Genetically Modified Organisms Amendment Act

Link to law: http://www.gov.za/documents/genetically-modified-organisms-amendment-act
Published: 2007-04-17

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Genetically Modified Organisms Amendment Act [No 23 of 2006]


Government Gazette
REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA

Vol. 501 Cape Town 17 April 2007 No. 29803
THE PRESIDENCY No. 347 17 April 2007
It is hereby notified that the President has assented to the following Act, which is hereby published for general information:–
No. 23 of 2006: Genetically Modified Organisms Amendment, 2006

Words underlined with a solid line i!idicale, insertions in existing ena;Lm!i!s.
ACT lo amend the Genetically Modified Organisms Act, 1997, so as to give effect to the I'rotncol pertaining to gerietically moclified organism? to which South Africa is patty; to amend certnin definitions and to add new definitions: to amend the romposition and remuneration of meinhers of the Committee Hnd Council: to amplify lhe powers and duties of the Council ~ i i d the Committee and the funct ien~ of the registrar; to clarify the procedure relating In the application for and issuing of permits; to provide for risk arsessments and liahiiity determinations: to nmend tlie information requirements contemplated in the confidentinlity clause; tn I I I ~ down criteria with regard to otfences; to provide for certain procedura during an appeal pruccss; and to provide for matters connect& therewith.
E IT ENACTED by the Parliament of the Republic of South Africa, as B follows:- Amendment of sertien 1 nfAct 15 of 1997
1. Section I of the Geiietically Modifid Organisnls Acl, 1997 (Act No. I5 of 1997).
( a ) by the subsiitution for tlie definition of "accident" of the following dcfinitioii: '' 'accident' means any= (IJ incidenl involving an [unintended general] uninteiilional eiiviron-
mental release of genelically modified organisnls [which ceuld] tlial is likelv to have nn immediate or delayed adverse inipact on the 10 m\vonment or on Iiurnan or minial health within the Republic, or
(ii) unintentional transhoundzy movement of zencticallv modified organisms that IS likely lv have an iiiiiiidiate or a delayed adversc impaci on the environinrnt or on hunmi or animal lhealtl~.";
f b ) by the inseriioii after the definition of "accidenl" of !he following definition: " 'activity' means my activity with ewetically mcdilied tyganisms liut is not limited tn the ini!iirlatioii. exportatioii. uaiisit, develi)pnient, production, release, disirihulion, use, S I O J : ~ ~ ~ and applicatimi ot Feiieti- callv inodilicd orgaiiisins nnly;";
i c ) by thc uiserlioi! afier the definition of "applicant" of lhe following definilioii: 20 'hiosafety' means the level of safety when risk rn~mageintnl measures
[iiereinafler referred to as the principal Act). is liereby amended- 5
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planting of a genetically nioditied organism as a release into thc environment; ‘conditional general releaw’ nieims a release of a genetically modified organism under specific imposed conditions to replate or monitor the use of that genetically modified organism for a specified period ol time;”:
by the suhstitution for the definition of “cmlained use” of the lollowing in
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” dkfinilion: 15 “‘conhintd use’ means Ienr HCtiVitY in nhich orziinicms R r e
barriers or hotl; [are used tn li&t], that eNectivel\, limit cuntact [thereofl of the eenetically modified organisms with huniwing paraFraphs. resnecti\,ely:
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I O
Substitution of lnng title of Act 15 of 1997
16. The following long title is iierehy sulistituied for the Ion? tille of the prii~cipal Act:
‘.ACT 15
Tc provide for iiieasures to promote the responsihle developinent. production, use and application OS genetically modified orpinism; to [ensure that] provide Tor an adequate level of protection durin.e all activities involving [the use ofl genetically modified organisms [(includ- ing importation, production. relcase and distribution) shall he carried 20 out in such a WRY as to limit aossible harmful cnnst‘quences tu the mvimnment] that may have an adverse impact on Uie coiise~viiti~~& sus1;iinahie use ol hioioyical &versi:y human aid animal hzaltk l c i ylvr attetiiion to the prevenlion of accidents and the efieclivt managenlent of waste. to establish cormnon measures fur the evaluation and rwIi~ctJon of 25 the poteiitial risks arising out of activities involving tlie use of :meiically nioditied oreanisms; to lay down the necessary requirements aid criteria
that genetically niodihed organisms a e appropriate and do not present il hazard to the environment; and to establish appropriate procedures for lhe notification of specific activities invoiviiig Ux use of genetically mcidified organisms; a id to provide for matters connected therewith.”
Short title 35
17. This Act is called the Gmetically Modilied OrFanismsAmrndrnenrAc(. 2006. arid comes into operation on a date fixed by the President l y proclanation in the Gizulrc.
ANNEX URI?
CARTAGCNA PROTOCOL ON RIOSAIXTY to the Convcntion on Biological Diversity
The Parties to this Protocol.
Being Parties to the Convention 011 Biological Diversity. hereinafter refemd to as "the Convention", Recalling Aniclr 19, paragraphs 3 311d 4, and Articles gig) aid 17 of Uie Coiiveiiti(m, Recalling alsu decision I1/5 of 17 Noveiiiher 1995 of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention to develop a Protocol on biosaiety. specifically Socusing on 10 transboundcry movement of any living imdified orpnism rrsultmg ircm modern biotcchnolop ilia1 may have advcrse eifeci vn the conservaiioii an(! suslainalde use of l?ioIii,oical diversity. serting nut iur consideralion. in particular, appropriak pmxdures Sur 3dv;ince iiifornied agrcenieni. Reaffirming the precautionan, approacli cnnt;i:ned in Principle :5 vf the Rio 15 1kcl:uation 011 Environment and De\riopT:itnt, Aware of the rapid expansion of modern hiotechnolo~y and tiie emuing puhlic concern over its potential adverse effects on biological diversity~ laking also imo account risks to human health, Recognizing tkat mdem biotechnology has great potential for human well-being 20 i i developed and used with adequate safely measures ior the environment and human health, Recomizing also die crucial imptance til humankind of centres of origin aid centres oi griietic diversily. 'Inkinl: into account the limited caphilities of many cnuutries. particularly 15 developing countries. to cope with th r iiaturc and scale of known and poteniii:l risks associated with living modified orpmisms. Recognizing that trade and environinent agreements should he mutually suppnrt- ive with a view to achieving sustainable development, Emphesizing that this Protocol shall not he mterpreted as implying a change in the 30 rights and obligations of a Party under any exlsting international agreements, Understanding lhal the above recital is not intended to suhordinate this Protocol to other intemational agreements,
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Have agreed as Sollows:
Article 1
OBJECTIVE
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In amnrdance wilh the precautionary approach contaiiied in F'nnciple 15 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, the objective of this Proloco1 is to contribute to ensuring an adequate level of prntectitm in the iield of lhe safe transfer, handling and use of living modified organism? resultinp Smm modem biotecluiology 40 that may have adverse erects on the conservation and susiainalde use of hiolopical diversity. taking also into account risk to human health, and speciiically i ~ u s i ~ g on lranshoundq movements.
