necessary authorizations for such agreed measures, in conformity
with this Convention, unless the consulting States, which include the
Coordinating State, agree that another State Party shall issue those
authorizations.

5. The Coordinating State may conduct any necessary preliminary research on
the underwater cultural heritage and shall issue all necessary authorizations
therefor, and shall promptly inform the Director-General of the results, who in
turn shall make such information available to other States Parties.

6. In coordinating consultations, taking measures, conducting preliminary research,
and/or issuing authorizations pursuant to this Article, the Coordinating State
shall act for the benefit of humanity as a whole, on behalf of all States Parties.
Particular regard shall be paid to the preferential rights of States of cultural,
historical or archaeological origin in respect of the underwater cultural heritage
concerned.

7. No State Party shall undertake or authorize activities directed at State vessels
and aircraft in the Area without the consent of the flag State.

Article 13 - Sovereign immunity

Warships and other government ships or military aircraft with sovereign
immunity, operated for non-commercial purposes, undertaking their normal
mode of operations, and not engaged in activities directed at underwater cultural
heritage, shall not be obliged to report discoveries of underwater cultural
heritage under Articles 9, 10, 11 and 12 of this Convention. However States

46 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 43

(ii) alternatively, a State Party shall require the national or master of the
vessel to report such discovery or activity to it and shall ensure the
rapid and effective transmission of such reports to all other States
Parties.

2. On depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession,
a State Party shall declare the manner in which reports will be transmitted
under paragraph 1(b) of this Article.

3. A State Party shall notify the Director-General of discoveries or activities
reported to it under paragraph 1 of this Article.

4. The Director-General shall promptly make available to all States Parties any
information notified to him under paragraph 3 of this Article.

5. Any State Party may declare to the State Party in whose exclusive economic
zone or on whose continental shelf the underwater cultural heritage is located
its interest in being consulted on how to ensure the effective protection of that
underwater cultural heritage. Such declaration shall be based on a verifiable
link, especially a cultural, historical or archaeological link, to the underwater
cultural heritage concerned.

Article 10 - Protection of underwater cultural heritage in the
exclusive economic zone and on the continental shelf

1. No authorization shall be granted for an activity directed at underwater cultural
heritage located in the exclusive economic zone or on the continental shelf
except in conformity with the provisions of this Article.

2. A State Party in whose exclusive economic zone or on whose continental shelf
underwater cultural heritage is located has the right to prohibit or authorize any
activity directed at such heritage to prevent interference with its sovereign
rights or jurisdiction as provided for by international law including the United
Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.

3. Where there is a discovery of underwater cultural heritage or it is intended that
activity shall be directed at underwater cultural heritage in a State Party’s
exclusive economic zone or on its continental shelf, that State Party shall:

(a) consult all other States Parties which have declared an interest under
Article 9, paragraph 5, on how best to protect the underwater cultural
heritage;

(b) coordinate such consultations as “Coordinating State”, unless it expressly
declares that it does not wish to do so, in which case the States Parties
which have declared an interest under Article 9, paragraph 5, shall appoint
a Coordinating State.

4. Without prejudice to the duty of all States Parties to protect underwater cultural
heritage by way of all practicable measures taken in accordance with
international law to prevent immediate danger to the underwater cultural heritage,
including looting, the Coordinating State may take all practicable measures,
and/or issue any necessary authorizations in conformity with this Convention

and, if necessary prior to consultations, to prevent any immediate danger to the
underwater cultural heritage, whether arising from human activities or any
other cause, including looting. In taking such measures assistance may be
requested from other States Parties.

5. The Coordinating State:

(a) shall implement measures of protection which have been agreed by the
consulting States, which include the Coordinating State, unless the
consulting States, which include the Coordinating State, agree that another
State Party shall implement those measures;

(b) shall issue all necessary authorizations for such agreed measures in
conformity with the Rules, unless the consulting States, which include
the Coordinating State, agree that another State Party shall issue those
authorizations;

(c) may conduct any necessary preliminary research on the underwater cultural
heritage and shall issue all necessary authorizations therefor, and shall
promptly inform the Director-General of the results, who in turn will
make such information promptly available to other States Parties.

6. In coordinating consultations, taking measures, conducting preliminary research
and/or issuing authorizations pursuant to this Article, the Coordinating State
shall act on behalf of the States Parties as a whole and not in its own interest.
Any such action shall not in itself constitute a basis for the assertion of any
preferential or jurisdictional rights not provided for in international law, including
the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.

7. Subject to the provisions of paragraphs 2 and 4 of this Article, no activity
directed at State vessels and aircraft shall be conducted without the agreement
of the flag State and the collaboration of the Coordinating State.

Article 11 - Reporting and notification in the Area

1. States Parties have a responsibility to protect underwater cultural heritage in
the Area in conformity with this Convention and Article 149 of the United
Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Accordingly when a national, or a
vessel flying the flag of a State Party, discovers or intends to engage in
activities directed at underwater cultural heritage located in the Area, that State
Party shall require its national, or the master of the vessel, to report such
discovery or activity to it.

2. States Parties shall notify the Director-General and the Secretary-General of
the International Seabed Authority of such discoveries or activities reported to
them.

3. The Director-General shall promptly make available to all States Parties any
such information supplied by States Parties.

4. Any State Party may declare to the Director-General its interest in being
consulted on how to ensure the effective protection of that underwater cultural
heritage. Such declaration shall be based on a verifiable link to the underwater

44 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 45

Parties shall ensure, by the adoption of appropriate measures not impairing the
operations or operational capabilities of their warships or other government
ships or military aircraft with sovereign immunity operated for non-commercial
purposes, that they comply, as far as is reasonable and practicable, with
Articles 9, 10, 11 and 12 of this Convention.

Article 14 - Control of entry into the territory, dealing and possession

States Parties shall take measures to prevent the entry into their territory, the
dealing in, or the possession of, underwater cultural heritage illicitly exported
and/or recovered, where recovery was contrary to this Convention.

Article 15 - Non-use of areas under the jurisdiction of States Parties

States Parties shall take measures to prohibit the use of their territory, including
their maritime ports, as well as artificial islands, installations and structures
under their exclusive jurisdiction or control, in support of any activity directed
at underwater cultural heritage which is not in conformity with this Convention.

Article 16 - Measures relating to nationals and vessels

States Parties shall take all practicable measures to ensure that their nationals
and vessels flying their flag do not engage in any activity directed at underwater
cultural heritage in a manner not in conformity with this Convention.

Article 17 - Sanctions

1. Each State Party shall impose sanctions for violations of measures it has taken
to implement this Convention.

2. Sanctions applicable in respect of violations shall be adequate in severity to be
effective in securing compliance with this Convention and to discourage
violations wherever they occur and shall deprive offenders of the benefit
deriving from their illegal activities.

3. States Parties shall cooperate to ensure enforcement of sanctions imposed
under this Article.

Article 18 - Seizure and disposition of underwater cultural heritage

1. Each State Party shall take measures providing for the seizure of underwater
cultural heritage in its territory that has been recovered in a manner not in
conformity with this Convention.

2. Each State Party shall record, protect and take all reasonable measures to
stabilize underwater cultural heritage seized under this Convention.

3. Each State Party shall notify the Director-General and any other State with a
verifiable link, especially a cultural, historical or archaeological link, to the
underwater cultural heritage concerned of any seizure of underwater cultural
heritage that it has made under this Convention.

4. A State Party which has seized underwater cultural heritage shall ensure that
its disposition be for the public benefit, taking into account the need for
conservation and research; the need for reassembly of a dispersed collection;

Party, when ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to this Convention, or
at any time thereafter, chooses another procedure pursuant to Article 287 for
the purpose of the settlement of disputes arising out of this Convention.

5. A State Party to this Convention which is not a Party to the United Nations
Convention on the Law of the Sea, when ratifying, accepting, approving or
acceding to this Convention or at any time thereafter shall be free to choose, by
means of a written declaration, one or more of the means set out in Article 287,
paragraph 1, of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea for the
purpose of settlement of disputes under this Article. Article 287 shall apply to
such a declaration, as well as to any dispute to which such State is party, which
is not covered by a declaration in force. For the purpose of conciliation and
arbitration, in accordance with Annexes V and VII of the United Nations
Convention on the Law of the Sea, such State shall be entitled to nominate
conciliators and arbitrators to be included in the lists referred to in Annex V,
Article 2, and Annex VII, Article 2, for the settlement of disputes arising out
of this Convention.