Article 2
GENERAL PRO\'ISIONS 45
1. Each Party shell take necessary and qyropriate le@, adininistrative and other measures to implement its obligations under this Protocol.
2 . The Parties shall ensure that the develvpnienl, handling, transport, use, vansier and release oi any living minlifird orp;misnis are undertaken in a manner that prevents or reduces the risks to hiolopical divcrsity, laking also intii account risks to human health. 50
3. Nothing in t tus Protocol shall an'ecc in a iy way the sovereignty of States mer thcir terntorial sea es1;iblisIied in accordance with international l a u . and Oie sovereign riglits and h e jurisdiction which Slates have in their excluive economic zoiies and their
continental shelves in accordance with intenWionnl l : ~ , and the exercse 11y ships mid aircraft of all States of navigational righ!s aiid Sreedonis a6 provided lor i n iiirtrnnliiliin! law and as reilested in relewnt iiitemniioiuil iiislrunxnls.
4. Nothing in ths Prolwol s h d ixmierpreted a restricting thenFht c’f a P u t y 10 kike aciion thal is more protective of the consemailon and suinatioii harriers ancl that are not tec!iniques used in traditioiid breeding and selection; “Regional economic integration orgaiiization” means an orsanization consti- tuted by sovereign States OS a given region, to which its rnrmber Staitx h a w transferred competence in respect of rnattem governed hy this Protocol and which has heen duly authorized, in accordance with its internal procedures, to
“Transl~nund‘ay movement” means the movtment of a living niodified organism from one Party to another Party, save that Cor the pqmses of Articles 17 aid 24 transhoundary niovemen! extends to rnovriiienl het.ween Parties mid non-Parties.
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sign. ratify, accept, approve or accede to it. 45
Article 4
SCOPE
This Protocol shall apply to the transhoundary mo\wnent, transit, handling and use of all living mcidiiied organisms that may have adverse effects on the conservation aiid sustainable use of hiological diversity. taking also into account risks lo human health
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Article 5
PHARMACEUTICALS
Notwi!hstaiidiiiFArliclr 4 and without prejudice 10 any right or: Part) to subjirci ;ill living modificd orgmisms to nsk ilssessment ]xior ii’ the making oi Litcisions 011 import, inis Protncol shnll not apply LO the trcmsbouir~lary niwement of living moditied organisms whch are pharmaceuticals for humans that are addressed by other relevant international ageements or organisations.
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Article 6
TIMNSITAND CONTAINED USE
1 . Notwithslanding Article 4 and without prejudice to any naht ol a Party of tritllsil to I O rebwlate ilir IriLnspfxt of living modified orpmisnrs through 11s territory and make available to the Biosafety Clearing-House. any decision nf thal Part 2, paragraph 3, regarding thz lral)s~t lhrough its terriln?. of a spec orpnisni. the provisions of this Proiocol with respect to ine adviince infcxmed
2. Noiwitlxtanding Article 4 and without prejudice io m y right of it Party Lo sui,j!ect all living mociilied organisms to risk assessment prior to decisions 011 import and lo sei standards for contained use within ils junsdction. the provisions of this Prolocol with respect to the advance informed agreement procedure shall not apply to the transhoundivy movement of living moditied organisim destined for contained use 20 undertakeii in accordance with the standards of the Party of imlion.
agrrenieTi! pincedure shnll not npply to livinx modified orxnnisms in transit. 15
Article 7
APPLICATION OF THE AIWANCE INFORMED AGREEMENT PROCE- 1)URE
1 . Subject to Articles 5 and 6, the advance informed aFeement procedure in Articles 25 8 to 10 and 12 shall apply prior to the first intentional transboundq movement of living modified organisms for inlentional introduction into the envirnnment of the Party of import.
2. “lnlentional introduction into Lhe environment” in paragraph 1 almve, does irot refer Lo living iiiodilied organisms intended for &rect u‘e as food or feed, or for 30 prrxessing.
3 . Article I1 shall apply prior to the firs1 transboundary movement of liviiig modified organisms intended lor direct use as lod or Iced, or for processing.
4. The advance inlormd agreemeirc procedure shall no1 apply lo the intentiix~al transhoundivy niovemem of living inodiiied orFanisms identified in a decisim of the 35 CoirTerriice 01 the Parties serving a lhe mcetinf of the Parties to this Protocol as being not likely to have adverse eflects on lhc wnst‘natioii ;ind susiainahle use 01 l~ in lo~ical diversity, laking also into accounl risks LO human health.
Article 8
NOTIFICATION 40
1 The Party of exporl shall notify, or require the exporter to ensure notification to, in writing, the competent national authority of the Party of impori prior to Uie intentional Wnnshoundary movemeiil of a living modified organism that falls within the scope of Article 7, paragraph 1. The notilicauon shall coirtain. at a imninium, the informition
2. The Party of export shall ensure that there is a legal requirement for the accuracy spedied in Annex 1. 45
of informalion providd by the exporter.
Article 9
ACKNOWLEI~G~h1E~lOFI1ECErPTOFNOT~lCA~10N
1 . The Party of import slid1 acknowledge receipt of the notification. in writing. to the notifier wilhin iiinety dzys of its receipt.
2. The achowled~ement shall state: fnj The date of receipl of the notification: ( b ) Whether the notificatioii, prima facie. contains the infummation referred lo in
Article 8; (c) Whether to proceed accordmg to the domestic rcplalory framework of the
Party of impiin or according lo the procedure spzcified in Article 10. 3. The domestic regulatory framework referred to in parapapli 2fci akwe, shall he
4. A failure by the Party of import to acknowledge receipt of a notification shall not ~ ~ n s i s l e n t with this Protocol.
imply its consent to an intentional tra~isl~omdary niovmient.
Article 10
DECISION PKOCEDIJRE
1. Decisions taken I y the Party of impr t shall be in accordance with Article 15. 2. The Party of import shall. within the period of time referred to in Article 9, inform
the notitier, in witin:, whether the intentional trmshoundary niovenienl may proceed: in) Only after the Party of iniport has given its written consent; or (b) After no lex$ than ninety days without a subsequent written consent.
3. Wiltun twohundred and seventy davs ofthe date ofreccipt ofnotificlilion. thePnrty of inipr t shall communicate, in wntinp, to Uie notilier and LO the Blosaiety Clearing-House Uie decisivn referred to i n p;rra~rapIi 2r a1 alxive:
Approving the import, with or M,itiiou;condilions. inchiding how the decision will apply 10 suhsequent imports of the same liviiif niudiiid organism. Prohibiting the import; Requesting additional relevant infurmalion in accordance with its domestic regulatory framework or Annex I; in calculating the time within which the Party of import is to respond, the numlwr of days i t has tn wait for additional relevant informalion shall not be taken into account: or Inforning the notiiier that the period specified in this paragraph is extended hy a defined mnod of time.
4. Except in a case in whch consenl is unconditional. i i decision under paragraph 3 above, shall set out the reasons on which it is hased
5. A failure hy the Party of impart to c~mmunicate its decision within two hundred and seventy days of the dale of receipt of lhe notification shiill no! imply its consent to an intentional transhoundary movement. 6. Lack or scientific certainty due to insufficient relevant scientific information and
knowledge regarding the extent of the potential adverse efecls of a living modiiied organism on the conservation and sustainahle use of hiolopical diversity in thy Party of import, taking also into account risks to human liealth, shall not prevent that Party Fnom laking a decision, as appropnale, with regard to Uie iinport of lhe living modilied organism in question as referred to in p:uagraph 3 above, in order to avoid or nunimiw such potential adverse effrcts.
I . The Conference of the Parties scrvii i f as the meeting of the Parties shall, at i ts lirst meeting, decide upon appropriate prccedures and niechrinisrns to lacilitate decision- malung by Parlies of inlport.
Article 11
PROCEDURI;. FOR LIVING MODIFW,D ORGANISMS IN'I'ENDEI) FOR DlRECT (ISE AS FOOD OR FEED, OR FOR PROCESSING
1. AParLy that makes a final decision reyd ing domestic use. including placing on the market, of a living modified organism that may he sulijecc to cranshoundim; moveinrnt I,r direct use as food or feed. or for processing shall, within fifteen days of making that decision, inform the Pnrties through the Bitsafety Clcaring-House. This informa-
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30 No. 2YXfl3 GCIVERNMErUT GAT-TTE, 17 APRI!. 2007
Art Yo. 23, 3306
tion shitl l contain, at a minimum the inforin:ition spec.ified in Aiinex TI. The Party shall provide a copy of the infonnatioii, in wnting. to the ii:rtional focal pcmt of each Part)> that informs the Secretariat in advance that i t does not have access to the Binsafety Clewing-House. This provision shall not apply to decisions regzding field trials.
2. The Party making a decision under p m q a p h 1 ahove. shall eiisure h a t there is a legal requirement for the accuracy of infoi-mation provided hy the applic:in!.
3 Any Party may request additional iiifonnalion from the authority identified in p m q a p h ib) of Annex 11.
4. A Party may take a decisionon the import of living modified orgaiisms intended for direct use as fmd or feed. or for processing. under its doineslic regulatory franiework I O (hat is consistent with the objective of tlus Protocol.
5. Each Pany sh:iIl make available to the BiosaTety Clearing-House copies of my national laws, regulations and pldelines applicable to the import of living modified organisms intended for direct use as lood or leed. or for processing. if available.
6. A developing country Party or a Party with an economy in transillon may. in the 15 ahseuce of the donxstic regulatory franiewcvk referred to in paragraph 4 above. and ill exercise oi i l s domestic jurisdiction, dcclare through the Binsalery Clearing-!-louse that its decision pnor to the firs1 import of a living modilietl organism inteiided for drec! use as ihod or feed, or for processing. on which ~nformation has been providcd wider
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parn:rapii I above, will 1% taken accnrding to the foilowin:: 20 fa ) A risk assessment undertaken in accordance with Annex III; and (bi A decision made within a ;)redictahie limeframe, iiot exceeding two hundred
7 . Failure by a Party Lo communicate its decision according IC) pangraph 6 above, shall not imply its consent or refusal to Ihe imlxlrt of R living modtied organism 7-5 intended for direct use as lood or ked. or Tor processing, unless otheiwise specified by the Party:
8 Lack of scientific certainty due to insuficient relwant scientific information and knowledge regardin8 the extent of the potential adverse eflects of a living m~dified organism on the conservation and sustmahle use of biological diversity in the Party of 30 iinport, tiiking also into accounl risks to humar health. shall 1101 prevent that Party from lakin: a decision, as appropriate. with regard to the imlmrt of that living modified orgaiisni inlended for direct use as food or fced, or i w processing, in order to avoid or minimize such ptential adverse effects.
capacity-building with respect to living modified organisins intended for direct use as food or feed, or lor processing. Partirs shall conperate to met these needs in accordance with Articles 32 aid 28.
seventy days.
9. A Party may indicate its needs Cor limancial and technical assistance and 35
Article 12
REVIEW OF DECISIONS 40
1. A Party of inlporl may, at any time, in light of new scieiilific informalion 01: polential adverse cNects 011 the conservetion mid su~tainable use of bioliigical diversit),. taking also into account the risks to human health. review and change a decision regarding an inlentioiiril transhoundani movement. In such ca r , the Party shall. within thirty days, inform any notifier that has previously notified movenieiits of the living 45 nnxlified organism referred to in such decision. as well as the Biosafety Clearing-House, and shall set out the reasons for its decision.
2. A Party of export or a notilier may request the Party of import to review a decision i t Iim made in respect of i t under Article 10 where the Party of export or the notilier considers that: 50
io) A chanre in circumstances ha occurred that inay influence thc outcome of the nsk assessment upon which the decision was hased. or
ib) Additional relevant scientific or technical inlormation has become nvailahle. 3. The Party of iinport shall respond in writing to such a request wilhin ninety days
4. The Party of import may. at its discretion, require ansk assessment for suhsequent and set out h e reasons for i k decision.
imports.
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Article 13
SlMI'LFIED PROCEDURE
1. A Party of im:mrl may. provided that adequate measures arc ap~l i rd to ensure the safe intentional transboundary inovemenf of living modified o r p isins in accordawe with the objecuve of this Rolocol, specify in advance to the Biosdety Clexinp-House:
(a ) Cases in which intent~ciiial transboundary movement to i t may take pbcc at the same time as the movement is notified to the Party of import; and
( 6 ) Imports of living mahfied organisms to i t to be exempted from the advance informed agreement procedure.
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Notifications under subparagraph (a) above, may apply to subsequent similar IO movements to the same Party.