Article 26 - Ratification, acceptance, approval or accession

1. This Convention shall be subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by
Member States of UNESCO.

2. This Convention shall be subject to accession:

(a) by States that are not members of UNESCO but are members of the
United Nations or of a specialized agency within the United Nations
system or of the International Atomic Energy Agency, as well as by
States Parties to the Statute of the International Court of Justice and any
other State invited to accede to this Convention by the General Conference
of UNESCO;

(b) by territories which enjoy full internal self-government, recognized as
such by the United Nations, but have not attained full independence in
accordance with General Assembly resolution 1514 (XV) and which
have competence over the matters governed by this Convention, including
the competence to enter into treaties in respect of those matters.

3. The instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be
deposited with the Director-General.

Article 27 - Entry into force

This Convention shall enter into force three months after the date of the deposit
of the twentieth instrument referred to in Article 26, but solely with respect to
the twenty States or territories that have so deposited their instruments. It shall
enter into force for each other State or territory three months after the date on
which that State or territory has deposited its instrument.

50 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 47

the need for public access, exhibition and education; and the interests of any
State with a verifiable link, especially a cultural, historical or archaeological
link, in respect of the underwater cultural heritage concerned.

Article 19 - Cooperation and information-sharing

1. States Parties shall cooperate and assist each other in the protection and
management of underwater cultural heritage under this Convention, including,
where practicable, collaborating in the investigation, excavation, documentation,
conservation, study and presentation of such heritage.

2. To the extent compatible with the purposes of this Convention, each State
Party undertakes to share information with other States Parties concerning
underwater cultural heritage, including discovery of heritage, location of
heritage, heritage excavated or recovered contrary to this Convention or
otherwise in violation of international law, pertinent scientific methodology
and technology, and legal developments relating to such heritage.

3. Information shared between States Parties, or between UNESCO and States
Parties, regarding the discovery or location of underwater cultural heritage
shall, to the extent compatible with their national legislation, be kept confidential
and reserved to competent authorities of States Parties as long as the disclosure
of such information might endanger or otherwise put at risk the preservation of
such underwater cultural heritage.

4. Each State Party shall take all practicable measures to disseminate information,
including where feasible through appropriate international databases, about
underwater cultural heritage excavated or recovered contrary to this Convention
or otherwise in violation of international law.

Article 20 - Public awareness

Each State Party shall take all practicable measures to raise public awareness
regarding the value and significance of underwater cultural heritage and the
importance of protecting it under this Convention.

Article 21 - Training in underwater archaeology

States Parties shall cooperate in the provision of training in underwater
archaeology, in techniques for the conservation of underwater cultural heritage
and, on agreed terms, in the transfer of technology relating to underwater
cultural heritage.

Article 22 - Competent authorities

1. In order to ensure the proper implementation of this Convention, States Parties
shall establish competent authorities or reinforce the existing ones where
appropriate, with the aim of providing for the establishment, maintenance and
updating of an inventory of underwater cultural heritage, the effective protection,
conservation, presentation and management of underwater cultural heritage, as
well as research and education.

2. States Parties shall communicate to the Director-General the names and
addresses of their competent authorities relating to underwater cultural heritage.

Article 23 - Meetings of States Parties

1. The Director-General shall convene a Meeting of States Parties within one
year of the entry into force of this Convention and thereafter at least once every
two years. At the request of a majority of States Parties, the Director-General
shall convene an Extraordinary Meeting of States Parties.

2. The Meeting of States Parties shall decide on its functions and responsibilities.

3. The Meeting of States Parties shall adopt its own Rules of Procedure.

4. The Meeting of States Parties may establish a Scientific and Technical Advisory
Body composed of experts nominated by the States Parties with due regard to
the principle of equitable geographical distribution and the desirability of a
gender balance.

5. The Scientific and Technical Advisory Body shall appropriately assist the
Meeting of States Parties in questions of a scientific or technical nature regarding
the implementation of the Rules.

Article 24 - Secretariat for this Convention

1. The Director-General shall be responsible for the functions of the Secretariat
for this Convention.

2. The duties of the Secretariat shall include:

(a) organizing Meetings of States Parties as provided for in Article 23,
paragraph 1; and

(b) assisting States Parties in implementing the decisions of the Meetings of
States Parties.

Article 25 - Peaceful settlement of disputes

1. Any dispute between two or more States Parties concerning the interpretation
or application of this Convention shall be subject to negotiations in good faith
or other peaceful means of settlement of their own choice.

2. If those negotiations do not settle the dispute within a reasonable period of
time, it may be submitted to UNESCO for mediation, by agreement between
the States Parties concerned.

3. If mediation is not undertaken or if there is no settlement by mediation, the
provisions relating to the settlement of disputes set out in Part XV of the
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea apply mutatis mutandis to
any dispute between States Parties to this Convention concerning the
interpretation or application of this Convention, whether or not they are also
Parties to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.

4. Any procedure chosen by a State Party to this Convention and to the United
Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea pursuant to Article 287 of the latter
shall apply to the settlement of disputes under this Article, unless that State

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Article 28 - Declaration as to inland waters

When ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to this Convention or at any
time thereafter, any State or territory may declare that the Rules shall apply to
inland waters not of a maritime character.

Article 29 - Limitations to geographical scope

At the time of ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to this Convention,
a State or territory may make a declaration to the depositary that this Convention
shall not be applicable to specific parts of its territory, internal waters,
archipelagic waters or territorial sea, and shall identify therein the reasons for
such declaration. Such State shall, to the extent practicable and as quickly as
possible, promote conditions under which this Convention will apply to the
areas specified in its declaration, and to that end shall also withdraw its declaration
in whole or in part as soon as that has been achieved.

Article 30 - Reservations

With the exception of Article 29, no reservations may be made to this
Convention.

Article 31 - Amendments

1. A State Party may, by written communication addressed to the Director-
General, propose amendments to this Convention. The Director-General shall
circulate such communication to all States Parties. If, within six months from
the date of the circulation of the communication, not less than one half of the
States Parties reply favourably to the request, the Director-General shall present
such proposal to the next Meeting of States Parties for discussion and possible
adoption.

2. Amendments shall be adopted by a two-thirds majority of States Parties present
and voting.

3. Once adopted, amendments to this Convention shall be subject to ratification,
acceptance, approval or accession by the States Parties.

4. Amendments shall enter into force, but solely with respect to the States Parties
that have ratified, accepted, approved or acceded to them, three months after
the deposit of the instruments referred to in paragraph 3 of this Article by two
thirds of the States Parties. Thereafter, for each State or territory that ratifies,
accepts, approves or accedes to it, the amendment shall enter into force three
months after the date of deposit by that Party of its instrument of ratification,
acceptance, approval or accession.

5. A State or territory which becomes a Party to this Convention after the entry
into force of amendments in conformity with paragraph 4 of this Article shall,
failing an expression of different intention by that State or territory, be considered:

(a) as a Party to this Convention as so amended; and

(b) as a Party to the unamended Convention in relation to any State Party not
bound by the amendment.

(e) an expected timetable for completion of the project;

(f) the composition of the team and the qualifications,
responsibilities and experience of each team member;

(g) plans for post-fieldwork analysis and other activities;

(h) a conservation programme for artefacts and the site in close
cooperation with the competent authorities;

(i) a site management and maintenance policy for the whole duration
of the project;

(j) a documentation programme;

(k) a safety policy;

(l) an environmental policy;

(m) arrangements for collaboration with museums and other
institutions, in particular scientific institutions;

(n) report preparation;

(o) deposition of archives, including underwater cultural heritage
removed; and

(p) a programme for publication.

Rule 11. Activities directed at underwater cultural heritage shall be carried
out in accordance with the project design approved by the competent
authorities.

Rule 12. Where unexpected discoveries are made or circumstances change,
the project design shall be reviewed and amended with the approval
of the competent authorities.