2. The in fona t im relating to 'm intentional translwundq mwement that is lo be provided in the notifications referred to in paragraph I ial abnve. shall he the inrorination specified in Annex 1.
Article 14 15
RILATERAL, REGIONAL ANI) hllTLTILATERAL AGREEMENTS A N ) ARRANGEMENTS
1. Parties may enter into bilateral, regional and multilateral agreements and arrangements regardmg inttntional transboundary movements of livinp modified organism, consistent with the objective of this prolocol and provided that such 20 agreements and arrrui~ements do not result in a lower level or protection than that provikd for by the Protocol.
2. The Parties shall inform each other, through the Biosafety Clexing-House, of ;my such bilateral, regional and mu1;ilateral agreements :ind anangeniciits that they have
3. The propisions of this Protocol shall not affect intentional trcmshund:u). movements that take place pursuant to such agreements and :irraiFements as hetween the parties Lo those agreements or arranpemcnts.
4. Any Party may determine that its domestic regulations shall apply with respect to specific imports to it and shall notify the Biosafety Clexing-House of its decision.
entered into befni-e or after the date of entry into rorce or this Protocol 25
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Article 15
RlSK ASSESSMENT
1. msk assessments undertaken pursuant to this F'rotoci~l shall he carted out in a scientifically sound mrtnner, in accordance with Annex iII and taking into account recognized risk assessnm~ tecluiiques. Such risk assessments shall he bayed, at a 35 mininium, on inTornlatioii provided in accordance with Article 8 and other available scicniific evidence in order to idcnlify r i nd evaluate the possible adverse effects of living modified organisms on the conservation aid sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account risks to huiiian health.
2. The Party or import shall ensurc that risk assessments are camed out For decisions 40 taken under Arlicle IO. It m q rtquire the exporter to c a m on1 the risk assessment.
3. The cost or risk assrssment shall he h m e by the notifier if the Party of i m p t so requires.
Article 16
RlSK MANAGEMENT 45
1. The Parties shall, taking into account Article Si,?) of the Convention, establish and maintain appropriate mechanisms, i u e a s u ~ s aid strategies to regulate, manage and control risks identitied in the risk assessment provisions of this Protocol associated with the use, handling and transboundary mrivemiil of 11ving mcntficd organisms.
2. Measures based on nsk assessmenl shall be imposed to die exlent necessary to SO prevent adverse effects of the living nmhfied organism on the ccnservatioii and
14 -Jo. 2989.3 c VERUMFNI cIP;’rrc. i i AWIL 2007 - __ _____ A C l h. 23, 2owi GEXT1G’L.Y \43DlFl’L!) (!RGA\IIShlS
AM€hDhlEhT A C . 20M
sustainable use of hiological diversity, talung also into account risks to human healUi, within the territory of the Party OS import.
movements of living modified org,misms. includng such measures as requirine a risk
4. Without prejudice to paraGph 2 ahove, each Pan! shall endewou: to ensare that any living modified organism. whether imported or locally developed, has undergone an appropriate period of observation that is commensurate with its life-cycle or generation time M o r e ii is put to its intended use.
3. Each Party shall take appropriate measures lc p:-cvenl iminleniioiial I;
nssessmeiit lo Lx cmid out prior to tho tirst relecse of a livm: mndifitd orgmsm. 5
5 . Parties shall cooperate with a view to: 10 (n) Identifyiiig living modified organisms or specific traits of living modificd
organism that may have adverse effects on the conservation and suscainable use of biological dwersity, taking also into account nsks to human health; and
(h) T&ng appropate measures regarding the treatment of such living modified organism or sixcific traits. 15
Article i?
LWINI‘ENTIQNAI, TRANSBOIJN1’T)ARY MOVEhENTS AND EMERGSNCX ME.4SIIRES
1. Each Party shall take appropriale measures to notify arectedor potentially atYecled States, the BiosaFety Clraring-House aid, where appropriate, relevdiit inteniational 20 organizations, when it knows of an occurrence under its jurisdiction resullmg in a release that leads, or may lead, to an unintentional transhoundary movement of a living niodified organism that is likely to have significant adverse effects on Ih- roiihervation ’~ and sustainable uqe of biological diversity. takiiig also into account risks to human liealth in such States. The notification shall he providtd as soon a.5 the P;uty knows of Ihe 7-5 above situatioii.
2. Each Party shalt, no later than the date of riitN into force oi this Protocol For it. make available to the Biosafety Clearing-House the relevant details setting out its point of contact for the purposes of receiving iiotitications under this Ariicle.
3. Any notification wisin: from pa rq~aph 1 almve, should include: 30 ( a ) Available relevant information on the estimated quantities and relevant
characteristics and/or waits of the liviiig intxiified organism; ib) lnformation on the circumstances and estimated date of the release. and on the
use of the living modified orpanism in the originating Party: i c ) Any available ininmiation about the possible adverse effects on the 35
coiisewation and sustainable use of biological diversity, laking also into account risks to human health, as well as availahle information about possiRle risk management measures;
i d ) Any other relevant information; and ( e ) A point of contact for iurther information. 40
4. In order to Mninuze any significant adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health, each Party, under whose jurisdiction the release of the living mdified organism referred to in paragraph 1 above. occurs, shall inniiediately consult the atrecled or potentially affected States to enable them Io determine appropnale respnses and iruliate necessary 45 action, including emergency measures.
Article 18
IIANDLING, TRANSPORT, PACKAGPJIG AND U)ENTIFICATION
I . In order to avoid adverse effects on the conservation aid sustainable use of hiological diversity, taking also into account r isks to humm health, each Party shall take 50 necessary measum to require that living. niodifieil organism< that are suhjecl to intentional t r anshmndq inovenient within the scope of this Protocol are haridled, packaged and transported under conditions of safety, Laking into consideration relevant international rules and standards.
2. Each Party shall take memures to require that documeiitation accompanying: 55 i n ) Living modilied orpiiisms that are intended for direct use as fciod or feed. or
for processing, clearly idenlifies that they “may conlam” Iiviii; modified
: y p n i s m and are not intended i3r intentional introductior, into tlie eiiviroiinieiit, as well as a coiitx: p i n 1 for further inSonnation. Tiiz Conference of the Parties serviag its !I-,$ meeting of the Fartie: 10 C I S Protocol shall take a decism on Ihe detaili-: :L..~u~rw;;eiits far this purpose, including specification of their identi!). and ;ir?!' s lque ideutificaiion. n o later than two years after the date o f e n y i n k fiwx of h i s Pr.;xol; Living modified orfatiisms that m destined for contained use clearly identifies them as living modified organisms; and spcifies any requirements for the safe handling, storage, transport and use, the contact poinl for further information, includ~ng tlir name and address of the individual and institution to whom the livins mdified orpinisms are consigned; and Living modified organism$ thal are intended for inteiitional introduction into the environment of the Party of import and any ollier living modified organisms within the scope of the Protocol. clearly identifies them as llving modified organisms; slxcilies thr idciitity and relevant trnits andor chwac- teristics. any requirements for the s; handling, storage. t:ail:sport and use. tlie contact point for ruriho- informatic. iir d, as appropriate, the nnmc anJ a d w x of the importer aid exporter; ani! a . :ins a ~ecliuation that tlir inovew:; :s iii conformity with thr requixirmts of tins Protocol applicable to the exnorter. 1
3. The Conference of the Paties serviiiz as :hc meeting of the Prties to ths Pi-otocol shd! consider the need for and modalities of developing staiidards with regard to identification, handling, packaging and transport practices, in consultation with other relevant international bodies.
Article 19
COMPETENT NATIONAI. AIJTHOWI'ES AND NAT'JONAL FOCAL POINTS
1. Each Party shall designale one national focal p i n 1 10 be responsildr on its behalf for liaison with the Secretanat. Each Pa1y shall also designate one or more competent national authorities, which shall be responsihle for prrfomiing the adininistrative functioiis required by this Protocol and which shall he authorized to act on its behalf wilh respect to those functions. A Parly niay designate a single entity to fulfil tlie functions of hoth focal point and coinpetent national authority.
2. Each Party shall, no later than the date of entry into force of ths Protocol for it, notify the Secretariat of the names and addresses of its focal point and its competent national authority or authorities. Where a Party designates more than one competent national authority, it shall convey to the Secretanat, with i t s nolificatioii thereof. relevanl information on tlie respective rcsponsihilities of those authorities. Where applicable, such inSormntion shall, at a minimum specify which competent authority is responsihle for which type of living niodified organism. Each Party shdl forthwith notify the Secretanat of any changes in the designation OS its national f x a l point or in the name and address or mponsibilities of its competent national authorily or authorities.
3. The Secretariat shall forthwith inform the Parties of the notifications i l receives under paragraph 2 ahove, and shall also make such informalion available through the Biosafety Clearing-House.
Article 20
MOKMATION SIIARING AND THE RIOSAFETY CLEARING-IJOUSE
I . A Biosafety Clearing-House is hereby established as par! of Uie clearing-house
(u) Facilitate the exc1ian:e of scientific, technical. environmental and legnl information on, and experience with, living modified orpanism?; and
ib) Assist Parties to implement the Protocol, taking into account the special needs of developing country Parties, in particular the least developed and small island developing States among then% and countries with economies in transition as well as countries hat are centres of origin and centres of genetic diversity.
mechanism under Article 18, p a r a p p h 3, of the Convention, in order to:
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1. Tnt 3iosaCe;y Clearing-Iiouse shall sewe m-ans Liiraugh wliict, :nSoriiialimi is made availalile for the piuliosss of pwapaph I a!xwe. It shall provide access to information niade nvaiiahle b!, the Parties re:e~;mt io the irni~lenien~ation of he Protocol. It shall also provide access, where possibir, io other in~em;iCxaI biosaiety iiifomiatioil exchange niechanis:ns.
3. Without prejudice (o tile irroLectinii of c.xifidential miomatjon. each Par:?. shall make available 10 the Blosafety Cleannp-House any mfmmalion required to he made available to the Biosafetv Clearinr-House under this Protocol, and: -
Any existing laws, regulations and guidelines for implementation of the Protocol, as well as information required by the Parlies for the advance informed a p e m e n t procedure; Any bilateral, regional and multilateral agreements and arrangements: Sumianes of its risk assessments or environmental reviews of living modified organisms generated hy its re~mlatow process, and carried out in accordance with Article 15, including. where appropriate, relevant inloriim- 1.ion regardine priductj thereof, namely, pxxessed miiirnals that :ui of hviiiz modihed organism ongin, coiitainuie detectable novel comlir!ations ol replicable genetic material ob:ained through ihe use or modem bi ot tcholog y: Its final decisions reparding the ipmrtatioii or relense of living modified orpnisms; and Reports submitted by it pursuant to Article 33. including those on impleinen- Lati@n of the advance informed ameemenl urocedure.
4. The modalities of the operation of the Biosafety'Cleatin~-House, including reports on its activities, shall be considered and decided upon b?' the Coni'erence of the Parties scrving as the meeting or the Parties to this Protocol at its firs1 meeting, and kept under review hereafter.
Article 31
CONFIDENTIAL INFOKXlATION
1. The Party of import shall permit he notifier to idenrify iiirormalion suhniitled under the procedures of this Prolocol or required by the Party of import as part of the advance informed agreement procedure of the Protwol that i s to he treated 3s confidential. Justification shali he given in such caqes upon request. 1. The Party of import shall cnnsull the nolifier if i t decides that inlormation identified
by the notifier as confidentid does not qualify lor such treatment and shall, prior to any disclosure, informthenotifier ofits decision, providingreasons on request, as well as an opportunity for consultation md for an internal review of the decisioii prior to disclosure.
3. Each Party shall protect confidential information received under this Protcxol. iiicludiny any confidential inforniation received in the contexl of the advance informed agreement procedure of the Protocol. Each Party shall ensure that i t has procedures to protect such information aid sliall protect the confidentiality oi such infomution in a manner no less favourable than its treatment of confidential information in connectioii with domestically produced living modified organisms.
4. The Party of import shall not use such inforination For a commemial purpose, except with h e written consent oi the notifier
5 . If a notifier withdraws or has withdrawn a notification, the Party of import shall respect the confidentiality of commercial and industrial information, incruding research and development ittormation as well as intormation on which the Party and the notifier disagree as to its confidentiality.
6. Without p~%jUdiCe to paragraph 5 above, the following information shall not he considered confidential:
i n ) The nwme and address of the notifier. f D ) A general description of lhr IivJng modified organism or organisms; fc j A sunmar?; of the risk assessment of lhe effecls on the conservation and
sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account risks to liuman health; arid
id) Any methods and plans for emergency response.
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1. Tne Paities shall coopemt'r in th:: developiiient miNor at:elgiheniii: of humac resources and ~nslitutional cqiacities in hicsafety. ini;uding hiotecl~~iol~~gy to the extent that it is rquired for biosafety, for the purpose of the eiTeclive in~plen~envalioii or this piotocol, in developing country Parties, in particular the least de\doped nod small island developing States among them, and in Parties will? economies in lransilioll, including through existing global, regional, subregional aiid nalmnal institutions arid organizations and, as appropriale, through kicilitatiiig private Sector involvement.