Rule 13. In cases of urgency or chance discoveries, activities directed at the
underwater cultural heritage, including conservation measures or
activities for a period of short duration, in particular site stabilization,
may be authorized in the absence of a project design in order to
protect the underwater cultural heritage.

III. Preliminary work

Rule 14. The preliminary work referred to in Rule 10 (a) shall include an
assessment that evaluates the significance and vulnerability of the
underwater cultural heritage and the surrounding natural environment
to damage by the proposed project, and the potential to obtain data
that would meet the project objectives.

Rule 15. The assessment shall also include background studies of available
historical and archaeological evidence, the archaeological and
environmental characteristics of the site, and the consequences of
any potential intrusion for the long-term stability of the underwater
cultural heritage affected by the activities.

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Article 32 - Denunciation

1. A State Party may, by written notification addressed to the Director-General,
denounce this Convention.

2. The denunciation shall take effect twelve months after the date of receipt of the
notification, unless the notification specifies a later date.

3. The denunciation shall not in any way affect the duty of any State Party to fulfil
any obligation embodied in this Convention to which it would be subject under
international law independently of this Convention.

Article 33 - The Rules

The Rules annexed to this Convention form an integral part of it and, unless
expressly provided otherwise, a reference to this Convention includes a
reference to the Rules.

Article 34 - Registration with the United Nations

In conformity with Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations, this
Convention shall be registered with the Secretariat of the United Nations at the
request of the Director-General.

Article 35 - Authoritative texts

This Convention has been drawn up in Arabic, Chinese, English, French,
Russian and Spanish, the six texts being equally authoritative.

SCHEDULE 6

RULES CONCERNING ACTIVITIES DIRECTED AT
UNDERWATER CULTURAL HERITAGE

I. General principles

Rule 1. The protection of underwater cultural heritage through in situ
preservation shall be considered as the first option. Accordingly,
activities directed at underwater cultural heritage shall be authorized
in a manner consistent with the protection of that heritage, and
subject to that requirement may be authorized for the purpose of
making a significant contribution to protection or knowledge or
enhancement of underwater cultural heritage.

Rule 2. The commercial exploitation of underwater cultural heritage for trade
or speculation or its irretrievable dispersal is fundamentally
incompatible with the protection and proper management of
underwater cultural heritage. Underwater cultural heritage shall not
be traded, sold, bought or bartered as commercial goods.

This Rule cannot be interpreted as preventing:

(a) the provision of professional archaeological services or
necessary services incidental thereto whose nature and purpose

are in full conformity with this Convention and are subject to
the authorization of the competent authorities;

(b) the deposition of underwater cultural heritage, recovered in the
course of a research project in conformity with this Convention,
provided such deposition does not prejudice the scientific or
cultural interest or integrity of the recovered material or result
in its irretrievable dispersal; is in accordance with the provisions
of Rules 33 and 34; and is subject to the authorization of the
competent authorities.

Rule 3. Activities directed at underwater cultural heritage shall not adversely
affect the underwater cultural heritage more than is necessary for the
objectives of the project.

Rule 4. Activities directed at underwater cultural heritage must use non-
destructive techniques and survey methods in preference to recovery
of objects. If excavation or recovery is necessary for the purpose of
scientific studies or for the ultimate protection of the underwater
cultural heritage, the methods and techniques used must be as non-
destructive as possible and contribute to the preservation of the
remains.

Rule 5. Activities directed at underwater cultural heritage shall avoid the
unnecessary disturbance of human remains or venerated sites.

Rule 6. Activities directed at underwater cultural heritage shall be strictly
regulated to ensure proper recording of cultural, historical and
archaeological information.

Rule 7. Public access to in situ underwater cultural heritage shall be promoted,
except where such access is incompatible with protection and
management.

Rule 8. International cooperation in the conduct of activities directed at
underwater cultural heritage shall be encouraged in order to further
the effective exchange or use of archaeologists and other relevant
professionals.

II. Project design

Rule 9. Prior to any activity directed at underwater cultural heritage, a project
design for the activity shall be developed and submitted to the
competent authorities for authorization and appropriate peer review.