2. For the purposes of iniplenienting paragraph 1 above, in relation to cooperation, the IO needs of developing c o u n o Parties, in particular the leas1 developed and small islaid developing States among them for financial resourczs aiid access to and transfer oi tecluiology and know-how in accordnnce with !he relevant previsions OS tile Convention, shall be taken fully inlc xcvmt fur caimcity-building iii hiurafety. Cmperation ii: capacity-huiidiri: shall, suujeujf-t to the dilfcreiit s u a i o i ! . canabiilil-s aid requirements of each Party. include scienkfic aid kc:;nical train iI? tile p r q w aid safe management of hiott.clmology, and i n tile use of risk essmeiit and risk management for hiosafety, and the enhaicement of tshnolc~ical and ins!itutional capacities in biosafety. The needs of Parties witli economes in transitloii shall also he
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Article 23
PITBLIC AWAREh;ESS AND PARTlCIPATION
1. Tne Psrties shall: (ai Pronioie and iacilitnte public awareness. educalion and participation concern-
ing the safe transfer. haiidlmg and use of living mcditied orpi isms in relation 25 to the conservation and suslwinable use of hiological diversity. iakiiig also into aaount risks to human health. In doing so, the Parties shall cooperate, as appropriate. with other States aid inteniational hodies;
(b) Endeavour to ensure that puhlic awareness and education encompass access to information on living mdified organisnx identified in accordance with this 30 Protocol that may he imported.
2. The Parties shall. in accordance with their respctive laws and regulations. consult the public in the decision-making process regarding living modified organisms arid shall make the results of such decisions available to the public, while respecting confidential inrorination in accordance with Article 21.
3. Each P m y shall endeavour to inform its public aboul the means of public access to the Biosafety Clearing-House.
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Article 24
NON-PARTIES
1. Transboundary movemeiiis oi living modified oryanisnis hetween Parties and 40 non-Parties shall be consistent with lhe objective of this Protocol. The Parties may enter into hilateral, regional and multilateral agreements and arrangements wilh noii-Parues r e p d i n g such trnnsboundary movements.
2. The Parties shall encourage non-Parties to adhere to this Pro10col and to contribute approiiriate infommtion to the Biosafety Clearing-House on living modified organisms 45 released in, or moved into or out of, areas within their national jurisdictions.
Article 25
ILLEGAL TRANSBOUNJ)ARY MOVEMENlS
1. Each Party shall adopt appropriate domestic ineasures aimed at preventing arid. i r appropnate, iwiaiizing transhouiidary movements of living niohfied orpnisms carried 50 out 111 contravention or its domestic measures to in$ernent this Protocol. Such movements shall Ix deemed illegal transhouiidary movements.
Act No. 23, 1u06
2. In tlie case of m illegal tr;ursi?ound ' cmnt . the airected Party may request e. o f the living nicwiilicd orsanism in
ty Clearin:-House infornia~:oii
the Pdrty of origin to dispse, at its questioii hy repatriation or destiuctio
3. Each ?arty shall in;,ke avail concerning cases of illegal transhouudary nio\mnients pcrtai:i:ng to i t 5
Article 26
SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS
1. The Parties, in reaching a decision on import uider this Protocol or under its domestic measures implementing iiie Prolocol, may take into account, consistent with their international obligations, ~(x~o-ecoiiomic considerations arising from the impact 10 of living mcdified organisms on the conservation 'and sustainable use of hiolopx! diversity. especially with regard to tlie value of biologkal diversity to indigenous and local communities.
2. The Partics are encouraged to cmpcrale on research and mfomwtioii exchanee on any socio-economic Impacts of living indifkd organism. especially on indigenoius and 15 local communities.
Articlc 27
LIABIIJTY AND KEDKESS
T!ie Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to t h s Protocol shall, at its first meeting, adopt a process with respect lo the appropriale elaboration of 20 in~eniationnl rules and prmedures in the field of liahility and redress for damage resulting from transboundaq movements 01 iiving modified organisms, aialysing and taking due account of ihe ongoing processes in nitemafmnal law oil these niatters, and siiall endeavour Lo compiete this process within four years.
L4rliclr 28
FINANCML iMECIIANISM AND RICSOImRCES
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1. In considering financial resources for the ~mplemeiitation of this Protocol, the Parties shall take into account the provisions of Article 20 of Uie Convention.
2. The financial mechanismestablished :nArlicle 21 ofthe Convention shall. tivough the institutional structure entrusted with its operation. be the financial mechmism lor 30 uus Pr11Locol.
3. Regarding tlie capacity-huilding referred to in Article 22 of !his Protocol, the Confcrence of the Parlies serving as Ihe meelin& of the Parties to this Protocol, in providing puidance with respect lo lhe financial mechnnisni referred Lo in paragraph 2 almve, for consideration by the Conference of the Parties, shall take inlo account tlie 35 need for financial resources l>y developing country Parties, in particular tlie least developed and tlie small island developing States among them
4. In the context of paragraph 1 ahove, the Parties shall also lake into a c c ~ u i t he needs of the developing counvy Parties, in particular the least develqxd and Uie small island developing States among them, mid of the Parties with econ~niies in transition, in 40 their efforts to identify and implement their capacity-buildins requirements for the purposes of tlie impleinentation of this Protocol.
5. The guidance to the financial mechanism ofthe Convenlion ir relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties. includins those agreed before the adoption oi tlus
6. The developed couutry Parties may also pro\zidc, and tlie developing country Parties aid the Parties with economies in transiiion avail themselves of, tinancial and techiiological resources for the impiementation 01 the provisions of this Protocol through bilateral, regional and multilateral channels.
Protocol, shall apply, mutatis murnndis, to the provisions of this Article. 45
Article 29
CONFEKEENCF: OF iTW, PARTIES SERVING AS T I E MEETWG OF THE i’AIromote its efie ‘e in~plementatinn. It shall perform the functions assimed tn it hy t tus Prolocol aid
Make recottunendations on any matters neczsszy for lhe jinplemeiit.ation of this Protocol; Establish such subsidiary bodies as are deemed necessary Tor the implemen- tation of this Protocol: Seek and utilize, where appropriate, the services and cooperatioil of, and information provided by, competent intemaiional organizations and intergov- ernmental and non-govemmental todies; Establish the form arid the intends for transmitting the ;ninrination to he sulimlted in accordaice wilh Article 33 of this Protocoi and consider such information as well as reprts sul,mitted b y m y suhsidiary hody; Consider aid adopt, as required. amendments to this Protocol and its annexes, as well as any additional aimexes to this Protocol. that are deeinrd riecessary for the implementation of l h i s Protocol; and Exercise such other l’unclions as m q he required for the irril~lenientation of this Protocol ~~~ ~ ~ ~~
5 . The rules of prwedure of the Conierence of the Parties ‘md finnncial rules of the Convention slid1 hr applied. nrrrinris murnndi.r, under t h s Protixol. except as m i y b~ otherwise decided by consensus by the Conference of the Parties serving as Uie meeting of the Parties to this Protocol.
6. The first n ~ e l i n g of the Conference of the P,artIes serving as the meeting of the Parties to Uus Protocol shall be convened by the Secretariat in conjunction with the first meeting of the Conference of the Parties that 1s scheduled after the dale oi the entry into force of t h s F’rotwol. Subsequent ordinary meetings of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protwol shall be held in corijunction with ordinary meetings of the Conference of the Parties, unless otherwise decided by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting oi the Parties to this Protocol.
7 . Extraordinary meetings of the Conierence of the Parties serving as the meeting or the Parties to this Protocol shall be held at such other tinies as may be deemed necessary hy the Conference of the Parties serving a the meeting of the Parties to h s Protocol, or at the wntten request of any Party, provided that, wittiin six months of the q u e s t being communicated to thc Parties Iiy the Secretaiat, it is supported by at least one thud of the Parties.
8. The United Nations, its specialized agencies and the International Atomk Energy Agency, as well as any State member thercof or observers thereto not party to the Convention, may be represented as observers at meetings of the Confereiice of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Partjes to this Protocol. Any hod? or agency, whether national or international. govemnimtal or noii-govemniental, that is qualilied in matters covered by this Protocol and thnl has infnrnied the Secretariat of its wish tn he represenled at a meetmg of the Confereiice of the Parties serving as a meeting oi the Parties to this Protocol as an observer, may be so admitted, unless at least one third of the Parties present object. Except as otherwise provided in this Article, the adiiiissioit and participation of observers shall IR subject to !he rules of procedure, as referred tci in paragraph 5 almve.
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Article 30
SIIBSTDIARY ni>DES
1. Any suhsidiap body established hy or unezr the Zoiiventinii may. illion 3 decision by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meetiiig of the Farties to this Prolccol, serve the Protocol, in which case the meeting of the Parties shall specify which functions 5 that body shall exercise.
2 Parties to the Convention that are not Parties to this Protocol I N V narticlmte as _ I - ~ ~ . . . . ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~
observers in b e proceedings o i any meeting oi any such subsidiary bodies. When a sulxidiary body oithe Convention serves as a subsidiary Imdy to this Prolocol. decisions
3. When a subsidiary body of the Convention exercises its functions with regard to mattcrs concerning this Protocol, any meinher of the bureau of that suhsidiav lwdy representing a Plut!? to the Coiiventioii but. at t h ~ i t me, not a Party 10 the Protocol. shall he suvstituted hy a member to be elected by and from among thc Parties Loth- Protocol.
under the Prolocol shall he idken only hy the Parues to the Prc~tocol. IO
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1. The secretariat established by Article 24 of the Convenlion shall serve as the
2. Aflicle 24, paragraph 1. of the Coiiventim on the functions of the Secretanat shall
3. To the extent that they are distinct, the costs of the secretariat services ior this Protocol shall k met by the P'arlies lierrto. The Conierence of the Parties scrving as the meeting of tk Parties to this Protocol shall, at its lirsl meeting. decide on [ne necessary budgetary arrangements to this end.
secretariat to his Protocol.
apply. wiirmti,y mutandis. to this Protocol. 20
Article 32
RElATIONSI~ID' WITH THE CONVENTION
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Except as othenvise provided in this Protocol, tlie provisions of the Convention relating to its protocols shall apply to thi< Protocol
Article 33
MONITORING AM> REPORTING 30
Each Party shall monitor the implementation of its obligations under this Protocol. and shall. at intervals to he detennined by the Conierence of thc Parties serving 11s tlie meeting of the Parties to this Prolocol, report to the Conference of the Parties sen'ing as the meeting of the Parties 10 this Prolocol on measures that it has taken to inlplement the Protocol.
Article .74
COMPLIANCE
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The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to ths Protocol shall, at its first meeting, consider and approve coopentive procedures and inslitulional mechanisms to promote compliance with the provisions of this Protocol and to address 40 cases oinon-complirlnce. Tnese procedures and mechanisms shall include pmvisions to offer advice or nssistrmce, where appropriale. They shall be separate from and without prejudice to, the dispute settleiiient procedures a id mechanisms est.ahlished hy Article 27 of the Convenlion.
ilPt N". 23, mfi 1C.A. r .LY M m F i 3 ORS!iKlSr\lS AhEI\?)MEYT A.7.2OC6
Article 35
ASSESShENT A N T REVTEW
Tne Conference of the Parties seninf as L;ic I-eting ol the Parties to tics Protocol shall undertake. five years after the miry into i . ~ ~ c r of Uu? Frotcxol and at least eve? five years thereafter, an evaluation of the efiectiveness of the Protocol, includmg an assessinent of its procedures and annexes.
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Article .%
SlGNATlJKE
This Protocol shall he open for sipature at the United Nations Office at Nairobi by Stales and regional economic integation organizations from 15 to 26 May 2000, and at 10 ;liiited Nations Headquaners in New Yor!; from 5 June 2000 to 4 June 2001.
Article 37
ENTRY mro FORCE 1. This Protocnl shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit of
the fiftieth instrument of ratification, acceptance. approval or accession by States or 15 regional economic integration organizations that are Parties to the Convention.
2. TlUs Protmol shall enter into force for a State or regional economic integration orpamzation that ralifies, accepts or appro\'es this Protocol or accedes thereto after its entn into force pursuant to paragraph 1 above, oil the ninetieth day after the dale on which Uiat State or repional econonlic mtegratiim organization &posits 11s insirumtni of 20 ratification. acceptance, approval or accession. or on tile dale oii which the Convention enters into force lor that State or regimal rconoinic integration orgaization, whichever shall he the later.
3 . For the puq7oses of paragraphs 1 and 1- ahove, any instrument deposited hy ii regional economic integratiiiii organization shall not he counted as additional to tliosr 25 deposited by ineniber Slates of such organization.
Article 38
RESEIWATIONS
No reservations may be made to this Protocol.
Article 39
H'ITID)KA\VAL
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1. At any time after two years from the date on which this Frotc~~ol has entered into force for a Party, that Party may withdraw from the F~otocol by giving u m t m notification to tlie Depositary
2. Any such withdrawal shdl take placr upon expiry or one year after the date of its 35 receipt hy the Depositary, or on such later date as may be specified in the notification of Ihr withdrawal.