Rule 10. The project design shall include:

(a) an evaluation of previous or preliminary studies;

(b) the project statement and objectives;

(c) the methodology to be used and the techniques to be employed;

(d) the anticipated funding;

52 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 53

IV. Project objective, methodology and techniques

Rule 16. The methodology shall comply with the project objectives, and the
techniques employed shall be as non-intrusive as possible.

V. Funding

Rule 17. Except in cases of emergency to protect underwater cultural heritage,
an adequate funding base shall be assured in advance of any activity,
sufficient to complete all stages of the project design, including
conservation, documentation and curation of recovered artefacts,
and report preparation and dissemination.

Rule 18. The project design shall demonstrate an ability, such as by securing
a bond, to fund the project through to completion.

Rule 19. The project design shall include a contingency plan that will ensure
conservation of underwater cultural heritage and supporting
documentation in the event of any interruption of anticipated funding.

VI. Project duration - timetable

Rule 20. An adequate timetable shall be developed to assure in advance of
any activity directed at underwater cultural heritage the completion
of all stages of the project design, including conservation,
documentation and curation of recovered underwater cultural
heritage, as well as report preparation and dissemination.

Rule 21. The project design shall include a contingency plan that will ensure
conservation of underwater cultural heritage and supporting
documentation in the event of any interruption or termination of the
project.

VII. Competence and qualifications

Rule 22. Activities directed at underwater cultural heritage shall only be
undertaken under the direction and control of, and in the regular
presence of, a qualified underwater archaeologist with scientific
competence appropriate to the project.

Rule 23. All persons on the project team shall be qualified and have
demonstrated competence appropriate to their roles in the project.

VIII. Conservation and site management

Rule 24. The conservation programme shall provide for the treatment of the
archaeological remains during the activities directed at underwater
cultural heritage, during transit and in the long term. Conservation
shall be carried out in accordance with current professional standards.

Rule 25. The site management programme shall provide for the protection
and management in situ of underwater cultural heritage, in the course
of and upon termination of fieldwork. The programme shall include
public information, reasonable provision for site stabilization,
monitoring, and protection against interference.

The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 55

IX. Documentation

Rule 26. The documentation programme shall set out thorough documentation
including a progress report of activities directed at underwater cultural
heritage, in accordance with current professional standards of
archaeological documentation.

Rule 27. Documentation shall include, at a minimum, a comprehensive record
of the site, including the provenance of underwater cultural heritage
moved or removed in the course of the activities directed at underwater
cultural heritage, field notes, plans, drawings, sections, and
photographs or recording in other media.

X. Safety

Rule 28. A safety policy shall be prepared that is adequate to ensure the safety
and health of the project team and third parties and that is in conformity
with any applicable statutory and professional requirements.

XI. Environment

Rule 29. An environmental policy shall be prepared that is adequate to ensure
that the seabed and marine life are not unduly disturbed.

XII. Reporting

Rule 30. Interim and final reports shall be made available according to the
timetable set out in the project design, and deposited in relevant
public records.

Rule 31. Reports shall include:

(a) an account of the objectives;

(b) an account of the methods and techniques employed;

(c) an account of the results achieved;

(d) basic graphic and photographic documentation on all phases of
the activity;

(e) recommendations concerning conservation and curation of the
site and of any underwater cultural heritage removed; and

(f) recommendations for future activities.

XIII. Curation of project archives

Rule 32. Arrangements for curation of the project archives shall be agreed to
before any activity commences, and shall be set out in the project
design.

Rule 33. The project archives, including any underwater cultural heritage
removed and a copy of all supporting documentation shall, as far as
possible, be kept together and intact as a collection in a manner that
is available for professional and public access as well as for the

56 The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009

curation of the archives. This should be done as rapidly as possible
and in any case not later than ten years from the completion of the
project, in so far as may be compatible with conservation of the
underwater cultural heritage.

Rule 34. The project archives shall be managed according to international
professional standards, and subject to the authorization of the
competent authorities.

XIV. Dissemination

Rule 35. Projects shall provide for public education and popular presentation
of the project results where appropriate.

Rule 36. A final synthesis of a project shall be:

(a) made public as soon as possible, having regard to the complexity
of the project and the confidential or sensitive nature of the
information; and

(b) deposited in relevant public records.

The Maritime Zones Act – 10 of 2009 57

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