Article 40
AUTIIENTIC TEXTS
The original of this Prnlocol, of which tlie Arabic, Chinese. English. French Russian 40 and Spanish texts are equally authentic, sha l l be deposited wilh the Secretq-General of the United Nations.
IN WITNESS WITEREOF the undersigned., being duly authorized to that effect, have s i p e d this Protocol.
DONE at Montreal on Lhis twenty-nmth day of January, two thousand 45
AMEhTIME\T A 7 , 3 0 0 ( 1
Annex I
INFORMATION IWQLTmED IN WYFIF!CATJONS LWDER AKTICLES 8, : < I i W D 1.3
Name, addrcss and contact details of the exporter.
Name and identity of the living modified organism, as well 3s the domestic classification, if m y , of lhe hosafety level of the living nindified organism in the Slate of export. Intended date or dates of the transhoundar), mnvement. if known Taxoiioinic statns, conmion name, point of collection or acquisilion, and 10 charactenstics of recipient orgmism or parental organisns related tn biosafety. Centres of origin and centres of genctic diversitv, if knowi. of the recipient organism and/or the parental organisn~ and a description of the liabilats
Taxonomic status, common namr, p i n t oi cnlleciioii or ac.c:]uisitinn, and charactenstics or the donor organism or orpnnisrns rrlait? I C hiosafe ' Description of ciie nucieic acid io; iiie modiiicatioii lnlrci!uwd, :he tt used, nnd the resuhing characreristizs of the living moaikd irpnisiii. Intended uce of the living modified organism or products ttiereoi, namely, 20 processed matenals that are of living modified organism origin. containing detectable novel conihinations of replicable genetic malenal obtained thrnugh the use of mrxlem biolechnology. Quantity or volume of the living modified organism lo be transferred. A previous and existing risk assessniml report Consisleiit w ~ l h Annex 111. Suggested methods (or the safe hann;iling. smrage, tramport a i d use. including packaging, lahellin:, documentatifin, ~ S ~ O S Z I and cunt~iigcncy imxxdures. where appropriate. Regulator). stalus of the livin; iilodified organism ulthiil ihe Stale of e x p r t (for example, whether ii is prohibited in the Stale of export, whether there ,me 30 other restrictions. or whether it has been approved for general release) and, if' the living m&Gd organism is banned in the State of export, the reason or reasons for the han. Result and purpose of my notification by lhe exporler to other StRtes
A declaration that the above-mentioned infornlatioti IS factually correct.
Kame, address and contact delails 01 the importer. 5
where the organisnx may p s i s t or proliferate. 1s
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regardng the living modified organism 10 he transferred. 35
Annex !I
OR FOR PROCESSING I%EEI< AliTIC1.E 11
The name and contact details of OS the autlionty responsible for he decision. Name and identiry of the living modified organism. Description of the gene inodificaiion, tire technique used, and the resulting characteristics of the living modlied organism.
Taxonomic status, common name, point of collection or acquisition, and characteristics of recipient organism or parentd orpanism? related to biosafety. Centres of orimn and centres or genetic divers~iy, if h-niwn. of the recipient organism and/or ine parental or@sin? and ii descnpiicin of the hnbilats 15 where the organism? may persist or pioliferaie. Tanoiiomic stalus, common name, p n t or cdle-tion or acquisition. and Characteristics of the donor organism or o::anisms relaitd to hiosaiety. Approvd uses of the living modified ~qxmisrn.
Suggested methods for the safe handhng, sttirage, transport anduse, including packaging. Inhelling, documentation, disposal and contingency prwedures, where appropriate.
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Any unique identification or the liviiis modified organism. 10
A risk a.sessnien1 report consistent wilh Annex I J J . 10
Annex' III
RISK ASSESShEXl
Objective
1. The objective of risk assessment, uiider this Protocol. is 10 idmtify and evaluate the potential adverse effects of living niodified organism? on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity in the likely potential receiving environment, taking also into accnunt risks to human health.
Use of risk assessment
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2. fisk assessment is, intvr alia, used by competent authorities to make informed decisions regarding living modified organism?. 10
GenerRi principles
3. Risk assessmmt should he camed out in a scimtifically suind xid trnnspareiit m:~imer. and can take iiito account expert advice of; and guidelines deve lop l hy, relevant international organizations
4. Lack of scientific knowledge or scientific consensus should i'ot necessarily be 15 interpreted as indcaung a particular level of risk, an absence of risk, or an acceptable nsk.
S . Risks associated with living modified organisms or products thereof, namely. prcessed materials that are or living modified organism origin. containing detectable novel combinations of replicable genetic iiiiiterial obtainxi t h u p h the use of inodeni 20 hiotechnolo,7i, should he considered in Ihe context of the risks posed hy the nm-mndified recipients or parenpal organisms in the likely potenual receiving environment.
6. Risk assessment should he carried out on a case-by-case bayis. The required information may vary in nature and level of deiail from case to case. depending oii the 25 living modified organism concerned, its intended use and the likely potential receiving environnient.
Methndolngy
7. The process of risk assessment may on the one h,md give rise to a need for further information about speciiic subjects, whcli may Lx identified and requested during the 30 assessment process, whle on the other hand information on other subjects may not be relevant in some instances.
8. To fulfil its objective. risk assessment entails. as appropriate. the following steps: (a) An identification of any novel genotypic and phenotypic characteristics
associated with the living modified organism that may have adverse eflects on 35 biological diversity in the likely potential receivins environment. taking also into account risks to humcan health;
f h ) An evaluation of the likelihood o r these adverse efects k i n g realized. takiiig into account the level and kind of expsure of the likely potential receiving eiivironment to tlie living modified organism:
ic) An evaluation of the consequences should these adverse effects hr realized; id) An estimation of the overall risk posed hy the living modified organism hased
on liie evaiuation of the likelihood and consequences of the identified adverse effects being realized;
i ~ ) A recommendation as to whrther or not the risks are acceptahle or 45 manageable, including, where necessary, identification of strategies to manage these risks; and
il) Where there is uncertainty reganling tlie level of risk, it may he addressed hy requesting fudier information on the specific issues of concern or b y implementing appropriate risk nianageinenl strategies andlor nionitoring the 50 living modified organism in the receiving environiiient.
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nCi ss. 23, z m GESETICA~LY MoLmEr. t ORGAYISMS AW:NDMEVT x r . mx.
Points to consider
9. Depending on the case:. risk assessment mkes into account the rel-;vnnt technical
i n j Recipient organism or pnrentn! cqaniims. Tli: biolo$icai cn:irxleristiis 0: