Defence Act


Published: 1962-07-31

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DEFENCE

THE DEFENCE ACT

ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS

PART I. Preliminary

1. Short title.
2. Interpretation.
3. Provisions as to active service.
4. Establishment of Jamaica Defence Force.
5. Employment of Defence Force.
6. Formation into units.
7. Employment of Defence Force outside Jamaica.
8. Overseas traiuing.

PART IL Jamaica Defence Board

9. Establishment of Defence Board.
10. Membership of Defence Board.
11. Secretary of Defence Board.
12. Performance of functions of Defence Board.

13. Conditions of appointing officers.
14. Power to grant commissions.
15. Appointment and transfer of officers.
16. Power to make regulations for this Part.

PART W., Enlistment and Terms of Setvice in the Xegular Force
Enlistment ~

17. Recruiting Officers.
18. Enlistment.

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Terms and Conditions of service
19. Terms of enlistment.
20. Re-engagement and continuance in service.
21. Prolongation of service.

Discharge and Transfer to the Reserve

22. Discharge.
23. Transfer to the Reserve.
24. Postponement of discharge or transfer pending proceedings for

25. Restrictions on reduction in rank of warrant officers and non-

26. Right of warrant officer to discharge on reduction in rank.
27. Discharge upon prescribed grounds.
28. Right of soldier to purchase discharge.
29. Further provisions relating to purchase.

offences, etc.

commissioned officers.

Miscellaneous and supplementary provisions

30. Rules for reckoning service.
31. Validity of attestation and enlistment.
32. False answers in attestation papers.
33. Interpretation.

PART V. Discipline and Trial and Punishment of Military Oflences
Treachery, cowardice and oflences arising OM of military service

34. Aiding the enemy.
35. Communication with.the enemy.
36. Cowardly behaviour.
37. Offences against morale.
38. Becoming a prisoner of war through disobedience or wilful

39. Offences by or in relation to sentries, etc.
40. Looting.

neglect; and failure to rejoin forces.

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Mutiny and lrisubordination

41. Mutiny.
42. Failure to suppress mutiny.
43. Insubordinate behaviour.
44. Disobedience to particular orders.
45. Obstruction of provost officers.
46. Disobedience to standing orders.

Desertion, absence without leave, etc.

47. Desertion.
48. Absence without leave.
49. Assisting and concealing desertion and absence without leave.
50. Failure to perform military duties.

Malingering and drunkenness
51. Malingering.
52. Drunkenness.

Offences relating to property

53. Offences in relation to public and service property.
54. OEences in relation to property of members of forces.
55. Miscellaneous offences relating to property.

Flying, etc., offences

56. Dangerous flying, etc.
57. Inaccurate certification of aircraft. etc.
58. Low flying.
59. Annoyance by flying.

Offences relating to, and by, persons in custody

60. Irregular am& and confinement.
61. Permitting escape, and unlawful release of prisoners.
62. Resistance to ariest.
63. Escape from confinement.

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Offences in relation to courts-martial and civil authorities

64. Offences in relation to courts-martial.
65. False evidence.
66. Obstruction of police officer arresting officer or soldier.

Miscellaneous Offences

67. Injurious disclosures.
68. Making of false statements on enlistment.
69. Making of false documents.
70. Scandalous conduct of officer.
71. Ill-treatment of officers or men of inferior rank.
72. Disgraceful conduct.
73. False accusation.
74. Attempts to commit military offences.
75. Conduct to prejudice of military discipline.

Civil Offences
76. Civil offences.

Punishments

77. Punishment of officers.
78. Punishment of soldiers.
79. Field punishment.
80. Imprisonment.

Arrest

81. Power to arrest offenders.
82. Provisions for avoiding delay after arrest.

Investigation of, and summary dealing with, charges

83. Investigation of charges by commanding officer.
84. Charges to be dealt with summarily or by court-martial.
85. Further proceedings on charges against non-commissioned

officers and soldiers.

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86. Further proceedings on charges against officers and warrant

87. Dismissal of charges referred to higher authority.
88. Officers who are to act as commanding officers and appropriate

89. Limitation on powers of summary dealing with charges.

officers.

superior authorities.

Court-martial : general provisions

90. Trial by, and powers of, ordinary court-martial.
91. Trial by, and powers of, field court-martial.
92. Officers having powers to convene courts-martial.
93. Constitution of ordinary courts-martial.
94. Constitution of field courts-martial.
95. Supplementary provisions as to constitution of courts-martial.
96. Place for sitting of courts-martial and adjournment to other

places.

Courts-martial : provisions relating to trial

97. Challenges by accused.
98. Administration of oaths.
99. Courts-martial to sit in open court.

100. Dissolution of courts-martial
101. Decisions of courts-martial.
102. Finding and sentence.
103. Power to convict of offence other than that charged.
104. Rules of evidence.
105. Privilege of witnesses and others at courts-martial.
106. OBences by civilians in relation to courts-martial.
107. Mrmations.

Confirmation, revision and review of proceedings of courts-martial

108. Confirmation of proceedings of courts-martial.
109. Petitions against finding or sentence.
110. Revision of findings of courts-martial.
11 1. Powers of confirming authorities.

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6 DEFENCE

112. Confirming authorities.
1 13. Approval of death sentence by Governor-General.
114. Review of findings and sentences of courts-martial
115. Reconsideration of sentences of imprisonment and detention.

Review of Summary Findings and Awards

1 16. Review of summary findings and awards.

Findings of insanity, etc.

117. Provisions where accused found insane.

Commencement, suspension and duration of sentences

118. Commencement of sentences.
119. Duration of sentences of imprisonment or detention.
120. Restrictions on serving of sentences of detention in prisons.
121. Special provisions as to civil prisons in Jamaica.
122. Special provisions as to carrying out or serving of sentences

123. Country in which sentence of imprisonment or detention to be

124. Duties of officers in charge of prisons and others to receive

outside Jamaica.

served.

prisoners.

Trial of persons ceasing to be subject to military law under this
Act and time limited for trials

125. Trial and punishment of offences under this Act notwithstanding

126. Limitation of time for trial of offences under this Act.
offender ceasing to be subject thereto.

Relations between military and civil courts and finality of tnals

127. Powers of civil courts.
128. Persons not to be tried under this Act for offences already

disposed of.

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Inquiries
129. Boards of Inquiry.
130. Inquiries into absence.

Miscellaneous Provisions

131. Restitution or compensation for theft, etc.
132. Appointment of Judge Advocates.
133. Promulgation.
134. Custody of proceedings of court-martial and right of accused to

135. Indemnity for prison officers. etc.
a copy thereof.

Znterpretation of this Part

136. Interpretation of Part V.

Rules of Procedure, etc.

137. Rules of Procedure.
138. Imprisonment and Detention Regulations.
139. Board of Inquiry Rules.
140. Miscellanmus Regulations.

PART W. Appeals from courts-martial
141. Right of Appeal.
142. Procedure for applying for leave to appeal or lodging a p p L
143. Determination of appeals in ordinary casks.
144. Powers of Court of Appeal in special cases.
145. Commencement of sentence.
146. Appeals to be final.
147. Proceedings may be heard in absence of appellants.
148. Defence of appeals.
149. Right of appellant to present his case in writing.
150. Suspension of death sentence.
151. Person not to be tried again where conviction quashed.
152. Removal of prisoners for purposes of this Part.
153. Furnishing, on appeal, of documents relating to trial.

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154. Duties of Registrar of Court of Appeal with respect to appeals,

155. Saving of powers of reviewing authorities.
156. Composition of Court of Appeal.
157. Exercise of certain powers of Court of Appeal by a judge.
158. General provisions as to procedure.

etc.

PART VII. Forfeitures and Deductions

159. Forfeitures and deductions; general provisions.
160. Forfeiture of pay for absence from duty.
161. Deductions for payment of civil penalties.
162. Compensation for loss occasioned by wrongful act or negligence.
163. Deductions for barrack damage.
164. Review of orders and remission of forfeitures and deductions.
165. Enforcement of maintenance and a a t i o n orders by deduction

166. Deductions from pay for maintenance of wife or child.
167. Limit of deductions under sections 165 and 166 and effect on

168. Service of process in maintenance proceedings.

from pay.

forfeiture.

PART VIII. Government and General Provisions C o d

169. Command and precedence.
170. Command of Force.
171. Regulations as to command.
172. Powers of command of members of co-operating forces.


is committed in relation to any court-martial held in pur-
suance of this Act that court, if of opinion that it is
expedient that the offender should be dealt with summarily
by the court instead of being brought to trial before another
court-martial, may by order under the hand of the presi-
dent order the offender to be imprisoned for a period not
exceeding twenty-one days, or, in the case of a soldier, either
to be imprisoned for such a period or to undergo detention
for such a period.

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DEFENCE 49

(3) References in paragraphs (a) to (f, of subsection
(1) to a court-martial shall include references to a court
held in pursuance of service law.

65.-(1) Any person subject to military law under this False
evidmce. Act who, having been lawfiilly sworn as a witness or as

an interpreter in proceedings before a court under service
law or b:fore any board or person having power under
service law to administer oaths, makes a statement material
in those proceedings which he knows to be false or does
not believe to be true shall, on conviction by court-martial,
be liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two
years or any less punishment provided by this Act.

(2) A person shall not be liable to bs convicted of an
offence against this section solely upon the evidence of one
witness as to the falsity of any statement alleged to be false.

66. Any person subject to military law under this Act Obstruction
lof police

arresting
officer or

who at any place in the Commonwealth prevents or bffiwr

(a) the execution by a plice officer or constable of a iPoldier*
obs tmcb-

warrant for the arrest of a person subject to
service law who has committed or is suspected
of having committed an offence punishable on
conviction by a civil court; or

(b) the arrest of a person. subject to service law by
a police officer or constable acting in the exercise
or his powers of arrest without warrant,

shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable to imprison-
ment for a term not exceeding two years or any less punisb-
ment provided by this Act.

Miscellaneous Oflences

Act who without authority discloses, whether orally, in
67.-(1) Any person subject to military law under this Injurious

disclosures.

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50 DEFENCE

writing, by signal or by any other means whatsoever, any
information which is or purports to be information use-
ful to an enemy shall, on conviction by court-martial, bz
liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years
or any less punishment provided by this Act.

(2) In this section the expression “information use-
ful to an enemy” means information as to any matter such
that information as to it would or might be directly or
indirectly useful to an enemy, and in particular (but with-
out prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provisions
of this subsection) information as to any matter falling
within the following paragraphs, being a matter such that
information as to it would or might be useful as aforesaid,
that is to say-

(a) the number, description, armament, equipment,
disposition, movement or condition of any of the
Jamaica Defence Force or of any forces co-opxa-
ting therewith, or any of Her Majesty’s ships
or aircraft or of the ships or aircraft of any such
co-operating force; or

(b) any operations or projected operations of any of
such forces, ships or aircraft as aforesaid; or

(c) any code, cipher, call sign, password or counter-
sign; or

(d) any measures for the defence or fortification of
any place; or

(e) the number, description or location of any prison-
ers of war; or

( f ) munitions of war.

Makingof

mentson

68. Any person who, when before a recruiting officer
for the purpose of being attested has knowingly made a
false answer to any question contained in the attestation
papzr and put to him by or by direction of the recruiting

false state-

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DEFENCE 51

officer shall, if he has since become and remains subject
to military law under this Act, be liable on conviction by
court-martial, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding
three months or to any less punishment provided by this
Act.

69. Any person subject to military law under this Act Makingof
false
documents. who-

(a) makes, signs or makes an entry in any service
report, return, pay list or certificate or other
service document, being a document or entry
which is to his knowledge false in a material
particular; or

(b) alters any service report, return, pay list or certi-
ficate or other service document, so that the docu-
ment or entry is to his knowledge false in a
material particular, or suppresses, defaces or
makes away with any such document or entry
which it is his duty to preserve or produce; or

(c) with intent to defraud, fails to make an entry in
any such documents; or

(d) aids, abets, commands, counsels, procures or con-
nives at the commission by another person subject
to service law of an offence against this section
or the corresponding section of the applicable
service law, as the case may be (whether or not
he knows the nature of the document in relation
to which that offence will be committed),

shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable to im-
prisonment for a term not exceeding two years or any less
punishment provided by this Act.

70. Every officer subject to military law under this Act hmdalous
who behaves in a scandalous manner, unbecoming the ponduct offictr. of
character of an officer and a gentleman, shall, on convic-
tion by court-martial, be cashiered.

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52 DEFENCE

Ill-treatment 71. If-
of officers

inferior
or men of

rank.

(a) any officer subject to military law under this Act
strikes or otherwise ill-treats any officer subject
to service law of inferior rank or less seniority or
any soldier subject to service law; or

(b) any warrant officer or non-commissioned officer
subject to military law under this Act strikes or
otherwise ill-treats any person subject to service
law, being a warrant officer or non-commissioned
officer of inferior rank or less seniority or a
private soldier,

he shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable to im-
prisonment for a term not exceeding two years or any less
punishment provided by this Act.

Disgraceful 72. Any person subject to military law under this Act
who is guilty of disgraceful conduct of a cruel, indecent
or unnatural kind shall, on conviction by court-martial, bs
liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years
or any less punishment provided by this Act.

conduct.

False 73. Any pmon subject to military law under this Act

(a) makes an accusation against any officer or soldis
subject to service law, which he knows to be
false or does not believe to be true; or

(b) in making a complaint where he thinks himself
wronged, makes a statement decting the character
of an officer or soldisr subject to service law, which
he knows to be false or does not believe ta be true
or wilfully supprmes any material facts,

shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable to imprison-
ment for a term not exceeding two years or any less punish-
ment provided by this Act.

who- accusation.

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DEFENCE 53

74. Any person subject to military law under this Act to Attempts co mit
who attempts to commit an offence against any of the fore- military
going provisions of this Part shall, on conviction by court- offenes*
martial, be liable to the like punishment as for that offence:

Provided that if the offence is one punishable by death,
he shall not be liable to any greater punishment than im-
prisonment.

75. Any person subject to military law under this Act Conductto
who is guilty of any conduct or neglect to the prejudice bitary
of good order and military discipline shall, on conviction d i ~ h n e .
by court-martial, be liable to imprisonment for a term not
exceeding two years or any less punishment provided by
this Act.

rejudice of

Civil Oflences
76.-(1) Any person subject to military law under this civil

offences. Act who commits a civil offence whether in Jamaica or
elsewhere shall be guilty of an offence under this section.

(2) In this Act the expression “civil offence” means
any act or omission punishable by the law of Jamaica or
which, if committed in Jamaica, would be punishable by
such law and in this Act the expression “the corresponding
civil offence” means the civil offence the commission of
which constitutes the offence against this section.

(3) A person convicted by court-martial of an

(U) if the corresponding civil offence is treason or
murder, be liable to suffer death; and

(b) in any other case, be liable to suffer any punish-
ment or punishments which a civil court could
award for the corresponding civil offence, if com-
mitted in Jamaica, being a punishment or punish-
ments provided by this Act, or such punishment,

offence against this section shall-

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54 DEFENCE

not exceeding the maximum punishment which a
civil court could so award, as is so provided:

Provided that where a civil court could not so
award imprisonment, a person so convicted shall
be liable to suffer such punishment, less than
cashiering in the case of an officer, or discharge
with ignominy in the case of a soldier, as is so
provided.

(4) A person shall not be charged with an offence
against this section committed in Jamaica if the corres-
ponding civil offence is treason, murder, manslaughter,
treason-felony or rape.

( 5 ) Where the corresponding civil offence is murder
or manslaughter, an offence against this section shall be
deemed, for the purposes of subsection (4) to have been
committed at the place of the commission of the act or
occurrence of the neglect which caused the death, irres-
pective of the place of the death.

Punishments
77,-(1) The punishments which may be awarded to an

officer by sentence of a court-martial under this Act are,
subject to the limitations hereinafter provided on the
powers of certain courts-martial, those set out in the
following scale; and in relation to an officer references in
this Act to punishments provided by this Act are references
to those punishments.

Punishment
of officers.

(2) The said scale is-
(a) death;

\ (b) imprisonment;
(c) cashiering;
(4 dismissal from Her Majesty’s service;

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DEFENCE

(e) fine of a sum not exceeding the equivalent of

severe reprimand or reprimand;
(g) where the offence has occasioned any expense, loss

(3) For the purposes of this Part a punishment
specified in my paragraph of the said scale shall be treated
as less than the punishments specified in the preceding
paragraphs, and greater than those specified in the following
paragraphs, of the scale.

(4) Save as expressly provided in this Act, not more
than one punishment shall be awarded by a court-martial
for one offence.

(5 ) Stoppages may be awarded by a court-martial
either in addition to or without any other punishment.

(6) A severe reprimand or reprimand may be
awarded by a court-martial in addition to a fine imposed
under paragraph (e) of subsection (2).

(7) Where an officer is sentenced by a court-martial
to imprisonment, he shall also be sentenced to be cashiered :

Provided that if the court-martial fails to sentence him
to be cashiered, the sentence of imprisonment shall not be
invalid but shall be deemed to include a sentence of
cashiering.

ninety days’ pay;

or damage, stoppages.

78.41) The punishments which may be awarded to a Punishment
soldier by sentence of a court-martial under this Act are, ofsoldiers.
subject to the limitations hereinafter provided on the powers
of courts-martial, those set out in the following scale; and
in relation to a soldier references in this Act to punishments
provided by this Act are references to those punishments.

(2) The said scale is-
(a) death;
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56 DEFENCE

(b) imprisonment;
(c) discharge with ignominy from Her Majesty’s

service;
(4 in the case of a warrant officer, dismissal from Her

Majesty’s service;
(e) detention for a term not exceeding two years;
(f) where the offender is on active service on the day

of the sentence, field punishment for a period not
exceeding ninety days;

(g) in the case of a warrant officer or non-commis-
sioned officer, reduction to the ranks or any less
reduction in rank;

(h) fine of a sum not exceeding the equivalent of
ninety days’ pay;

(i) where the offence is desertion, forfeiture of ser-
vice;

(19 in the case of a warrant officer or non-commis-
sioned officer, severe reprimand or reprimand;

(k) where the offence has occasioned any expense, loss
or damage, stoppages.

(3) For the purposes of this Part a punishment
specified in any paragraph of the said scale shall be treated
as less than the punishments specified in the preceding
paragraphs, and greater than those specified in the follow-
ing paragraphs, of the scale:

Provided that detention shall not be deemed to be a less
punishment than imprisonment if the term of detention is
longer than the term of imprisonment.

(4) Save as expressly provided in this Act, not more
than one punishment shall be awarded by a court-martial
for m e offence.

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(5) A soldier sentenced by a court-martial to im-
prisonment may in addition thereto be sentenced to be
discharged with ignominy from Her Majesty’s service, and
a warrant officer sentenced by a court-martial to imprison-
ment may in addition thereto be sentenced to dismissal from
Her Majesty’s service.

(6) Where a warrant officer or non-commissioned
officer is sentenced by a court-martial to imprisonment,
detention or field punishment, he shall also be sentenced to
be reduced to the ranks :

Provided that if the court-martial fails to sentence him
to be so reduced, the sentence shall not be invalid but shall
be deemed to include a sentence of reduction to the ranks.

(7) In the case of a warrant officer or non-commis-
sioned officer a severe reprimand or reprimand may be
awarded by a court-martial in addition to a fine.

(8) Where an offender is on active service when
sentence of a court-martial is announced, a fine may be
awarded in addition to field punishment.

(9) Stoppages may be awarded by a court-martial
either in addition to or without any other punishment.

(10) Where an offender has been sentenced by a court-
martial to detention, then if he is subsequently sentenced
by a court-martial to imprisonment any part of the
sentence of the detention which has not been served shall
thereupon be remitted by virtue of this subsection.

(11) Without prejudice to the validity of any award,
an offender shall not be kept continuously in detention under
this Act for more than two years.

79. Field punishment shall consist of such duties or drills, Reld
punishment. in addition to those which the offender might be required

to perform if he were not undergoing punishment, and such
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58 DEFENCE

loss of privileges, as may be provided by and under rules
made under this Part, and may include confinement in such
place and manner as may be so provided and such personal
resitraint as may be necessary to prevent the escape of the
offender and as may be so provided.

Imprison- 80. Where in this Act it is provided that any person
subject to military law under this Act is liable on conviction
by court-martial to imprisonment and no term or maximum
term of imprisonment is specified then such person shall
be liable to imprisonment for any term.

ment.

Arrest
81.41) Any person subject to military law under this

Act found committing an offence against any provision
of this Act, or alleged to have committed or reasonably
suspected of having committed any such offence, may be
arrested in accordance with the following provisions of
this section.

(2) An officer may be arrested by an officer subject
to service law of superior rank, or, if engaged in a quarrel
or disorder, by such an officer of any rank.

(3) A soldier may be arrested by an officer, warrant
officer or non-commissioned officer subject to service law:

Provided that a person shall not be arrested by virtue
of this subsection except by a person of superior rank.

(4) A provost officer, or any officer, warrant officer
or non-commissioned officer subject to service law lawfully
exercising authority under a provost officer or on his behalf,
may arrest any officer, warrant officer, non-commissioned
officer or soldier :

Provided that an officer shall not be arrested by virtue
of this subsection except on the order of another officer.

Power to

offenders.
arrest

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DEFENCE 59

(5) The power of arrest given to any person by this
section may be exercised either personally or by ordering
into arrest the person to be arrested or by giving orders
for that person’s arrest.

rovisions
for avoiding

82.41) The allegations against any person subject to P
military law under this Act who is under arrest shall be duly adayafter
investigated without unnecessary delay, and as soon as may
be either proceedings shall be taken for punishing his
offence or he shall be released from arrest.

(2) Wherever any person subject to military law
under this Act, having been taken into military custody,
remains under arrest for a longer period than eight days
without a court-martial for his trial being assembled, a
special report on the necessity for further delay shall be
made by his commanding officer to the prescribed authority
in the prescribed manner, and a similar report shall be made
to the like authority and in the like manner every eight days
until a court-martial is assembled or the offence is dealt
with summarily or he is released from arrest :

Provided that in the case of a person on active service
compliance with this subsection shall be excused in so far
as it is not reasonably practicable having regard to the
exigencies of military operations.

(3) For the purposes of subsection (1) of section 60
the question whether there has been unnecessary delay in
the taking of any steps for the investigation of allegations
against a person under arrest shall be determined without
regard to the provisions of subsection (2) of this section.

Investigation of, and summary dealing with, charges
83. Before an allegation against a person subject to Investiga-

military law under this Act (hereinafter referred to as “the chargab,,
accused”) that he has committed an offence against any ;;gy$zt;

tion of

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60 DEFENCE

provision of this Part is further proceeded with, the
allegation shaall be reported, in the form of a charge, to the
accused’s commanding officer and the commanding officer
shall investigate the charge in the prescribed manner.

Chargesto

withsum-

bycourt-

84.-(1) After investigation, a charge against an officer
below the rank of lieutenant-colonel or against a warrant
officer may, if an authority has power under the following
provisions of this Part to deal with it summarily, be so
dealt with by that authority (in this Act referred to as “the
appropriate superior authority”) in accordance with those
provisions.

(2) After investigation, a charge against a non-
commissioned officer or private soldier may be dealt with
summarily by his commanding officer, subject to, and in
accordance with, the following provisions of this Part.

(3) Any charge not dealt with summarily as afore-
said shall, after investigation, be remanded for trial by
court-martial.

(4) Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing pro-
visions of this section, wher-

(a) the commanding officer has investigated a charge
against an officer or warrant officer; or

(b) the commanding officer has investigated a charge
against a non-commissioned officer or private
soldier, which is not one which can be dealt with
summarily,

the commanding officer may dismiss the charge if he is of
opinion that it ought not to be further proceeded with.

(5) References in this Act to dealing summarily with
a charge are references to the taking by the appropriate
superior authority or the commanding officer of the accused,
as the case may require, of the following action, that is to
say, determining whether the accused is guilty, dismissing

be dEalt

marily or

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DEFENCE 61

the charge or recording a finding of guilty accordingly, and
awarding punishment.

85.-(1) The following provisions of this section shall firther
have effect where the commanding officer has investigated ioncharges

soldier.

-dines

a charge against a non-commissioned officer or private rpainst inon-com-
nissioned
ofEcem and
soldiers.

(2) If-
(a) the charge is not one which can be dealt with

summarily and the commanding officer has not
dismissed it; or

(b) the charge is one which can be dealt with sum-
marily but the commanding officer is of opinion
that it should not be so dealt with,

he shall take 'the prescribed steps with a view to the charge
being tried by court-martial.

(3) Otherwise the commanding officer shall proceed
to deal with the charge summarily; and if he records a
finding of guilty he may award one or more of the follow-
ing punishments, that is to say-

(a) if the accused is a non-commissioned officer-
(i) a fine of a sum not exceeding the equivalent

of twenty-eigh t days' pay;
(ii) severe reprimand or reprimand;

(iii) where the offence has occasioned any ex-
pense, loss or damage, stoppages;

(iv) admonition;
(b) if the accused is a private soldier-

(i) detention for a period not exceeding forty-
two days or, if the accused is on active
service, field punishment for a period not
exceeding forty-two days;

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62 DEFENCE

a fine of a sum not exceeding the equivalent
of twenty-eight days’ pay;
where the offence has occasioned any ex-
pense, loss or damage, stoppages;
confinement to barracks for a period begin-
ning with the day of the sentence and not
exceeding twenty-eight days;
extra guards or pickets;
admonition.

(4) Where the accused is a lance-corporal, and the
commanding officer finds him guilty, the commanding
officer may, if he awards no other punishment or no other
punishment except stoppages, order the accused to be re-
duced to the ranks.

(5) Where the accused is an acting warrant officer
or acting non-commissioned officer, and the commanding
officer finds him guilty, the commanding officer may, if he
awards no other punishment or no other punishment except
stoppages, order the accused to revert to his permanent rank
or to assume an acting rank lower than that held by him
but higher than his permanent rank.

(6) Notwithstanding anything in subsection (3)
where the commanding officer has determined that the
accused is guilty and if the charge is dealt with summarily
will award punishment other than severe reprimand, re-
primand, admonition, confinement to barracks, extra
guards or pickets or where a finding of guilty (whatever
the punishment awarded) will involve a forfeiture of pay,
the commanding officer shall not record a finding until after
affording the accused an opportunity of electing to be tried
by court-martial; and if the accused so elects and does not
subsequently in accordance with regulations withdraw his
election the commanding officer shall not record a finding

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DEFENCE 63

but shall take the prescribed steps with a view to the charge
being tried by court-martial.

(7) Where a charge is one which can be dealt with
summarily, but the commanding officer has taken steps
with a view to its being tried by court-martial, any higher
authority to whom the charge is referred may refer the
charge back to the commanding officer to be dealt with
summarily; and on any such reference subsections (3), (4),
(5 ) and (6) shall apply as if the commanding officer
had originally been of opinion that the charge should be
dealt with summarily :

Provided that a charge shall not be referred back where
the accused has elected to be tried by court-martial and
has not withdrawn his election.

86.41) After investigating a charge against an officer ~urther
or warrant officer, the commanding officer shall, unless he Dnchmgm
has dismissed the charge, or the case is one where he has EkUzand
submit it in the prescribed manner to higher authority and
thereupon it shall be determined by such authority how the
charge is to be proceeded with in accordance with
subsections (2) and (3).

(2) If the charge is one which can be dealt with
summarily, it may be referred to the appropriate superior
authority.

(3) If the charge is not so referred, the prescribed
steps shall be taken with a view to its being tried by court-
martial.

(4) Where the charge is referred to the appropriate
superior authority, that authority shall investigate the
charge in the prescribed manner and determine whether
the accused is guilty of the charge and accordingly dismiss
the charge or record a finding of guilty :

proceedings

Warrant power, and proposes to direct trial by field court-martial, lofficers.

me inclusion of this page k authorized by L.N. 480119731

64 DEFENCE

Provided that if in the course of investigating the charge
the authority determines that it is desirable that the charge
should be tried by court-martial, the prescribed steps shall
be taken with a view to its being so tried.

(5) If the appropriate superior authority records
a finding of guilty, the authority may award one or more
of the following punishments, that is to say-

(a) a fine of a sum not exceeding the equivalent of
twenty-eight days’ pay;

(b) severe reprimand or reprimand;
(c) where the offence has occasioned any expense, loss

or damage, stoppages.
(6) Notwithstanding anything in subsection (4),

where the appropriate superior authority has determined
that the accused is guilty and if the charge is dealt
with summarily will award a fine under paragraph (a) of
subsection (5 ) or stoppages, or where a finding of guilty
will involve a forfeiture of pay, the authority shall not
record a finding until after affording the accused an
opportunity of electing to be tried by court-martial; and if
the accused so elects the authority shall not record a finding
but shall take the prescribed steps with a view to the charge
being tried by court-martial.

Dismissal
of charges
refemd to where a charge-
higher
authority.

87.-(1) Notwithstanding anything in sections 85 and 86

(a) has been referred to higher authority with a view
to its being tried by court-martial; or

(b) has been submitted to higher authority for deter-
mination how it is to be proceeded with,

that authority may refer the charge back to the com-
manding officer of the accused with a direction that it shall
be dismissed, and in any such case the commanding officer
shall dismiss the charge.

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DEFENCE 65

(2) The reference back of a charge in pursuance of
this section shall be without prejudice to the preferring of
another charge if the higher authority has so directed or
the commanding officer thinks fit.

8 8 . 4 1) In this Act the expression “commanding officer”, Officers who
in relation to a person charged with an offence, means either commanding
the officer for the time being commanding the unit to which oaf^^^^
the person belongs or is attached, or, if the person belongs ~g:;;.~.
or is attached to a part of a unit which is so separated from
the unit to which it belongs that the officer commanding
that unit cannot effectively exercise his powers as com-
manding officer over it, the officer commanding that part of
the unit.

(2) The following persons may act as appropriate
superior authority in relation to a person charged with an
offence, that is to say any officer having power to convene
ordinary courts-martial.

(3) Regulations may confer on officers, or any class
of officers, who by or under the regulations are authorized
to exercise the functions of commanding officer power to
delegate those functions, in such cases and to such extent
as may be specified in the regulations, to officers of a class

are to act as

so specified.

89.-(1) The charges which may not be dealt with by a L imitation
on powers commanding officer, the charges which may not be dealt o f s u m m a ~

with by an appropriate superior authority and the charges :c2:with
which may not be dealt with summarily by a commanding
officer or an appropriate superior authority except with
the permission of higher authority, shall be such as may
be specified by or under regulations. Any charge not so
specified, and, upon obtaining such permission as afore-
said, any charge which may be dealt with summarily with
such permission, may be dealt with summarily by a com-

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66 DEFENCE

manding officer or an appropriate superior authority, as
the case may be.

(2) In such case as may be specified in that behalf
by regulations, the powers of a commanding officer or
appropriate superior authority to award punishment shall
be subject to such limitations as may be so specified.

Court-martial : general provisions
Trial by, 90. Subject to the provisions of this Act, an ordinary
of,ordinary court-martial under this Act shall have power to try any
court- martial. person subject to military law under this Act for any

offence which under this Act is triable by court-martial and
to award for any such offence any punishment authorized
by this Act for that offence.

and powers

Trial by,

of, field on active service-
91.41) Where an officer commanding a body of troops

and powers

court-
martial. (a) being an officer to whom under subsection (1) of

section 86 a charge has been submitted for
determining how it is to be dealt with; or

(b) being the accused's commanding officer who has
investigated a charge which cannot be dealt with
summarily or which in his opinion ought not to
be so dealt with; or

(c) being the accused's commanding officer or the
appropriate superior authority who has investi-
gated a charge on which the accused has elected
to be tried by court-martial,

is of opinion that it is not possible without serious detri-
ment to the public service that the charge should be tried
by an ordinary court-martial, the officer may (whether or
not he is authorized to convene ordinary courts-martial)
direct that the charge shall be tried by a field court-martial.

me inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480/1973]

DEFENCE 67

(2) A field court-martial shall have the powers of an
ordinary court-martial, except that where the court con-
sists of less than three officers the sentence shall not exceed
imprisonment for a term of two years.

92.-(1) An ordinary court-martial may be convened by Officers
the Chief of Staff or any officer authorized to convene ordin- powers to

(2) A field court-martial may be convened by the
officer who directed that the charge should be tried by field
court-martial.

having

convene
courts-
martial.

ary courts-martial by the Defence Board.

(3) Any authorization under this section to convene

(a) may be made subject to restrictions, reservations,
exceptions or conditions;

(b) may be addressed to officers by name or by desig-
nation of their offices, and may be issued or given
to a named or designated officer, to a named or
designated officer and to the person for the time
being performing the duties of his office, to a
named or designated officer and his successors in
that office or to a named or designated officer and
such person and his successors;

(c) may be varied or may be revoked either wholly
or in part by the Defence Board.

ordinary courts-martial-

93.-( 1) An ordinary court-martial shall consist of the Constit~tion

Provided that an ordinary court-martial shall consist of

of ordinary
COUl-tS-
martial.

president and not less than two other officers :

five members if-
(a) an officer is to be tried; or
(b) the only punishment or the maximum punishment

which can be awarded in respect of a charge before
the court is death.

me inclusion of t h i s page is authorized by L.N. 480/1973]

68 DEFENCE

(2) Save as hereinafter provided, an officer shall not
be appointed a member of an ordinary court-martial unless
he belongs to Her Majesty’s military forces, is subject to
service law and has been an officer in any of Her Majesty’s
forces for a period of not less than two years or for periods
amounting in the aggregate to not less than two years.

(3) Not less than two of the members of an ordinary
court-martial shall be of a rank not below that of captain.

(4) The president of an ordinary court-martial shall
be appointed by order of the convening officer and shall not
be under the rank of field officer unless in the opinion of
the convening officer a field officer having suitable quali-
fications is not, with due regard to the public service,
available; and in any event the president of an ordinary
court-martial shall not be under the rank of a captain.

(5 ) The members of an ordinary court-martial, other
than the president, shall be appointed by order of the con-
vening officer or in such other manner as may be prescribed.

(6) An officer under the rank of captain shall not
be a member of an ordinary court-martial for the trial of
an officer above that rank.

Constitution

courts- Of
martid.

94.-(1) A field court-martial shall consist of the presi-
dent and not less than two other officers, or, if the conven-
ing officer is of opinion that three officers having suitable
qualifications are not available without serious detriment
to the public service, shall consist of the president and one
other officer.

(2) Save as hereinafter provided, the members of
a field court-martial shall be officers belonging to Her
Majesty’s military forces and subject to service law.

me inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480/1973]

DEFENCE 69

(3) The president of a field court-martial shall be
an officer appointed by the convening officer and shall not
be under the rank of captain.

(4) The members of a field court-martial, other than
the president, shall be appointed by order of the convening
officer or in such manner as may be prescribed.

95-41) The officer who convenes a court-martial shall Supple-

Provided that if in the case of a field court-martial it is ~;:;:;$-

men!ary
rowsions L town- not be a member of that court-martial:

not practicable in the opinion of the convening officer to martial.
appoint another officer as president, he may himself be
president of the court-martial.

(2) An officer who, at any time between the date on
which the accused was charged with the offence and the
date of the trial, has been the commanding officer of the
accused, and any other officer who has investigated the
charge against the accused, or who under service law has
held, or has acted as one of the persons holding, an enquiry
into matters relating to the subject matter of the charge
against the accused, shall not sit as a member of an ordin-
ary court-martial or act as judge advocate at such a court-
martial.

(3) If any court-martial is required to be convened
at any place where in the opinion of the convening officer
the necessary number of military officers having suitable
qualifications is not available to form the court, and can-
not be made available with due regard to the public service,
the convening officer may, with the consent of the proper
naval or air force authority, appoint any officer of Her
Majesty’s naval or air forces as president in lieu of a
military officer or as any other member of the court in lieu
of or in addition to a military officer or military officers :

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70 DEFENCE

Provided that no officer of Her Majesty’s naval or air
forces shall be qualified to act in relation to a court-martial
unless he is of corresponding rank to that which would
have been required in the case of a military officer and has
been an officer in any of Her Majesty’s forces for the like
period or periods as would have been so required.

(4) Where-
(a) the officer convening an ordinary court-martial

appoints a captain to be president, being of
opinion that a field officer having suitable quali-
fications is not with due regard to the public
service available;

(b) an officer directs that an offender shall be tried
by a field court-mdrtial, being of opinion that it
is not possible without serious detriment to the
public service that the offender should be tried by
an ordinary court-martial, or the officer conven-
ing a field court-martial appoints two officers only
to be members of the court, being of opinion that
three officers having suitable qualifications are
not without serious detriment to the public service
available, or appomts himself to be president,
being of opinion that it is not practicable to ap-
point another officer as president; or

(c) the officer convening any court-martial appoints
an officer not being a military officer as president
or any other member of the court, being of opinion
that the necessary number of military officers
having suitable qualification is not available to
form the court and cannot be made available with
due regard to the public service,

the order convening the court-martial shall contain a state-
ment of such opinion, and that statement shall be conclusive.

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DEFENCE 71

(5 ) In this section the expression “military officer”
means any officer belonging to Her Majesty’s military forces
and subject to service law.

%.-(1) Subject to the provisions of this section, a court- Placefor
martial shall sit at such place (whether within or without courts-
Jamaica) as may be specified in the order convening the adjourn-
court; and the convening officer may convene it to sit at ;‘:o

(2) A court-martial sitting at any place shall, if the
convening officer directs it to sit at some other place, and
may without any such direction if it appears to the court
requisite in the interests of justice to sit at some other place,
adjourn for the purpose of sitting at that other place.

sitting of

martial and

a place outside the limits of his command. places.

Courts-martial : provisions relating to trial
97.-(1) An accused about to be tried by any court-mar- Challenges

by accused. tial shall be entitled to object, on any reasonable grounds,
to any member of the court, whether appointed originally
or in lieu of another officer.

(2) For the purpose of enabling the accused to avail
himself of the right conferred by subsection (1) the names
of the members of the court shall be read over in the
presence of the accused before they are sworn, and he shall
be asked whether he objects to any of those officers.

(3) Every objection made by an accused to any
officer shall be considered by the other officers appointed
members of the court.

(4) If objection is made to the president and not less
than one-third of the other members of the court allow It,
the court shall adjourn and the convening officer shall
appoint an0 ther president.

(5) If objection is made to a member of the court
other than the president and not less than one-half of the

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72 DEFENCE

members entitled to vote allow it, the member objected to
shall retire and the vacancy may, and if otherwise the
number of members would be reduced below the legal
minimum shall, be filled in the prescribed manner by
another officer.

Administra-

oaths.
98.-(1) An oath shall be administered to every member

of a court-martial and to any person in attendance on a
court-martial as judge advocate, officer under instruction,
shorthand writer or interpreter.

(2) Every witness before a court-martial shall be
examined on oath :

Provided that where any child of tender years called as
a witness does not in the opinion of the court understand
the nature of an oath, his evidence may be received, though
not given upon oath, if in the opinion of the court he
is possessed of sufficient intelligence to justify the reception
of the evidence and understands the duty of speaking the
truth, so, however, that, where the evidence is given on be-
half of the prosecution, the accused shall not be liable to
be convicted upon such evidence alone unless it is cor-
roborated by some other material evidence in support there-
of implicating the accused.

(3) An oath required to be administered under this
section shall be in the prescribed form and shall be admin-
istered at the prescribed time by the prescribed person and
in the prescribed manner.

tion o€

Courts-

tositin
99.41) Subject to the provisions of this section, a court-

martial shall sit in open court and in the presence of the
accused.

(2) Nothing in subsection (1) shall affect the power
of a court-martial to sit in camera on the ground that it is
necessary or expedient in the interests of the administration

martial

open court.

[The inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480/1973]

DEFENCE 73

of justice to do so; and without prejudice to that power a
court-martial may order that, subject to any exceptions the
court may specify, the public shall be excluded from all or
any part of the proceedings of the court if it appears to the
court that any evidence to be given or statement to be made
in the course of the proceedings or that part, as the case
may be, might otherwise lead to the disclosure of any
information which would or might be directly or indirectly
useful to an enemy.

(3) A court-martial shall sit in closed court while
deliberating on their finding or sentence on any charge.

(4) A court-martial may sit in closed court on any
other deliberation amongst the members.

(5 ) Where a court-martial sits in closed court no
person shall be present except the members of the court
and such other persons as may be prescribed.

100.41) Where, whether before or after the commence- Dissolution
of courts- ment of the trial, it appears to the convening officer neces- martial.

sary or expedient in the interests of the administration of
justice that a court-martial should be dissolved, the con-
vening officer may by order dissolve the court-martial.

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of sub-
section (l), if after the commencement of the trial a court-
martial is, by reason of the death of one of the members
or for any other reason, reduced below the legal minimum,
it shall be dissolved.

(3) If after the commencement of the trial the presi-
dent dies or is otherwise unable to attend and the court is
not reduced below the legal minimum, then-

(a) if the senior member of the court is of the rank
of captain or corresponding rank or is of higher
rank, the convening officer may appoint him presi-
dent and the trial shall proceed accordingly; but

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74 DEFENCE

(b) if he is not, the court shall be dissolved.
(4) Without prejudice to the generality of sub-

section (l), if after the commencement of the trial it is
represented to the convening officer that owing to the sick-
ness or other incapacity of the accused it is impracticable
having regard to all the circumstances to continue the trial
within a reasonable time, the convening officer may dissolve
the court.

( 5 ) Where a court-martial is dissolved under the
foregoing provisions of this section the accused may be
tried by another court-martial.

Decisions

martial.
101.-(1) Subject to the provisions of this section, every

question to be determined on a trial by court-martial shall
be determined by a majority of the votes of the members
of the court.

(2) In the case of an equality of votes on the find-
ing, the court shall acquit the accused.

(3) A finding of guilty where the only punishment
which the court can award is death shall not have effect
unless it is reached with the concurrence of all members
of the court; and where on such a finding being come to
by a majority of the members there is no such concurrence,
the court shall be dissolved and the accused may be tried by
another court.

(4) Where the accused is found @ty and the court
has power to sentence him either to death or to some less
punishment, sentence of death shall not be passed without
the concurrence of all members of the court.

(5 ) In the case of an equality of votes on the sen-
tence, or on any question arising after the commencement
of a trial, except the finding, the president shall have a
second or casting vote.

of courts-

F e inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480/1973]

DEFENCE 75

102.-(1) Without prejudice to the provisions of section Finding and
sentence. 98, the finding of a court-martial on each charge shall be

announced in open court.
(2) Any finding of guilty shall be, and be announ-

ced as being, subject to confirmation.
(3) Any sentence of a court-martial, together with

any recommendation to mercy, shall be announced in open
court, and a sentence of a court-martial shall be, and be
announced as being, subject to confirmation.

103.41) An accused charged before a court-martial with Power to
an offence under this Act, may, on failure of proof of the

ing a higher degree of punishment, be found guilty of the tharged.
offence as having been committed under circumstances in-
volving a less degree of punishment.

(2) An accused charged before a court-martial
with any offence may be found guilty of attempting to
commit that offence.

(3) An accused charged before a court-martial
with attempting to commit an offence may be convicted
on that charge notwithstanding that it is proved that he
actually committed the offence.

(4) Where an accused is charged before a court-
martial under section 76 in respect of attempting to com-
mit a civil offence, he may be convicted on that charge not-
withstanding that it is proved that he actually committed
the civil offence.

(5 ) Where an accused is charged before a court-
martial with an offence against section 76, and the
corresponding civil offence is one in proceedings for which,
if he had been tried by a civil court for committing the
offence in Jamaica, he might have been found guilty of

offence having been committed under circumstances involv-

F e inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480/1973]

16 DEFENCE

another civil offence, then if the court finds that he has
committed that other civil offence he may be convicted of an
offence against section 76 in respect of the commission of
that other civil offence.

(6) An accused charged before a court-martial with
an offence specified in the first column of the Second
Schedule may be found guilty of an offence specified in
relation thereto in the second column of that Schedule.

Second
Schedule.

Rules of 104.-(1) Subject to the provisions of this Act the rules
of evidence to be observed in proceedings before courts-
martial shall be the same as those observed in civil courts
in Jamaica, and no person shall be required in proceedings
before a court-martial to answer any question or to pro-
duce any document which he could not be required to
answer or produce in similar proceedings before a civil
court in Jamaica.

(2) Notwithstanding anything in subsection (11, a
statutory declaration shall, in a trial by court-martial be
admissible as evidence of the facts stated in the declaration
in a case where, and to the extent which, oral evidence to the
like effect would be admissible in that trial :

Provided that a statutory declaration shall not be
admitted in evidence in any such trial on behalf either of
the prosecution or of the defence-

(a) where the declaration is put forward on behalf of
the prosecution, unless a copy of the declaration
has not less than seven days before the commence-
ment of the trial, been served on the accused; or

(b) where the declaration is put forward on behalf
of the defence, unless a copy of the declaration
has, not less than seven days before the com-
mencement of the trial, been served on the com-

evidence.

[The inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480/1973]

DEFENCE 77

manding officer of the accused or the commanding
officer of the accused has given his agreement in
writing to its admission; or

(c) in any case, if, not later than three days before
the commencement of the trial or within such
further time as the court-martial may in special
circumstances allow, the accused or, as the case
may be, the commanding officer of the accused
serves a notice in the prescribed form on the com-
manding officer or accused requiring that oral
evidence shall be given in lieu of the declaration;
or

(d) in any case, if the court-martial is of opinion that
it is desirable in the interests of justice that oral
evidence should be given in lieu of the declaration
and declares that it is of that opinion.
(3) A court-martial shall take judicial notice of all

matters of notoriety, including all matters within the
general service knowledge of the court, and of all other
matters of which judicial notice would be taken in a civil
court in Jamaica.

105. A witness before a court-martial or any other person Privilegeof
whose duty it is to attend on or before the court shall be andothem
entitled to the same immunities and privileges as a witness :Et:’-
before the Supreme Court of Jamaica.

witnesses

106.--(1) Where in Jamaica any person other than a Mencesby
civilians in
relation to
courts-

person subject to military law under this Act-
(a) having been duly summoned to attend as a witness martial.

before a court-martial, fails to comply with the
summons; or

(b) refuses to swear an oath when duly required by
a court-martial to do so; or

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78 DEFENCE

(c) refuses to produce any document in his custody
or under his control which a court-martial has
lawfully required him to produce; or

(d) when a witness, refuses to answer any question
which a court-martial has lawfully required him
to answer; or

(e) wilfully insults any person, being a member of a
court-martial or a witness or any other person
whose duty it is to attend on or before the court,
while that person is acting as a member thereof
or is so attending, or wilfully insults any such
person as aforesaid while that person is going to
or returning from the proceedings of the court; or

(f> wilfully interrupts the proceedings of a court-
martial or otherwise misbehaves before the court;
or

(g) does any other thing which would, if the court-
martial had been a court of law having power to
commit for contempt, have been contempt of that
court,

the president of the court-martial may certify the offence
of that person under his hand to the Supreme Court, and
that Court may thereupon inquire into the alleged offence
and after hearing any witnesses who may be produced
against or on behalf of the person charged with the offence,
and after hearing any statement that may be offered in
defence punish or take steps for the punishment of that
person in like manner as if he had been guilty of contempt
of the Supreme Court.

(2) In this section "court-martial" means a court
held under service law.

Affirmations. 107. If-
(a) a person required by virtue of this Act to take an

oath for the purposes of proceedings before a
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DEFENCE 79

court-martial objects to being sworn, and states
as the ground of his objection either that he has
no religious belief or that the taking of an oath
is contrary to his religious belief; or

(b) it is not reasonably practicable to administer an
oath to such a person as aforesaid in the manner
appropriate to his religious belief,

he shall be required to make a solemn affirmation in the
prescribed form instead of taking an oath.

Confirmation, revision and review of proceedings of
courts-martial

108.41) Where a court-martial finds the accused guilty
on any charge, the record of the proceedings of the court- ,onproned-
martial shall be transmitted to a confirming authority for kizf
confirmation of the finding and sentence of the court on w-t~.
that charge.

(2) A finding of guilty or sentence of a court-
martial shall not be treated as a finding or sentence of the
court until confirmed :

Provided that this subsection shall not affect the keep-
ing of the accused in custody pending confirmation, or the
operation of sections 109 and 110 or the provisions of this
Act as to confirmation or approval.

POsma-

109. At any time after a court-martial has sentenced the Petitions
accused, but not later than the prescribed time after
confirmation is completed, the accused may in the prescribed
manner present a petition against finding or sentence or
both.

110.-(1) A confirming authority may direct that a court- Revision of
findings of

martial.
martial shall revise any finding of guilty come to by the
court in any case where it appears to him-

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80 DEFENCE

(a) that the finding was against the weight of
evidence; or

(b) that some question of law determined at the trial
and relevant to the finding was wrongly deter-
mined.
(2) Any such direction shall be accompanied by

the necessary directions for the reassembly of the court,
and shall contain a statement of the reasons for the
direction.

(3) On any revision of a finding the court shall re-
consider the finding, and (unless the court adheres thereto)
may substitute therefor either a finding of not guilty or any
other finding to which the court could originally have come
at the trial in lieu of the finding under revision.

(4) On any such revision the court shall not have
power to receive further evidence.

(5 ) Where on any such revision the court either
adheres to the original finding or substitutes therefor a
finding of guilty of another offence, or of the same offence
in different circumstances the court may substitute a
different sentence for the original sentence :

Provided that the court shall not have power to sub-
stitute a sentence of a punishment greater than the punish-
ment or the greatest of the punishments awarded by the
original sentence, or to substitute a sentence which in the
opinion of the court is more severe than the original
sentence.

(6) The confirming authority shall not have power
to direct the revision of any substituted finding come to by
the court on a previous direction of the confirming
authority, or the revision of the original finding if adhered
to by the court on such a previous direction; but save as
aforesaid this Act shall apply to the proceedings of the court

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DEFENCE 81

on any such revision as it applies to their deliberations on
the original finding or sentence and any substituted finding
or sentence shall be treated for all purposes as an original
finding or sentence of the court :

Provided that the decision of the court on the revision
shall not be required to be announced in open court.

111.-(1) Subject to the provisions of section 110 and to confirming Powersof
the following provisions of this section, a confirming authorities.
authority shall deal with the finding or sentence of a couri-
martial either by withholding confirmation, if of opinion
that the finding of the court is unreasonable or cannot be
supported having regard to the evidence or involves a
wrong decision on a question of law or that, on any ground,
there was a miscarriage of justice, or by confirming the
finding or sentence or referring the finding or sentence, or
both, for conha t ion to a higher c o W g authority.

(2) In lieu of withholding confirmation of the find-
ing of a court-martial, a confirming authority may, if-

(a) some other finding of guilty could have been
validly made by the court-martial on the charge
before it; and

(b) he is of opinion that the court-martial must have
been satisfied of the facts necessary to justify that
other finding,

substitute that other finding, and if he does so he shall
consider in what manner, if at all, the powers conferred
by subsection (4) should be exercised.

(3) Where it appears to a confirming authority that
a sentence of a court-martial is invalid, he may, in lieu of
withholding confirmation of the sentence, substitute there-
for a sentence of any punishment or punishments which
could have been awarded by the court, not, being greater
than the punishment or the greatest of the punishments

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82 DEFENCE

awarded by the court and not in his opinion more severe
than that punishment or those punishments.

(4) In confirming the sentence of a court-martial,
the confirming authority may-

(a) remit in whole or in part any punishment awarded
by the court; or

(b) commute any such punishment for one or more
punishment or punishments provided by this Act,
being less than the punishment commuted.
(5) A finding or sentence substituted by the con-

firming authority or any sentence having effect after the
confirming authority has remitted or commuted punishment,
shall be treated for all purposes as a finding or sentence of
the court duly confirmed.

(6) The confirmation of a finding or sentence shall
not be deemed to be completed until the finding or sentence
has been promulgated; and in the event of any such sub-
stitution, remission or commutation as aforesaid the find-
ing or sentence shall be promulgated as it has effect after
the substitution, remission or commutation.

(7) Where the confirming authority determines to
withhold confirmation, the determination shall be promul-
gated and shall have effect as from the promulgation
thereof.

Confirming 112.-(1) Subject to the provisions of this section, the
following shall have power to confirm the finding and
sentence of any court-martial, that is to say-

(a) the officer who convened the court-martial or any
officer superior in command to that officer; or

(b) the successor of any such officer or superior
officer, or any person for the time being exercising
the functions of any such officer or superior
officer; or

authorities.

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DEFENCE 83

(c) failing any such officer as aforesaid-
(i) any officer appointed by the Defence Board

to act as confirming authority, whether for
the particular case or for a specified class
of cases; or

(ii) the Defence Board.
(2) The following shall not have power to confirm

(a) any officer who was a member of the court-martial;
or

(b) any person who, as commanding officer of the
accused, investigated the allegations against him
or who is for the time being the commanding
officer of the accused; or

(c) any person who, as appropriate superior authority
investigated the allegations against the accused :

Provided that a person excluded by the foregoing pro-
visions of this subsection may act as confirming authority
for a field court-martial, if otherwise having power to do
so, where he is of opinion that it is not practicable, having
due regard to the public service, to delay the case for the
purpose of referring it to another confirming authority.

(3) An authorization empowering the convening
of an ordinary court-martial may reserve for confirmation
by superior authority findings or sentences or both in such
circumstances as may be specified by or under the authori-
zation, and the powers conferred by subsection (1) shall
be exercisable subject to any such reservation.

the finding or sentence of a court-martial, that is to say-

113. A sentence of death shall not be carried into effect Approvalof
death sen-

Governor-
General.

unless it has been approved by the Governor-General acting k n e b y
on the recommendation of the Privy Council.

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84 DEFENCE

Review of
findings and
sentences
of courts-
martial.

1 1 4 . 4 1) A finding or sentence which has been confirmed
may at any time be reviewed by a reviewing authority, and
if after confirmation of a finding or sentence a petition is
duly presented under section 109 against the finding or
sentence then, subject to the provisions of this section, the
finding or sentence shall be so reviewed as soon as may be
after the presentation of the petition and after consideration
of the matters alleged therein.

(2) The reviewing authorities for the purposes of
this Act are-

(a) the Governor-General acting on the recommenda-
tion of the Privy Council;

(21) the Defence Board or (so far as the delegation ex-
tends) any officer to whom the powers of the
Defence Board as reviewing authority, or any of
those powers, may be delegated by regulations; or

officer.
(c) any officer superior in command to the confirming \

(3) If an appeal or an application for leave to
appeal is received by the Registrar of the Court of Appeal
under the provisions of Part VI, so much of subsection
(1) as requires the review of a finding or sentence against
which a petition has been presented shall thereupon cease
to apply to the finding to which the appeal or the applica-
tion for leave to appeal relates and the sentence passed in
consequence of that finding.

(4) On a review under this section the reviewing
authority may-

(a) in so far as the review is of a finding, quash the
finding and, if the sentence relates only to the
finding quashed, the sentence; or

(b) in so far as the review is of a sentence, quash the
sentence; or

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DEFENCE 85

(c) in any case, exercise the like powers of substitut-
ing findings, substituting valid for invalid sen-
tences and remitting or commuting punishment
as are conferred on a confirming authority by
subsections (2) to (4) of section 11 1,

and any substituted finding or sentence, or sentence having
effect after the remission or commutation of punishment,
shall be treated for all purposes as a sentence of the court
duly confirmed.

( 5 ) Where a reviewing authority exercises any of
the powers conferred by subsection (4), the determination
of the authority shall be promulgated and shall have effect
as from the promulgation thereof.

115.4 1) Sentences of imprisonment and detention beconsidera-
passed by courts-martial may be reconsidered by the Chief lsentences of

corresponding rank) as may be from time to time appointed 'detention-
by the Defence Board; and if on any such reconsideration
it appears that the conduct of the offender since his
conviction has been such as to justify remission of the
sentence, whether in part or in whole, it may be remitted
accordingly.

(2) The power to reconsider a sentence may be
exercised at any time after confirmation, and where after
review a sentence remains effective it shall be reconsidered
at intervals of six months :

Provided that delay in complying with this subsection
shall not invalidate the sentence.

Jtion of

limprison- of Staff or by such officers (not below the rank of colonel or lment and

Review of summary findings and awards
116.41) Where a charge has been dealt with summarily, Review of

summary otherwise than by the dismissal thereof, the authority fi ndings and
hereinafter mentioned may at any time review the finding awards.
or award.

me inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480/1973]

86 DEFENCE

(2) The said authority is-
(a) the Defence Board; or
(b) any officer superior in command to the officer who

dealt summarily with the charge.

(3) Where on a review under this section it appears
to the said authority expedient so to do by reason of any
mistake of law in the proceedings on the summary dealing
with the charge or of anything occurring in those proceed-
ings which in the opinion of the authority involved sub-
stantial injustice to the accused, the authority may quash
the finding.

(4) If a finding in any proceedings is quashed
under subsection (3) and the award made in those pro-
ceedings relates only to the finding quashed, the authority
shall also quash the award; and if the award relates also
to any other finding and it appears to the authority that
the award was not warranted by this Act in respect of that
other finding, the authority may vary the award by
substituting such punishment , o r punishments as the
authority may think proper, being a punishment or
punishments which could have been included in the origi-
nal award in relation to that other finding, and not being
in the opinion of the authority more severe than the punish-
ment or the punishments included in the original award.

( 5 ) Where on a review under this section it appears
to the said authority that a punishment awarded was in-
valid, or too severe, or (where the award included two or
more punishments) that those punishments or some of them
could not validly have been awarded in combination or
are, taken together, too severe, the authority may vary the
award by substituting such punishment or punishments as
the authority may think proper, being a punishment or
punishments which could have been included in the
cjriginal award and not being in the opinion of the authority

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DEFENCE 87

more severe than the punishment or punishments included
in the original award.

Findings of insanity, etc.

tial, it appears to the court that the accused is by reason
of insanity unfit to stand his trial, the court shall so find;
and if the finding is confirmed in accordance with the
following provisions of this section the accused shall be
kept in custody in such manner as may be provided by or
under regulations under this Part until the directions of
the Governor-General are known or until any earlier time at
which the accused is fit to stand his trial.

(2) Where, on the trial of a person by court-mar-
tial, it appears to the court that the evidence is such as, apart
from any question of insanity, to support a finding that the
accused was guilty of any offence, but that at the time of the
acts constituting that offence the accused was insane, the
court shall find that the accused was guilty of that offence
but was insane at the said time, and thereupon the accused
shall be kept in custody in such manner as may be provided
by or under regulations under this Part until the directions
of the Governor-General are known.

(3) In the case of any such finding as aforesaid
the Governor-General may give orders for the safe custody
of the accused during his pleasure in such place and in such
manner as the Governor-General thinks fit.

(4) A finding under subsection (1) shall not have
effect unless and until the finding has been confirmed by
an authority who would have had power to confirm a find-
ing of guilty come to by the court-martial in question and
has been promulgated.

(5) Where the court or the confirming authority
comes to or substitutes a finding of guilty but insane the

117.-(1) Where, on the trial of a person by court-mar- Provisions
Where

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88 DEFENCE

confirming authority or, as the case may be, the reviewing
authority shall not have power to substitute for that find-
ing a finding of guilty; but save as aforesaid the provisions
of this Act as to revision, confirmation and review (and
in particular the provisions of this Act which confer power
to substitute for any finding any other finding which could
have been come to by the court-martial in question) apply
in relation to such findings as are provided for by subsection
(2) as those provisions apply in relation to other findings
of guilty.

Commencement, suspension and duration of sentences
118. A military sentence of imprisonment or detention

or a sentence of field punishment shall, subject to the pro-
visions of section 142 (which empowers the Court of Appeal
in certain cases to direct that a sentence shall begin to run
from the day on which the Court dismisses an application
for leave to appeal), begin to run from the beginning of the
day on which sentence was originally pronounced by the
court-martial trying the offender or, as the case may be, was
originally awarded by his commanding officer.

Commence-

mentof sentences.

Durationof

imprison-

mantor detention.

119.41) Where any person serving a military sentence
of imprisonment or detention becomes unlawfully at large
during the currency of the sentence, then, in calculating
the period for which he is liable to be imprisoned in
pursuance of the sentence, no account shall be taken of
time elapsing during the period beginning with the day on
which he became at large and ending with the day on which,
as a person having become unlawfully at large, he is taken
into military, naval or air force custcdy or the custody of a
civil authority or (not having been taken into such custody)
returns to the place in which he was imprisoned or detained
before he became unlawfully at large :

sentences of

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DEFENCE 89

Provided that if he satisfies such authority as may be
specified in that behalf by or under Imprisonment and
Detention Regulations that during any time during the last-
mentioned period he was-

(a) in the custody of a civil authority; or
(b) if and in so far as Imprisonment and Detention

Regulations so provide, in the custody of any
military, naval or air force authority of any country
or territory outside Jamaica as respects which
arrangements have been made under section 122,

otherwise than on account of an offence committed by him
while unlawfully at large, the last-mentioned time shall not
be disregarded in calculating the period for which he is
liable to be imprisoned or detained in pursuance of the
military sentence.

(2) In subsection (1) the expression “civil authority”
means a civil authority (whether of Jamaica or of any
country or territory outside Jamaica), authorized by law to
detain pzrsons, and includes a police officer or constable.

(3) Without prejudice to subsection (1) where any
psrson serving a military sentence of imprisonment or
detention has in accordance with Imprisonment and
Detention Regulations been temporarily released on com-
passionate grounds, then, in calculating the period for which
he is liable to be imprisoned or detained in pursuance of the
sentence, no account shall be taken of time elapsing during
the period beginning with the day after that on which he is
released and ending with the day on which he is required to
return to custody.

(4) A person who for any period is released as
mentioned in subsection (3) or who is otherwise allowed,
in pursuance of Imprisonment and Detention Regulations,
out of military custody for any period or subject to any
condition shall, on failure to return at the expiration of the

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90 DEFENCE

Restricfions
on sernng
of sentences
of detention
In prisons.

Special
provlsions
as to civil
prisons in
Jamaica.

period or to comply with the condition, be treated for the
purposes of subsection (1) as being unlawfully at large.

(5) A person serving a military sentence of im-
prisonment or detention in civil custody who, after being
temporarily released under civil law, is at large at any time
during the period for which he is liable to be detained in
civil custody in pursuance of his sentence shall be deem:d
to be unlawfully at large if the period for which he was
temporarily released has expired or if an order recalling
him has bzen made in pursuance of civil law.

(6) References in subsection (5 ) to release or recall
under civil law are references to release or recall in pur-
suance of the law of the country or territory in which he
is serving his sentence.

120. A person shall not be required to serve any part of
a military sentence of detention in a military or civil prison :

Provided that in such cases and subject to such condi-
tions as may be specified by or under Imprisonment and
Detention Regulations a person serving such a sentence
may be temporarily detained in a military or civil prison
for any period not exceeding seven days.

121. A person sentenced to death or imprisonment and
committed or transferred to a civil prison in pursuance of
regulations made under this Part or of Imprisonment and
Detention Regulations shall, while in that prison, be con-
fined and otherwise dealt with in the same manner as a
person confined therein under a like sentence of a civil
court.

Special 122. The Minister may from time to time make arrange-
astocarry- ments with the authorities of any country or territory out-
ingoutor serving f side Jamaica whereby sentences of death passed by courts-
sentences martial may in accordance with regulations made under

provisions

outside
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DEFENCE 91

this Part be carried out in establishments under the con-
trol of those authorities and military sentences of imprison-
ment or detention may in accordance with Imprisonment
and Detention Regulations be served wholly or partly in
such establishments.

123.-(1) A person who is serving a military sentence of Countryin
imprisonment or detention in Jamaica may (in so far as kntenceof
may be specified by or under Imprisonment and Detention E2z-
Regulations) be removed out of Jamaica to any place where g;t;:$;,to
the unit or any part thereof to which for the time being he
belongs is serving or is under orders to serve, but not to any
other place.

(2) Subject to the following provisions of this
section, a person sentenced under this Act by a court-
martial held out of Jamaica, to imprisonment or detention
for more than twelve months shall as soon as practicable
after the confirmation of the sentence is completed b: re-
moved to Jamaica.

(3) Where a person has been sentenced under this
Act by a court-martial held out of Jamaica to imprison-
ment or detention for more than twelve months, the confirm-
ing or reviewing authority may, notwithstanding anything
in subsection (2), direct that he shall not be required to be
removed to Jamaica until he has served such part of his sen-
tence, not exceeding (in the case of a sentence of more than
two years’ imprisonment) two years, as may be specified in
the direction; and in determining whether or not to exercise
the powers conferred by this subsection, a confirming or
reviewing authority shall have regard to any recommenda-
tion in that behalf made by the court-martial.

(4) Any direction of a confirming authority under
this section may at any time be revoked by the confirming
authority or by a reviewing authority, or superseded by

Which

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92 DEFENCE

any direction of a confirming authority or a reviewing
authority which the authority could have given under sub-
section (3); and any direction of a reviewing authority under
this section may at any time be revoked by a reviewing
authority or superseded as aforesaid.

( 5 ) Any direction given under this section, and the
revocation of any such direction, shall be promulgated.

(6) In ascertaining at any time for the purposes of
this section the nature or length of a sentence regard shall
be had to any commutation or remission of the sentence
previously directed.

Duties of 124.-(1) It shall be the duty, in so far as regulations
charge Officersin of made under this Part or Imprisonment and Detention
prisons and Regulations so provide, of the superintendent or other
0thC.rS to
receive person in charge of a prison (not being a military prison)

$0 receive any person duly sent to that prison in pursuance
of such rules and to confine him until execution of the sen-
tence is completed or the prisoner is discharged or delivered
over in due course of law.

prisoners.

(2) Where a person is in military custody in pur-
suance of a military sentence of imprisonment or dzten-
tion, then on receipt of a written order in that bchalf pur-
porting to be signed by that person’s commanding officer,
it shall be the duty of any such superintendent or other
person as aforesaid or the police officer or constable in
charge of a police station or of any person in charge of any
other place in which prisoners may be lawfully confined to
keep that pmon in custody for a period not exceeding
seven days unless the said person is earlier discharged or
ddivered over in due course of law.

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DEFENCE 93

Trial of persons ceasing to be subject to military law
under this Act and time limited for trials

125.41) Subject to the provisions of section 126, where Trialand
an offence under this Act triable by court-martial has been ,ofoffences
committed, or is reasonably suspected of having been com- 'gEoy
mitted by any person while subject to military law under withstandiw offender
this Act, then in relation to that offence he shall be treated, aasinp to
for the purposes of the provisions of this Act relating to ~~~~'
arrest, keeping in custody, investigation of charges, trial
and punishment by court-martial (including confirmation,
review, and reconsideration) and execution of sentences as
continuing subject to military law under this Act notwith-
standing his ceasing at any time to be subject thereto.

(2) Where, while a person is in military custody by
virtue of this section (whether before, during or after trial)
he commits, or is reasonably suspected of having com-
mitted, an offence which if he were subject to military law
under this Act would be an offence under this Act triable
by court-martial, then in relation to that offence or suspected
offence he shall be treated, for the purposes of the provisions
of the law mentioned in subsection (1) and the provisions
thereof as to the summary dealing with charges, as having
been subject to military law under this Act when the offence
was committed or is suspected of having been committed
and as continuing subject thereto thereafter.

(3) Where by virtue of either subsection (1) or sub-
section (2) a person is treated as being at any time subject
to military law under this Act for the purpose of any pro-
vision of this Act, that provision shall apply to him-

(a) if he holds any military rank, as to a person hav-
ing that rank;

(b) otherwise as to a person having the rank which
he had when last actually subject to military law
under this Act :

punishment

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94 DEFENCE

Provided that as respects any time after he has been sen-
tenced for the offence in question and the sentence has been
confirmed the said provision shall apply to him (in any case)
as to a private soldier.

(4) Where apart from this subsection any provision
of this Act would under subsection (3) apply to a person,
in relation to different offences, as to a person having
different ranks, it shall apply to him as to a person having
the lower or lowest of those ranks.

Limitation

trialof

Offences under this
Act.

126.-(1) No person shall be tried by court-martial for
any offence, other than one against section 41 or section 42
or desertion, unless the trial is begun within three years
after the commission of the offence, there being disregarded
any time during which he was a prisoner of war and any
time during which he was illegally absent :

of time for

Provided that-
(a) in the case of an offence against section 76 where

proceedings for the corresponding civil offence
must, by virtue of any enactment, be brought
within a limited time, that limit of time shall apply
to the trial of the offence under the said section 76
in substitution for the foregoing provisions of this
subsection;

(b) subject to any such limit of time as is mentioned
in paragraph (a), a person may be tried by court-
martial for a civil offence committed outside
Jamaica notwithstanding that it was committed
more than three years before the beginning of the
trial, if the Director of Public Prosecutions consents
to the trial.
(2) Where a person who has committed an offence

of desertion, other than desertion on active service, has
since the offence served as a member of the regular Force

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DEFENCE 95

continuously in an exemplary manner for not less than three
years, he shall not be tried for the offence.

(3) A person shall not be triable by virtue of sub-
section (1) of section 125 unless his trial is begun within
three months after he ceases to be subject to military law
under this Act or the trial is for a civil offence committed
outside Jamaica and the Director of Public Prosecutions
consents to the trial :

Provided that this subsection shall not apply to an offence
against section 41 or section 42 or to desertion.

(4) A person shall not be arrested or kept in
custody by virtue of subsection (1) of section 125 for an
offence at any time after he has ceased to be triable for the
offence.

Relations between military and civil courts
and finality of trids

Act shall restrict the offences for which persons may be
tried by any civil court, or the jurisdiction of any civil court
to try a person subject to military law under this Act for
any offence.

127.-(1) Save as provided in section 151, nothing in this P o w e ~ o f
civil courts.

(2) Where a person is tried by a civil court for any
offence, and he has previously been sentenced by court-
martial held under service law to punishment for any act
constituting (whether wholly or in part) that offence, or
in pursuance of this Act he has been punished for any such
act by his commanding officer or an appropriate superior
authority, the civil court shall, in awarding punishment,
have regard to his punishment in pursuance of this Act.

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96 DEFENCE

Persons not
to be tried
under this
Act for
offences
already dis-
posed of.

1 2 8 4 1 ) Where a person subject to military law under
this Act-

(a) has been tried for an offence by a competent civil
court or a court-martial under service law; or

(b) has been charged with an offence under service
law, and has had the charge dismissed, or has been
found guilty on the charge, by his commanding
officer or an appropriate superior authority; or

(c) has had an offence condoned by his commanding
officer,

he shall not be liable in respect of that offence to be tried
by court-martial or to have the case dealt with summarily
by his commanding officer or an appropriate superior
authority.

(2) For the purposes of this section-
(a) a person shall not be deemed to have been tried

by a court-martial if confirmation is withheld of
a finding by the court-martial that he is guilty
of the offence;

(b) a case shall be deemed to have been dealt with
summarily by the commanding officer or an
appropriate superior authority notwithstanding
that the finding of that officer or authority has
been quashed, or the award of that officer or
authority quashed or varied, on the review thereof;

(c) an offence shall be deemed to have been condoned
by the commanding officer of a person alleged to
have committed the offence if, and only if, that
officer or any officer authorized by him to act in
relation to the alleged offence has with knowledge
of all relevant circumstances informed him that
he will not be charged therewith;

(6) a person ordered under subsection (2) of section
64 or the corresponding provisions of any service

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DEFENCE 97

law, to be imprisoned or to undergo detention
for an offence against that section or provision
shall be deemed to have been tried by court-
martial for the offence.
(3) Subject to the provisions of subsection (2) of

section 143, where confirmation of a finding of guilty of an
offence is withheld the accused shall not be tried again by
court-martial for that offence unless the order convening
the later court-martial is issued not later than twenty-eight
days after the promulgation of the decision to withhold
confirmation.

(4) Save as provided in the foregoing provisions
of this section, proceedings for an offence against this Act
(whether before a commanding officer or appropriate
superior authority or before a court-martial) shall not be
barred on the ground of condonation.

Inquiries
129.-(1) Subject to and in accordance with the provi- oardsof

to as Board of Inquiry Rules), the Defence Board or any
officer empowered by or under such Rules so to do, may
convene a board of inquiry to investigate and report on
the facts relating t o -

(a) the absence of any person subject to military law
under this Act; or

(b) the capture of any such person by the enemy; or
(c) the death of any person where an inquiry into the

death is not required to be held by any civil
authority; or

(4 any other matter of a class specified in such Rules
or referred to such a board by the Defence Board
or any such officer as aforesaid,

sions of rules made under this Part (hereinafter referred LwirY.

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98 DEFENCE

and a board of inquiry shall, if directed so to do, express
their opinion on any question arising out of any matters
referred to the board.

(2) A board of inquiry shall consist of such number
of persons as may be provided for by Board of Inquiry
Rules who shall be persons subject to service law and the
president of a board of inquiry shall be an officer not below
the rank of lieutenant or corresponding rank.

(3) Evidence given before a board of inquiry shall
not be admissible against any person in proceedings before
a court-martial, commanding officer or appropriate superior
authority other than proceedings for an offence against
section 65 or for an offence against section 76 when the
corresponding civil offence is perjury.

Inquiries

absence.
130.-(1) Where a board of inquiry inquiring into the

absence of an officer or soldier of the Jamaica Defence
Force reports that he has been absent without leave or other
sufficient cause for a period specified in the report, not being
less than twenty-one days, a record of the report shall in
accordance with Board of Inquiry Rules be entered in the
service books.

(2) A record entered in pursuance of subsection
(1) shall, unless the absentee subsequently surrenders or is
arrested, or the report of the board of inquiry is annulled
by the Defence Board or a subsequent board of inquiry,
have the like effect as a conviction by court-martial for
desertion.

into

Miscellaneous Provisions
131.-(1) The following provisions shall have effect where

a person has been convicted by court-martial of unlawfully
obtaining any property, whether by stealing it or receiving

Restitution

sationfor
theftsetc.

or compen-

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DEFENCE

it knowing or having reason to believe it to have been
stolen, fraudulently misapplying it or otherwise.

(2) If any of the property unlawfully obtained has
been found in the possession of the offender, it may be
ordered to be delivered or paid to the person appearing
to be the owner thereof.

(3) If there has been found in the possession of
the offender any property (other than money) appearing
to have been obtained by him by the conversion or exchange
of any of the property unlawfully obtained, the property
may be ordered to be delivered to the person appearing
to be the owner of the property unlawfully obtained.

(4) Where money is found in the possession of the
offender, then' whether or not it appears to have been
obtained as aforesaid an order may be made that there shall
be paid out of that money to the person appearing to be
the owner of the property unlawfully obtained such sum as
may be specified in the order as or towards compensation
for the loss caused to the said person by the offence, in so
far as not otherwise made good under this Act or by the
recovery of the property unlawfully obtained.

( 5 ) Where any of the property unlawfully obtained
has been sold or given in pawn to some other person who
did not then know it to have been unlawfully obtained, an
order may be made that, subject to the restitution to the
owner thereof of the property sold or given as aforesaid,
there shall be paid to the said other person, out of any
money found in the possession of the offender (whether or
not the money appears to be proceeds of the sale or giving
in pawn), such sum as may be specified in the order as or
towards compensation for the loss caused to him in con-
sequence of the sale or giving in pawn.

(6) Where any of the property unlawfully obtained
has been given in exchange to some other person who did

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100 DEFENCE

not then know it to have been unlawfully obtained, an order
may be made that, subject to the restitution to the owner
thereof of the property given as aforesaid, there shall be
restored to the said other person the property taken in
exchange for the property unlawfully obtained.

(7) An order under this section may be made by the
court-martial by whom the offender is convicted, by the con-
firming or by any reviewing authority; and in this section
the expression “appearing” means appearing to the court,
officer or authority making the order.

(8) An order under this section made by a court-
martial shall not have effect until confirmed by the c o n k -
ing authority; and the provisions of this Part as to the con-
firmation and review of the proceedings of courts-martial
shall apply to an order under this section as they apply to
a sentence.

(9) The operation of any order under this section
shall be suspended-

(U) in any case, until the expiration of the period
prescribed under Part VI as the period within
which an application for leave to appeal to the
Court of Appeal against the conviction must be
lodged; and

(b) if such an application is duly lodged, until either
the application is finally refused or is withdrawn
or the appeal is determined or abandoned,

and where the operation of such an order as aforesaid is
suspended under tlRs section-

(c) it shall not take effect if the conviction is quashed
on appeal;

(6) the Court of Appeal may by order annul or vary
the order although the conviction is not quashed;

(e) such steps shall be taken for the safe custody,
during the period during which the operation of

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DEFENCE 101

the order is suspended, of the property ordered to
be restored or handed over or the money to which
the order relates as may be provided by rules of
court made under Part VI.

(10) Notwithstanding anything in subsection (91, an
order under this section shall not, so far as it relates to the
delivery of property to the person appearing to be the owner
thereof, be suspended if the court or authority making the
order directs to the contrary in any case in which, in the
opinion of the court or authority, the title to the property
is not in dispute.

(11) An order under this section shall not bar the
right of any person, other than the offender or a person
claiming through him, to recover any property delivered
or paid in pursuance of such an order from the person to
whom it is delivered or paid.

132. The appointment of a Judge Advocate to act at any Appint-
meat of court-martial may be made by the Defence Board or by the Judge

convening officer. Advocates.

133. Any finding, sentence, determination or other thing Promdga-
required by this Act to be promulgated shall be promul- tion.
gated either by being communicated to the accused or in
such other manner as may be prescribed or as the confirm-
ing authority or reviewing authority, as the case may be,
may direct.

134.-(1) The record of the proceedings of a court-martial a t o d y o f
shall be kept in the custody of the Defence Board for not ~ ~ f l ! w s
less than the prescribed period, being a period sufficient to I ~ ~ r s a n d
ensure that the rights conferred by subsection (2) and sub- accused toaco y

(2) Subject to the provisions of this section, any
person tried by a court-martial shall be entitled to obtain

section (3) shall be capable of being exercised. thereof.

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102 DEFENCE

from the Defence Board on demand at any time within the
relevant period and on payment therefor at such rate, if any,
as may be prescribed a copy of the record of the proceedings
of the court.

(3) Where a person tried by court-martial dies
within the relevant period, his personal representatives or
any person who in the opinion of the Defence Board ought
to be treated for the purposes of this subsection as his
personal representative shall subject to the provisions of
this section be entitled to obtain from the Defence Board
on demand at any time within the period of twelve months
from the death and on payment therefor at the prescribed
rate a copy of the record of the proceedings of the court.

(4) If, on an application in pursuance of either sub-
section (2) or subsection (3) for a copy of the record of any
proceedings, the Minister certifies that it is requisite for
reasons of security that the proceedings or any part thereof
should not be disclosed, the applicant shall not be entitled
to a copy of the proceedings or part to which the certificate
relates.

(5 ) In this section the expression “the relevant
period” in relation to any person tried by court-martial,
means the period of five years beginning with the date of
his acquittal or, where he was convicted, of the promulga-
tion of the findings and sentence or, where a finding of
guilty was not confirmed, of the promulgation of the with-
holding of confirmation :

Provided that where the proceedings relate to two or
more charges and the person tried was acquitted on one or
more of the charges and convicted on another or others, the
relevant period shall be the period of five years beginning
with the date of the promulgation of the finding or findings
of guilty and the sentence thereon or of the withholding of
confirmation of that finding or those findings.

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DEFENCE 103

(6) Any reference in this section to the record of the
proceedings of a court-martial includes a reference to the
record of the proceedings with respect to the confirmation
or revision of the findings and sentence of the court-martial.

135, No action shall lie in respect of anything done by bdanniw
any person in pursuance of a military sentence of imprison- P~%,O&
ment or detention if the doing thereof would have been
lawful but for a defect in any warrant or other instrument
made for the purposes of that sentence.

Interpretation of this Part
136.-( 1) In this Part-

“civil prison” means an adult correctional centre in r~7yh-
Jamaica in which a person sentenced by a civil Part v.
court to imprisonment can for the time being be
confined;

“convening officer”, in relation to a court-martial,
means thz officer convening that court-martial and
includes his successor or any person for the time
being exercising his or his successor’s functions;

“military establishment” means a military prison or
any other establishment under the control of the
Defence Board where persons may be required to
serve military sentences of imprisonment or de-
tention, or a military establishment as defined in
section 143 of the Act;

“military prison” means separate premises designated
by the Defence Board for persons serving military
sentences of imprisonment;

“prison” means a civil prison or a military prison;
“private soldier” means a soldier who is not a warrant

officer or a non-commissioned officer.
(2) References in this Part to a military sentence of

imprisonment are references to a sentence of imprisonment
passed by a court-martial.

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R/L-D

104 DBRENCE

( 3 ) References in this Part to a military sentence of
detention are references to a sentence of detention passed
by a court-martial or awarded by the offender’s command.
ing officer.

(4) References in this Part to warrant officers do
not include references to acting warrant officers.

( 5 ) References in this Part to non-commissioned
officers include references to acting non-commissioned
officers and also to acting warrant officers.

Rules of Procedure, etc.
137.-(1) Subject to the provisions of this section, the

Defence Board may make rules (in this Act referred to as
Rules of Procedure) with respect to the investigation and
trial of, and awarding of punishment for, offences cognizable
by courts-martial, commanding officers and appropriate
superior authorities and with respect to the confirmation
and revision of findings and sentences of courts-martial.

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of sub-
section (1)’ Rules of Procedure may make provision with
respect to all or any of the following matters that is to say-

(i) the procedure to be observed in the bringing of
charges before commanding officers and
appropriate superior authorities;

(ii) the manner in which charges so brought are to be
investigated, and the taking of evidence (whether
orally or in writing, whether or not on oath and

+,yget&er ” in. I , . @ll . _ -or - in . summary . or abstract form)
for the purpose of investigating or dealing sum-
marily with such charges or otherwise as a pre-
liminary to the trial thereof by court-martial, so,
however, that the Rules shall make provision for
the application of section 98 in any case where the

_ - ,
Rules of
Procedure.

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DEFENCE 105

accused requires that evidence shall be taken on
oath;
the addition to, or substitution for, a charge which
has been investigated of a new charge for an
offence disclosed by evidence taken on the
investigation and the treating of the investigation
as the investigation of the new charge;
the convening and constitution of courts-martial;
the sittings, adjournment and dissolution of courts-
martial;
the procedure to be observed in trials by courts-
martial;
the representation of the accused at such trials;
procuring the attendance of witnesses before
courts-martial and at the taking of evidence in
pursuance of Rules made under parajyaph (ii);
applying in relation to proceedings before com-
manding officers and appropriate superior author-
ities and otherwise in relation to proceedings prior
to trial by court-martial all or any of the provisions
of sections 104,105,106 and 107;
empowering a court-martial or the convening
officer, in such cases and to such extent as may be
prescribed, to amend a charge which is being tried
by the court;
empowering a court-martial, where the particulars
proved or admitted at the trial dBer from those
alleged in the charge, but are sufEcient to support
a finding of guilty of the like offence as that
charged, to make a finding of guilty subject to
exceptions or variations specifkd in the finding if
it appears to the court that the difference is not
so material as to have prejudiced the accused in
his defence;

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106 DEFENCE

(xi$ the forms of orders and other documents to be
made for the purposes of any provision of this
Part or the rules relating to the investigation or
trial of, or award of punishment for, offences
cognizable by courts-martial, commanding officers
or appropriate superior authorities or to the
confirmation and revision of the findings and
sentences of courts-martial.

(3) Rules made by virtue of paragraph (x) of
subsection (2) shall secure that the power to amend charges
shall not be exercisable in circumstances substantially
different from those in which indictments are amendable by
the Supreme Court of Jamaica, or otherwise than subject to
the like conditions, as nearly as circumstances admit, as
those subject to which indictments are so amendable, and
shall not be exercisable by a court-martial (otherwise than
for the purpose only of correcting a mistake in the name
or description of the accused or a clerical error or omission)
unless there is a Judge Advocate present at the trial.

(4) Rules of Procedure may make provision as to
the exercise by a Judge Advocate of his functions at a trial
by court-martial, and without prejudice to the generality of
the foregoing provision may make provision-

(i) as to the effect of advice or rulings given to the
court by a Judge Advocate on questions of law;

(ii) for requiring or authorizing the president of a
court-martial, in such cases as may be specified in
the Rules, to direct that questions of law shall be
determined by a Judge Advocate in the absence of
the president and other members of the court and
any officers under instruction, and for applying to
the Judge Advocate and his procedings on any
such determination such of the provisions of this

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DEFENCE 107

Act relating to the court or its members and the
proceedings thereof as may be specified in the
Rules.
( 5 ) In subsection (4) references to questions of law

include references to questions of joinder of charges and
as to the trial of persons jointly or separately.

the places in which and the establishments or
forms of custody (whether military or not) in
which persons may be required to serve the whole
or any part of military sentences of imprisonment
and detention passed on them under this Act;
the committal of persons under military sentences
of imprisonment or detention to the appropriate
establishment or form of custody, their removal
from one country or place to another and from one
establishment or form of custody to another and
their release on the coming to an end of any term
of imprisonment or detention;
the provision, classification, regulation and
management of military establishments;
the classification, treatment, employment, dis-
cipline and control of persons serving military
sentences of imprisonment or detention in military
establishments or otherwise in military custody;
the temporary release on compassionate grounds
of persons serving such sentences in such establish-
ments or custody as aforesaid, the cases in which,
periods for which and conditions subject to which
they may be allowed out of any such establish-

138. The Defence Board may make regulations (in this mprison-

with respect to all or any of the following matters, that is R e m h t i O n s .
to say-

ment and
Act referred to as Imprisonment and Detention Regulations) 1 Detention

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108 DEFENCE

ment or custody and the remission of part of any
such sentence for good conduct and industry;

(vi) the appointment, powers and duties of inspectors,
visitors and governors, and of officers and other
members of the staff, of military establishments.

Board of 139.-(1) The Defence Board may make rules (in this
Act referred to as Board of Inquiry Rules) with respect to
the convening, constitution and procedure of boards of

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of sub-
section (l), Board of Inquiry Rules may make provision
with respect to all or any of the following matters, that is
to say-

(i) the rules of evidence to be observed by boards of
inquiry and the taking of evidence before such
boards, so, however, that the rules shall provide
for the taking of evidence on oath or affirmation
except in circumstances such that if the evidence
was being taken at a court-martial an oath could
be dispensed with;

(ii) without prejudice to the provisions of section 130
of this Act, the making in service books of records
of findings of boards of inquiry in such cases as
may be provided by the rules.

(3) Boards of Inquiry Rules shall contain provision
for securing that any witness or other person subject to
service law who may be affected by the findings of a board
of inquiry shall have an opportunity of being present, and
represented, at the sittings of the board or such part thereof
as may be specified by or under the Rules.

M i d - 140. The Defence Board may make regulations with
Regulations. respect to all or any of the following matters, that is

Inquiry
Rules.

inquiry.

lantous

to say-
~~~

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DEFENCE

(i) the execution of sentences of death under this Act,
including the manner and place where such
executions are to be carried out and the custody,
treatment and removal of persons under sentence
of death;

(ii) field punishment;
(iii) any matter which by this Part is required or

authorized to be prescribed or for which regula-
tions may be made;

(iv) such incidental and supplementary matters as
appear requisite for any of the purposes set out
in sections 137, 138 and 139 and in this section.

PART VI. Appeals from courts-martial

person convicted by a court-martial may, with the leave
of the Court of Appeal, appeal to that Court against his
conviction :

Provided that an appeal as aforesaid shall lie as of right
without leave from any conviction of a court-martial in-
volving a sentence of death.

141. Subject to the following provisions of this Part, a Rightof
Appeal.

142.41) Leave to appeal to the Court of Appeal shall Procedure
not be given except in pursuance of an application in that zp1ying
behalf made by or on behalf of the appellant, and lodged, ~e:s
subject to subsection (3), within forty days of the date of orlodglno
promulgation of the finding of the court-martial in respect
of which the appeal is brought, with the Registrar of the
Court of Appeal, being an application in the prescribed
form and specifying the grounds on which leave to appeal
is sought and such other particulars, if any, as may be
prescribed.

(2) An appeal against a conviction involving a sen-
tence of death shall not be entertained by the Court of

appeal.

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110 DEFENCE

Appeal unless the appeal is lodged by or on behalf of the
appellant within ten days of the date of promulgation of
the finding of the court-martial in respect of which the
appeal is brought, with the Registrar of the Court of Appeal
in the prescribed manner.

(3) Rules of court may provide that, in such cir-
cumstances as may be specified in the said rules, any such
application or appeal which is lodged with such person
(other than the Registrar) as is specified in the said rules
shall be treated, for the purposes of subsections (1) and (21,
as having been lodged with the Registrar.

(4) The Court of Appeal may extend the period
within which an application for leave to appeal is required
by subsection (1) to be lodged, whether that period has
expired or not and may similarly extend the period for
lodging the appeal provided by subsection (2), if, owing
to the fact that the appellant is outside'Jamaica or other-
wise, he has not had a reasonable opportunity of lodging
his appeal within ten days.

(5) Where the Court of Appeal dismisses an appli-
cation for leave to appeal it may, if it considers the appli-
cation to have been frivolous or vexatious, order that any
sentence passed upon the applicant in the proceedings from
which it was sought to bring the appeal shall begin to run
from the day on which the Court dismisses the application.

Determina-

appeals tionof in
ordinary

143.-(1) Subject to the provisions of section 144, on an
appeal under this Part against a conviction, the Court of
Appeal shall allow the appeal if it thinks that the finding
of the court-martial is unreasonable or cannot be supported
having regard to the evidence or involves a wrong decision
on a question of law or that, on any ground, there was a
miscarriage of justice, and in any other case shall dismiss
the appeal:

CBSeS.

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DEFENCE 111

Provided that the Court may, notwithstanding that it
is of the opinion that the point raised in the appeal might
be decided in favour of the appellant, dismiss the appeal
if it considers that no substantial miscarriage of justice has
actually occurred.

(2) If the Court of Appeal allows an appeal under
this Part it shall either quash the conviction or direct that
the finding of the court-martial shall be treated as if con-
firmation thereof had been withheld and, in the latter
event, notwithstanding subsection (3) of section 128, a new
trial by court-martial may be held within such time as the
Court may order.

144.-(1) If it appears to the Court of Appeal that an P O W C ~ S O ~
appellant, though not properly convicted on some charge pealin in
preferred against him before the court-martial by which Lyif
he was tried, was properly convicted on some other charge
so preferred, then, if the sentence passed by the court-
martial on the appellant was not one that could lawfully
be passed by the court-martial for the offence of which he
was convicted on the other charge the Court shall pass on
the appellant, in substitution for the sentence passed on
him by the court-martial, such sentence as it thinks pro-
per, being a sentence which might lawfully be passed in
respect of the charge on which the appellant was properly
convicted, but not being a sentence of greater severity.

(2) Where an appellant has been convicted of an
offence and the court-martial by which he was tried could
lawfully have found him guilty of some other offence, and
it appears to the Court of Appeal that the court-martial
must have been satisfied of facts which proved him guilty
of that other offence, the Court may, instead of allowing or
dismissing the appeal, substitute for the finding of the court-
martial a finding of guilty of the other offence and pass on
the appellant, in substitution for the sentence passed on

court of

-
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112 DEFENCE

him by the court-martial, such sentence as it thinks proper,
being a sentence which could lawfully have been passed for
that other offence but not being a sentence of greater
severity.

(3) Where-
(a) an appellant has been convicted of an offence

committed under circumstances involving the
higher of two degrees of punishment, and it ap-
pears to the Court of Appeal that the court-martial
by which he was tried ought to have found him
guilty of the offence as being committed under
circumstances involving the lower degree of
punishment; or

(b) an appellant has been convicted of an offence and
it appears to the Court of Appeal that the court-
martial by which he was tried ought to have found
him guilty of the offence subject to exceptions or
variations,

the Court may, instead of allowing or dismissing the appeal,
substitute for the finding of the court-martial a finding of
guilty of the offence as being committed under circum-
stances involving the lower degree of punishment or, as the
case may be, guilty of the offence subject to exceptions or
variations, and pass on the appellant, in substitution for the
sentence passed on him by the court-martial, such sentence
as it thinks proper, being a sentence which could lawfully
have been passed for the offence specified or involved in the
substituted finding, but not being a sentence of greater
severity.

(4) If, on an appeal, it appears to the Court of
Appeal that, although the appellant was guilty of the aot
charged against him, he was insane at the time the act was
done, so as not to be responsible according to law for his
actions, the Court may quash the sentence passed at the

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DEFENCE 113

trial and order the appellant to be kept in custody under
the provisions of section 117 in like manner as on a special
finding of insanity by the court-martial by which the
appellant was convicted.

145. The term of any sentence passed by the Court of canmence-
ment of Appeal under any of the provisions of section 144 shall, sentence.

unless the Court otherwise directs, begin to run from the
time from which it would have begun to run if it had been
passed in the proceedings from which the appeal is brought,
and a sentence passed by the Court of Appeal shall be
deemed for the purposes of this Act to be a sentence passed
by the court-martial, being a sentence that has been
confirmed.

146. Subject to the provisions of any law relating to Appealsto
be final. appeals to Her Majesty in Council from judgments of the

Court of Appeal in criminal matters, any determination by
the Court of any appeal or other matter which it has power
to determine under the provisions of this Part shall be final
and no appeal shall lie from the Court to any other court.

147. An appellant shall not be entitled to be present at PIWCC-
the hearing of an appeal to the Court of Appeal under this lhardin
Part or at any proceedings preliminary or incidental to such . $ ~ ~ ; f
an appeal except where rules of court provide that he shall
have the right to be present or the Court gives him leave
to be present, and accordingly any power of the Court under
this Part to pass a sentence may be exercised notwithstand-
ing the absence of the appellant.

may be

148. It shall be the duty of the Direotor of Public Defence of appeals. Prosecutions on an appeal against conviction by a court-
martial to undertake the defence of the appeal.

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114 DEFENCE

Right of
appellant
to present
his case
in writing.

Suspension
of death
sentence.

Person not
to be tried
again where
conviction
quashed.

Removal of
prisoners for
purposes of
this Part.

149. An appellant may, if he so desires, instead of pre-
senting his case orally, present it in writing in the prescribed
form.

150. Where a conviction by court-martial involves

(a) the sentence shall not in any case be executed
until the expiration of the period within which
an appeal to the Court of Appeal against the
conviction shall be lodged;

(b) if such an appeal is duly lodged or if application
is made for the extension of the period for lodging
the appeal, the sentence shall not be executed
until the appeal or application is determined or
abandoned; and

(c) if an application for leave to appeal to Her
Majesty in Council is duby made, the sentence
shall not be executed until the application is
finally refused or is withdrawn or the appeal to
Her Majesty in Council is determined or- aban-
doned.

sentence of death-

151. Where the conviction of a person by a court-martial
for an offence has been quashed under this Part, he shall
not be liable to be tried again for this offence by a court-
martial or by any other court.

152. Imprisonment and Detention Regulations may
provide in what manner an appellant, when in custody, is
to be taken to, kept in custody at, and brought back from
any place at which he is entitled to be present for the
purposes of this Part or any place to which the Court of
Appeal or a judge thereof may order him to be taken for
the purpose of any proceedings of ,the Court.

m e inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480/1973]

DEFENCE 115

153. In the case of every appeal, or application for leave Furnishing,
on appeal, to appeal, under this Part to the Court of Appeal against a ofdocu-

conviction by court-martial, it shall be the duty of the %itngto
Secretary of the Defence Board to furnish to the Registrar trial.
of the Court of Appeal in accordance with rules of court,
the proceedings of the court-martial (including any
proceedings with respect to the revision of the findings or
sentence of the court-martial in pursuance of subsection
(1) of section 110), the proceedings with respect to the
confirmation of the findings and sentence of the court-
martial and any petition presented by the person convicted.

154.-(1) The Registrar of the Court of Appeal shall utiaof
egistrar take all necessary steps for obtaining the determination 1 fCourtof

of an appeal or application under this Part and shall obtain @rd
and lay before the Court of Appeal in proper form all t=s;;;tc.
documents, exhibits and other things relating to the
proceedings in the court-martial before which the appel-
lant or applicant was tried which appear necessary for the
proper determination of the appeal or application.

(2) The Registrar of the Court of Appeal shall
furnish the necessary forms and instructions relating to
appeals or applications for leave to appeal under this Part
to any person who demands them, to persons in charge of
places where persons sentenced by court-martial may law-
fully be confined for the purpose of serving their sentences
and to such other persons as he thinks fit; and every person
in charge of such a place as aforesaid shall cause the forms
and instructions to be placed at the disposal of persons
confined in that place who desire to lodge an appeal or
make application for leave to appeal under this Part.

155. Nothing in this Part shall affect the exercise by Savingof

114 in respect of a conviction of a court-martial so far as *uthOrities.
regards the exercise thereof at a time before the lodging

reviewing authorities of the powers conferred by section powers revi wing of

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116 DEFENCE

with the Registrar of the Court of Appeal of an appeal or
an application for leave to appeal to the Court against the
conviction and nothing in this Part shall affect the exercise
by the Governor-General of the prerogative of mercy.

Composition

of~ppeal .

156. Upon the hearing of any appeal from any court-
martial the Court of Appeal shall consist of an uneven
number of judges not being less than three.

of court

Exercise of
certain
powers of
court of
Appeal by
a judge.

157. Any judge of the Court of Appeal may-
(a) give leave to appeal; or
(b) extend the period within which an application for

leave to appeal or an appeal is required by sub-
section (1) or (2) of section 142 to be lodged, or

(c) allow the applicant or appellant to be present at
any proceedings under this Part,

but if the judge refuses an application on the part of an
applicant or appellant to exercise in his favour any of the
powers hereinbefore mentioned, the applicant or appellant,
upon making a requisition in that behalf within the
prescribed period and in the prescribed manner, shall be
entitled to have the application determined by the Court
of Appeal which shall consist of an uneven number of
judges not being less than three.

General

procedure.

158.--(1) Subject to the provisions of this Part, any rules
of court in force relating to the hearing of criminal appeals
by the Court of Appeal shall apply to the hearing and
determination of an appeal by the Court under this Part.

(2) Where under this Part anything is required or
authorized to be prescribed it shall be prescribed by rules
of court.

provisions
as to

[The inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480/1973]

DEFENCE 117

PART VII. Forfeitures and Deductions
159.41) No forfeiture of the pay of an officer or soldier Eorfeitures

and deduc- of the Jamaica Defence Force shall be imposed unless dons;
authorized by this Act, other service law or some other
enactment and no deduction from such pay shall be made
unless so authorized or authorized by regulations.

(2) Regulations shall not authorize the making of
any penal deduction, that is to say, a deduction to be made
by reason of the commission of any offence or other wrong-
ful act or in consequence of any negligence.

(3) The foregoing provisions of this section shall
not prevent the making of regulations providing for the
imposition of any forfeiture authorized by this Act or the
making of any deduction so authorized, or for the ,time at
which and manner in which sums may be deducted from
pay to give effect to authorized deductions or the manner
in which amounts may be so deducted in order to recover
any fine imposed in pursuance of this Ad, or as ,to the
appropriation of any such sum or amount when deducted,
or of providing for the determination of questions relating
to forfeitures or deductions.

(4) Notwithstanding any deduction from the pay
of an officer or soldier of the Jamaica Defence Force he
shall (subject to any forfeiture) remain in receipt of pay
at not less than such minimum rate as may be prescribed.

(5 ) Notwithstanding that forfeiture of pay of an
officer or soldier of the Jamaica Defence Force for any
period has been ordered in pursuance of this Act, he shall
remain in receipt of pay at such a minimum rate as afore-
said, but the amount received for that period may be re-
covered from him by deduction from pay.

(6) Any amount authorized to be deducted from
the pay of an officer or soldier of the Jamaica Defence

me inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480/1973]

118 DEFENCE

Force may be deducted from any balance (whether or not
representing pay) which may be due to him as an officer
or soldier and references in this Act to the making of
deductions from pay shall be construed accordingly and
the whole or any part of any sum forfeited from an
offender’s pay may be recovered by deduction from any
such balance.

Forfeiture
of pay for
absence
from duty.

160.-(1) The pay of an officer or soldier of the Jamaica

(a) for any day of absence in such circumstances as
to constitute an offence under section 47 or section
48 or, if the Chief of Staff so directs, of other
absence without leave;

(b) for any day of imprisonment, detention or field
punishment awarded under service law by a court-
martial or commanding officer, or of imprisonment
or detention of any description to which he is
liable in consequence of an order or sentence of
a civil court;

(c) where he is found guilty (whether by court-martial
under service law, an appropriate superior
authority or his commanding officer) of an offence
under service law, for any day (whether before or
after he is found guilty) on which he is in hospital
on account of sickness or injury certified by the
proper medical officer to have been occasioned
by the offence.

Defence Force may be forfeited-

(2) The pay of an officer or soldier of the Jamaica
Defence Force may be forfeited for any day of absence by
reason of his having been made a prisoner of war if
the Chief of Staff or an officer authorized by regulations is
satisfied-

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DEFENCE 119

(a) that he was made a prisoner of war through dis-
obedience of orders or wilful neglect of his duty;
or

(b) that having been made a prisoner of war he failed
to take any reasonable steps available to him to
rejoin Her Majesty’s service; or

(c) that having been made a prisoner of war he served
with or aided the enemy in the prosecution of
hostilities or measures calculated to influence
morale or in any other manner whatsoever not
authorized by international usage,

but, save as aforesaid, nothing in paragraph (a) of sub-
section (1) shall apply to absence by reason of having been
made a prisoner of war.

(3) Regulations may make provision as to the
computation of time for the purposes of this section and
in particular as to the counting or disregarding of parts
of days.

161. Where a person sentenced or ordered by a civil Deductions
court (whether within or without Jamaica) to pay a sum F p e n ,
by way of fine, penalty, damages, compensation or costs &$t&
in consequence of being charged before the court with an
offence is at the time of the sentence or order, or sub-
sequently becomes an officer or soldier of the Jamaica
Defence Force, then if the whole or any part of that sum
is met by a payment made by or on behalf of any military
authority, the amount of the payment may be deducted
from his pay.

162.-(1) Without prejudice to the provisions of this Act
as to the imposition of stoppages as a punishment, the
following provisions shall have effect where, after such
investigation as may be prescribed by regulations, it appears
to an officer authorized by regulations (in this section and

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120 DEFENCE

in sections 164, 165 and 166 referred to as “the authorized
officer”) that any loss of, or damage to, public or service
property has been occasioned by any wrongful act or
negligence of an officer or soldier of the Jamaica Defence
Force (hereinafter referred to as “the person responsible”).

(2) The authorized officer, may order the person
responsible to pay as or towards compensation for the loss
or damage, such sum as may be specified in the order, and
any such sum, in so far as not otherwise paid by the person
responsible, may be deducted from his pay.

(3) No order shall be made under the provisions
of subsection (2) if, in proceedings before a court-martial
under service law, an appropriate superior authority or a
commanding officer, the person responsible-

(a) has been acquitted in circumstances involving a
finding that he was not guilty of the wrongful act
or negligence in question; or

(b) has been awarded stoppages in respect of the same
loss or damage,

but save as aforesaid, the fact that such proceedings have
been brought in respect of the wrongful act or negligence
in question shall not prevent the making of an order or
deductions under subsection (2).

Deductions

damage.

163.-(1) When damage occurs to any premises in which
one or more units or parts of such units of the Jamaica
Defence Force are quartered or billeted, or any fixtures,
furniture or effects in or belonging to such premises are
damaged or lost, and it appears on investigation in accord-
ance with the provisions of regulations that the damage
or loss was occasioned by the wrongful act or negligence
of persons belonging to any of the units or parts of units
in occupation thereof, but that the said persons cannot be
identified, any person belonging to any of such units or

for barrack

LThe inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480/1973]

DEFENCE 121

parts of units may be required to contribute towards com-
pensation for the damage or loss such amount as may in
accordance with regulations be determined to be just, and
the amount may be deducted from his pay.

(2) The provisions of subsection (1) shall extend
to vessels, trains, motor vehicles and aircraft in which units
or parts of units are being transported and reference to
premises, quartering and occupation shall be construed
accordingly.

164.-(1) Any officer or soldier of the Jamaica Defence eviewof

authorized officer under section 162, 165 or 166 may, in orfeitures
accordance with regulations to be prescribed, apply to a f~uctiom.
board of officers for a further examination of the case; and
that board shall consider the case, and thereafter may, in
relation thereto, if it thinks fit, give directions to the
authorized officer; and the authorized officer shall give effect
to such directions.

(2) Any forfeiture or deduction imposed under the
provisions of section 160, 161, 162 or 163 or under regula-
tions may be remitted by the Defence Board or in such
manner and by such authority as may be provided by such
regulations.

Force against whom an order has been made by the -won rdmand f

16!j.-(l) Where any court in Jamaica has made an order.
against any person (in this section referred to as “the ient ainten- Of
defendant”) for the payment of any periodical or other sums t
specified in the order for or in respect of-

n a and
ftiliation

(a) the maintenance of his wife or child; or
(b) any costs incurred in obtaining the order; or
(c) any costs incurred in proceedings on appeal

against, or for the variation, revocation or revival
of, any such order,

and the defendant is an officer or soldier of the Jamaica
[The inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480/1973]

122 DEFENCE

Defence Force then (whether or not he was an officer or
soldier when the said order was made) the authorized officer
may order such sum to be deducted from the pay of the
defendant and appropriated in or towards satisfaction of
the payment due under the order of the court as the
authorized officer may think fit.

(2) Where to the knowledge of the court making
any such order as aforesaid, or an order varying, revoking
or reviving any such order, the defendant is an officer or
soldier of the Jamaica Defence Force the court shall send
a copy of the order to the Defence Board.

(3) Where such an order as is mentioned in sub-
section (1) has been made by a court of a Commonwealth
country outside Jamaica, and the authorized officer is
satisfied that the defendant has had a reasonable opportunity
of appearing in person, or has appeared by a duly
authorized legal representative, to defend the case before
the court by which the order was made, the authorized
officer shall have the like power under subsection (1) as if
the order had been made by such a court as is mentioned
in that subsection :

Provided that this subsection shall not apply to an order
for payment of a sum for or in respect of the maintenance
.of an illegitimate child or for the payment of costs incurred
in obtaining such an order or in proceedings on appeal
against, or for the variation, revocation or revival of, such
an order.

(4) The authorized officer may by order vary or
revoke any order previously made under this section, and
may treat any order made under this section as being in
suspense at any time while the person against whom the
order was made is absent as mentioned in paragraph (U)
of subsection (1) of section 160.

me inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480/1973]

DEFENCE 123

(5) (a) In this section-
references to an order made by a court
in Jamaica include references to an
order registered in or confirmed by
such a court under the provisions of
any law which makes provision for the
enforcement in Jamaica of mainten-
ance orders made outside Jamaica;
references to a wife or child include, in
relation to an order made in proceed-
ings in connection with the dissolution
or annulment of a marriage, references
to a person who would have been the
wife or child of the defendant if the
marriage had subsisted;
references to a child of a person in-
clude references to a child of his wife,
and to an illegitimate or adopted child
of that person or of his wife, and in
this paragraph “adopted child” means
a child adopted (whether alone or
jointly) in pursuance of an adoption
order made under the Children
(Adoption of) Act.

(b) For the purposes of this subsection the ex-
pression “maintenance order” means an
order other than an order of affiliation
for the periodical payment of sums of
money towards the maintenance of the
wife or other dependants of the person
against whom the order is made, and the
expression “dependants” means such
persons as that person is, according to the
law in force in that part of the Common-
wealth in which the maintenance order
was made, liable to maintain.

[The inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480/1973]

124 DEFENCE

Deductions
from pay
for mainten-
ance of wife
or child.

1 6 6 . 4 1 ) Where the authorized officer is satisfied that an
officer or soldier of the Jamaica Defence Force is neglecting,
without reasonable cause, to maintain his wife or any child
of his under the age of sixteen, the authorized officer may
order such sum to be deducted from his pay and appro-
priated towards the maintenance of his wife or child as the
authorized officer thinks fit.

(2) On an application made to the authorized
officer for an order under subsection (1) the authorized
officer, if satisfied that a prima facie case has been made out
for the making of such an order, may make an interim order
for such deduction and appropriation as is mentioned in
the said subsection (1) to take effect pending the further
examination of the case.

(3) Where an order is in force under subsection (1)
or subsection (3) of section 165 for the making of deduc-
tions in favour of any person from the pay of an officer
or soldier of the Jamaica Defence Force, no deductions
from his pay in favour of the same person shall be ordered
under the foregoing provisions of this section unless the
officer or soldier is in a place where process cannot be
served on him in connection with proceedings for the
variation of the order of the court in consequence of which
the order under section 165 was made.

(4) The authorized officer may by order vary or
revoke any order previously made under this section, and
may treat any order made under this section as being in
suspense at any time while the person against whom the
order was made is absent as mentioned in paragraph (a) of
subsection (1) of section 160.

Limit of
under de uctions

167.-(1) The sums deducted under sections 165 and 166

(a) in the case of an officer, three-sevenths of his pay;
shall not together exceed-

sections 165
and 166and
effect on
forfeiture.

me inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480119731

DEFENCE 125

(21) in the case of a warrant officer or a non-commis-
sioned officer not below the rank of sergeant, two-
thirds of his pay;

(c) in the case of a soldier below the rank of sergeant,
three-fourths of his pay.
(2) Where any deductions have been ordered under

either section 165 or section 166 from a person’s pay and
(whether before or after the deductions have been ordered)
he incurs a forfeiture of pay by or in consequence of the
finding or sentence of a court-martial or the finding or
award of an appropriate superior authority or a com-
manding officer, it shall apply only to so much of his pay
as remains after the deductions have been made.

(3) For the purposes of paragraphs (b) and (c) of
subsection (1) a person having acting rank shall be treated
as of that rank.

168.-( 1) Any process to be served on an officer or soldier ~ e r v i ~ e of
of the Jamaica Defence Force (in this section referred to $ainkn-
as “the defendant”) in connection with proceedings for any E&cdings.
such order of a court in Jamaica as is mentioned in sub-
section (1) of section 165, or for the variation, revocation
or revival of such an order, shall be deemed to be duly
served on him if served either on him or his commanding
officer, and may, without prejudice to any other method
of service, be so served by registered post.

(2) Where any such process is served in Jamaica
and the defendant will be required to appear in person at
the hearing, then if his commanding officer certifies to the
court by which process was issued that the defendant is
under orders for service out of Jamaica and that in the
commanding officer’s opinion it would not be possible for
the defendant to attend the hearing and return in time to
embark for that service, the service of the process shall be
deemed not to have been effected.

!

rocess in

[The inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480/19731

126

Command
and
precedence.

Command
of Force.

Regulations
as to
command.

Powers of
command of
members of
co-operating
forces.

DEFENCE

PART VIII. Government and General Provisions
Command

169.-( 1) Officers and soldiers of the Jamaica Defence
Force shall stand with each other in such order of prece-
dence as may be prescribed by the Defence Board.

(2) Officers and soldiers of Her Majesty’s forces
raised outside Jamaica may be attached or seconded to the
Jamaica Defence Force with the approval of the Defence
Board.

170. The Governor-General shall appoint an officer,
being a member of Her Majesty’s forces, in whom the
command of the Jamaica Defence Force shall be vested and
subject to the terms of such appointment such officer shall
have the command of that Force.

171. The Defence Board may make regulations as to the
persons, being members of Her Majesty’s forces, in whom
command over any part of the Jamaica Defence Force or
member thereof is vested and as to the circumstances in
which such command as aforesaid is to be exercised.

172.-(1) In so far as powers of command depend on
rank, a member of Her Majesty’s forces who-

(a) is acting with; or
(b) is a member of a body of those forces which is

acting with,
any body of the Jamaica Defence Force shall have the like
such powers as a member of the Force of corresponding
rank; and for the purposes of sections 43 and 81 any such
member of the said forces shall be treated as if he were a
member of the Force of corresponding rank.

(2) If the whole or any part of the Jamaica Defence
Force is required to act with any other military, naval or

[The inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480/1973]

DEFENCE 127

air force, the Governor-General may place the Force or
such part thereof under the command of the officer
commanding such other force.

(3) Where any part of the Jamaica Defence Force is
acting in co-operation with any other force the Chief of
Staff or the officer commanding that part of the Force may,
in agreement with the officer commanding that other force,
define the powers of command and the order of precedence
of the officers, warrant officers and non-commissioned
officers of the Force in relation to the officers, warrant
officers and non-commissioned officers of such other force.

Redress of Complaints

thinks himself wronged in any matter by a superior officer
or authority and on application to his commanding officer
does not obtain the redress to which he thinks he is entitled,
he may make a complaint with respect to that matter to
the Defence Board.

(2) On receiving any such complaint it shall be the
duty of the Defence Board to investigate the complaint and
to grant any redress which appears to them to be necessary
or, if the complainant so requires, the Defence Board shall
make its report on the complaint to the Governor-General
in order to receive the directions of the Governor-General
acting on the recommendation of the Privy Council
t hereon.

173.41) If an officer of the Jamaica Defence Force Complaints
by oficers.

174.41) If a soldier of the Jamaica Defence Force Complaints
by soldiers. thinks himself wronged in any matter by any officer other

than his commanding officer or by any soldier, he may make
a complaint with respect to that matter to his commanding
officer.

(2) If a soldier of the Jamaica Defence Force
thinks himself wronged in any matter by his commanding

me inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480/1973]

128 DEFENCE

officer, either by reason of redress not being given to his
satisfaction on a complaint under subsection (1) or for any
other reason, he may make a complaint with respect
thereto to any officer under whom the complainant is for
the time being serving, being an officer not below the rank
of colonel or corresponding rank.

(3) It shall be the duty of a commanding or other
officer to have any complaint received by him under this
section investigated and to take any steps for redressing
the matter complained of which appear to him to be neces-
sary.

Exemptions for oficers and soldiers

Exemptions
from jury

175. An officer or soldier of the Jamaica Defence Force
shall be exempt from serving on any jury. sernce.

Exemptions
from tolls,
etc.

176.-(1) Duties or tolls for embarking from or disem-
barking on any pier, wharf, quay or landing place in
Jamaica or for passing over any road, ferry or bridge in
Jamaica, shall not be payable in respect of-

(a) members of Her Majesty’s forces on duty;
(b) vehicles in military service, being vehicles belong-

ing to the Government or other vehicles driven by
persons (whether members of Her Majesty’s
forces or not) in the service of the Government;

(c) goods carried in such vehicles;
(4 animals in military service.

(2) In subsection (1) the expression “in military
service” means employed under proper military authority
for the purposes of any body of Her Majesty’s forces or
accompanying any body of Her Majesty’s forces.

[The inclusion of this page is authprized by LN. 480/1973]

DEFENCE leY

177. No judgment, decree or order given or made against gx;t&
an officer or soldier of the Jamaica Defence Force by any iQexWution
court in Jamaica shall be enforced by the levying of $9:"
execution on any service property, nor shall any distress be :;E%,
made thereon.

Provisioizs relating to deserters arid absentees
without leave

178.41) Any police officer or constable within Jamaica e t o f
may arrest without a warrant any person whom he has and
reasonable cause to suspect of being an officer or soldier of $$:?
the lamaica Defence Force who has deserted or is absent I*ve.

deserters

r - %

- . - without leave. . . - .
(2) Where no police officer or constabJe is. avail-

able any officer or soldier of the Jamaica Defence Force or
any other person may arrest without a warrant any person
whom he has reasonable cause to suspect as aforesaid.

(3) Any person in Jamaica having authority to
issue a warrant for the arrest of a person charged with
crime, if satisfied by evidence on oath that there is, or is
reasonably suspected of being, within his jurisdiction an
officer or soldier of the Jamaica Defence Force who has
deserted or is absent without leave or is reasonably sus-
pected of having deserted or of being absent without leave,
may issue a warrant authorizing his arrest.

(4) Any person in custody in pursuance of this
section shal1.a.s soon as practicable be brought before a
Resident Magistrate's Court.

. 1

179.41) Where a person who is brought before a Re& Proceedings
dent Magistrate's Court is alleged to be an officer or soldier ci+ilcourt btlfon a
of the Jamaica Defence Force who has deserted or is absent g;Es
without leave, the following provisions shall have effect. swp=ted

of dlegal
absence,

[The inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 50/19!90]

130 DEFENCE

(2) (a) If he admits that he is illegally absent from
the Jamaica Defence Force and the Resident Magistrate
is satisfied of the truth of the admission, then-

(i) unless he is in custody for some other cause the
Resident Magistrate shall; and

(ii) notwithstanding that he is in custody for some
other cause, the Resident Magistrate may,

forthwith either cause him to be delivered into military
custody in such manner as the Resident Magistrate may
think fit or commit him to an adult correctional centre, police
station or other place provided for the confinement of
persons in custody, to be kept there for such reasonable time
as the Resident Magistrate may specify (not exceeding such
time as appears to the Resident Magistrate reasonably neces-
sary for the purpose of enabling him to be delivered into
military custody) or until sooner delivered into such custody.

(b) Any time specified by the Resident Magis-
trate may be extended by the Resident Magistrate
from time to time if it appears to the Resident Magistrate
reasonably necessary so to do for the purpose aforesaid.

(3) If he does not admit that he is illegally absent
as aforesaid, or the Resident Magistrate is not satisfied of
the truth of the admission, the Resident Magistrate shall
consider the evidence and any statement of the accused,
and if satisfied that he is subject to military law under this
Act and if of opinion that there is sufficient evidence to
justify his being tried under this Act for an offence of
desertion or absence without leave, then, unless he is in
custody for some other cause, the Resident Magistrate shall
cause him to be delivered into military custody or commit
him as aforesaid, but otherwise shall discharge him :

Provided that if he is in custody for some other cause
the Resident Magistrate shall have power, but shall not
be required, to act in accordance with this subsection.

F e inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 50/19901

DEFENCE 131

180.-(1) Where in Jamaica a person surrenders himself Dewrten
to a police officer or constable as being illegally absent gL1ctl
from the Jamaica Defence Force, the police officer or con- leave
stable shall (unless he surrenders himself at a police station) ;zF
bring him to a police station.

(2) The police officer or constable in charge of a
police station at which a person has surrendered himself
as aforesaid, or to which a person who has so surrenderad
himself is brought, shall forthwith inquire into the case,
and if it appears to that officer or constable that the said

'person is illegally absent as aforesaid he may cause him to
be delivered into military custody without bringing him
before a Resident Magistrate's Court or may bring him
before such a Court.

without

181.-(1) Where a Resident Magistrate's Court in pur- cortifimw
suance of section 179 deals with a person as illegally abseqt,
then when that person is delivered into military custo y d=-
there shall be handed over a certificate in the prescrib 3 d Znm.
form, signed by a Resident Magistrate, containing a e
prescribed particulars as to his arrest or surrender and the
proceedings before the Court.

(2) Where a person is delivered into military cus-
tody without being brought before a Resident Magistrate's
Court whether under the provisions of section 180 or undbr
any other lawful power, there shall be handed over ' a
certificate in the prescribed form, signed by the police
officer or constable who causes him to be delivered into
military custody, containing the prescribed particulars
relating to his surrender.

(3) In any proceedings for an offence under section
47 or section 48-

(a) a document purporting to be a certificate under
either subsection (1) or subsection (2), or under the
me inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 50/1990]

132 DEFENCE

Dnties of
superinten-
dents of
Civil
prisons and
others to
receive
deserters
and
absentees.

Punishment
for pretend-
ing to be a
deserter.

corresponding provisions of any service law (other
than this Act) and to be signed as thereby
required, shall be evidence of. the matters stated
in the document;

(b) where the proceedings are against a person who
has been taken into military, naval or air force
custody on arrest or surrender, a certificate in
the prescribed form purporting to be signed by
a provost officer or any corresponding officer of
a force raised under the law of a country in the
Commonwealth, or by any other officer in charge
of the guardroom or other place where that person
was confined on being taken into custody, stating
the fact, date, time and place of -arrest or sur-
render shall be evidence of the matters stated in
the certificate.

.

182.-(1) It shall be the duty of the superintendent or
other person in charge of a civil prison to receive any
person duly committed to that civil prison by a Resident
Magistrate's Court as illegally absent and to detain him until
in accordance with the directions of the Court he is delivered
into military custody.

(2) Subsection (I) shall apply to the person having
charge of any police station or other place (not being a civil
prison) provided for the confinement of persons in custody,
as it applies to the superintendent of a civil prison.

Offences relating to military matters punishable
by civil courts

183. Any person who falsely represents himself to any
military or civil authority to be a deserter from the Jamaica
Defence Force shall be liable on summary conviction before
a Resident Magistrate to a fine not exceeding one hundred

[The inclusia.of this-page is authorized by LJ". 500/1990]

DEFENCE 133

dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three
months or to both such fine and such imprisonment.

184. Any person who- Punishment
for procur-

(Issisting
(a) procures or persuades any officer or soldier of the ingand

self without leave;
(b) knowing that any such officer or soldier is about

to desert or absent himself without leave, assists
him in so doing; or

(c) knowing any person to be a deserter or absentee
without leave from the Jamaica Defence Force,
conceals him or assists him in concealing himself
or assists in his rescue from custody,

shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on summary
conviction before a Resident Magistrate to a fine not
exceeding one hundred dollars or to imprisonment for a
term not exceeding three months, or to both such fine and
such imprisonment, or on conviction on indictment to a
fine not exceeding one thousand dollars or to imprisonment
for a term not exceeding two years or to both such fine and
such imprisonment.

Jamaica Defence Force to desert or to absent him- 11 esertion.

185. Any person who wilfully obstructs or otherwise bjshment
or obstruct-

pn execution

interferes with any officer or soldier of the Jamaica Defence [ ng officers
Force acting in the execution of his duty shall be liable on prsolaiep
summary conviction before a Resident Magistrate to a fine ofduty.
not exceeding one hundred dollars or to imprisonment for
a term not exceeding three months or to both such fine and
such imprisonment.

186. Any person who- Punishment
for aiding

(a) produces in an officer or soldier of the Jamaica malingering.
Defence Force any sickness or disability; or

[The inclusion of this page is authorized by LN. 480/1973]

134 DEFENCE

(b) supplies to or for him any drug or preparation
calculated or likely to render him, or lead to the
belief that he is permanently or temporarily unfit
for service,

with a view to enabling him to avoid military service,
whether permanently or temporarily, shall be guilty of an
offence and shall be liable on summary conviction before a
Resident Magistrate to a fine not exceeding two hundred
dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three
months or to both such fine and such imprisonment, or
on conviction on indictment to a fine not exceeding one
thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceed-
ing two years or to both such fine and such imprisonment.

Unlawful

etc., of

187.-( 1) Any person who acquires any military stores or
solicits or procures any person to dispose of any military
stores, or acts for any person in the disposing of any
military stores, shall be guilty of an offence, unless he
proves either-

(a) that he did not know, and could not reasonably
be expected to know, that the chattels in question
were military stores; or

(b) that those chattels had (by the transaction with
which he is charged or some earlier transaction)

. been disposed of by order or with the consent of
some person or authority who had, or whom he
had reasonable cause to believe to have, power
to give the order or consent; or

(c) that those chattels had become the property of an
officer of the Jamaica Defence Force who had
retired or ceased to be such an officer, or of a
soldier of the Jamaica Defence Force who had
been discharged, or of the personal representa-
tives of a person who had died,

purchase,

stores.

[The inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480/1973]

DEFENCE 135

and shall be liable on summary conviction before a Resident
Magistrate to a fine not exceeding two hundred dollars or
to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three months
or to both such fine and such imprisonment, or on con-
viction on indictment to a fine not exceeding one thousand
dollars or imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years
or to both such fine and such imprisonment.

(2) A police officer or constable may arrest with-
out warrant any person whom he has reasonable grounds
for suspecting of having committed an offence against this
section, and may seize any property which he has reason-
able grounds for suspecting of having been the subject of
the offence.

(3) Any person having authority to issue a war-
rant for the arrest of a person charged with crime may, if
satisfied by evidence on oath that a person within his
jurisdiction has, or is reasonably suspected of having, in
his possession any property which has been the subject of
an offence against this section, grant a warrant to search
for such property as in the case of stolen goods; and any
property suspected of having been the subject of such an
offence which is found on such a search shall be seized by
the person charged with the execution of the warrant who
shall bring the person in whose possession or keeping the
property is found before a Resident Magistrate’s Court.

(4) In this section-
“acquire” means buy, take in exchange, take in pawn

or otherwise receive (whether apart from this
section the receiving is lawful or not);

“dispose” means sell, give in exchange, pledge or
otherwise hand over (whether apart from this
section the handing over is lawful or not);

“military stores” means any chattel of any description
belonging to the Government, which has been

[The inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480119731

136 DEFENCE

IIlegal
dealings in
documents
relating to
Pay,
pensions,
mobilii-
tion, etc.

issued for use for military purposes or is held in
store for the purpose of being so issued when
required, and includes any chattel which had
belonged, and had been issued or held, as afore-
said at some past time.
(5) For the purposes of subsection (3) property

shall be deemed to be in the possession of a person if he
has it under his control, and whether he has it for his own
use or benefit or for the use or benefit of another.

lSS.-(l) Any person who-
(a) as a pledge or a security for a debt; or
(b) with a view to obtaining payment from the person

entitled thereto of a debt due either to himself or
to any other person,

receives, detains or has in his possession any official docu-
ment issued in connection with the payment to any person
of any pay, pension, allowance, gratuity or other payment
payable in respect of his or any other person’s service in
Her Majesty’s forces shall be guilty of an offence against
this section.

(2) Any person who has in his possession without
lawful authority or excuse (the proof whereof shall lie on
him) any such document as aforesaid or any official docu-
ment issued in connection with the mobilization or
demobilization of any of Her Majesty’s forces or any
member thereof, shall be guilty of an offence against this
section.

(3) Any person guilty of an offence against this
section shall be liable on summary conviction before a
Resident Magistrate to a fine not exceeding two hundred
dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three
months or to both such fine and such imprisonment.

me inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480/1973]

DEFENCE 137

(4) For the purposes of this section a document
shall be deemed to be in the possession of a person if he
has it under his control and whether he has it for his own
use or benefit or for the use or benefit of another.

189.---(1) Any person who- Unautho-
rized use

being a person who is not serving in Her Majesty’s gin
forces, without authority wears in a public place decoration,
the uniform of any of those forces or any dress
having the appearance or bearing any of the regi-
mental or other distinctive marks of any such
uniform; or
without authority uses or wears any naval, mili-
tary or air force decoration, or any badge, wound
stripe or emblem supplied or authorized by the
Defence Board or by the Government of the
United Kingdom; or
uses or wears any decoration, badge, wound stripe,
or emblem so nearly resembling any decoration,
badge, stripe or emblem mentioned in paragraph
(b), as to be calculated to deceive; or
falsely represents himself to be a person who is
or has been entitled to use or wear any such
decoration, badge, stripe or emblem as is men-

etc.

tioned in paragraph (b),
shall be guilty of an offence against this section :

Provided that nothing in this subsection shall-
(a) prevent any persons from wearing any uniform

or dress in the course of a stage play performed
in a place duly licensed or authorized for the
public performance of stage plays or in the case
of a music-hall or circus performance, or in the
course of any bona fide military representation; or

[The inclusion of this page is authorized by LN. 480/1973]

138 DEFENCE

General
provisions
as to
evidence.

(b) prohibit the use and wearing of ordinary regi-
mental badges or of brooches or ornaments repre
senting them.
(2) Any person who purchases or takes in pawn

any naval, military or air force decoration awarded to any
member of Her Majesty’s forces, or solicits or procures any
person to sell or pledge any such decoration, or acts for
any person in the sale or pledging thereof, shall be guilty of
an offence against this section unless he proves that at the
time of the alleged offence the person to whom the
decoration was awarded was dead or had ceased to be a
member of those forces.

(3) Any person guilty of an offence against this
section shall be liable on summary conviction before a
Resident Magistrate to a fine not exceeding one hundred
dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three
months or to both such fine and such imprisonment.

Provisions as to evidence
190.41) The following provisions shall have effect with

respect to evidence in proceedings under this Act whether
before a court-martial, a civil court or otherwise.

(2) A document purporting to be a copy of the
attestation paper signed by any person and to be certified
to be a true copy by a person stated in the certificate
to have the custody of the attestation paper shall be
evidence of the enlistment of the person attested.

(3) The attestation paper purporting to be signed
’ by a person on his enlistment shall be evidence of his
having given the answers to questions which he is therein
recorded as having given.

(4) A letter, return or other document stating that
any person-

F e inclusion of this page is authorized by LN. 480/1973]

DEFENCE 139

was or was not serving at any specified time or
during any specified period in any part of Her
Majesty’s forces or was discharged from any part
of those forces at or before any specified time; or
held or did not hold at any specified time any
specified rank or appointment in any of those
forces, or had at or before any specified time
been attached, posted or transferred to any part
of those forces, or at any specified time or during
any specified period was or was not serving or
held or did not hold any rank or appointment in
any particular country or place; or
was or was not at any specified time authorized
to use or wear any decoration, badge, wound
stripe or emblem,

shall, if purporting to be issued by or on behalf of the
Defence Board or the Chief of Staff be evidence of the
matters stated in the document.

(5 ) A record made in any prescribed service book
or other prescribed document being a record made in pur-
suance of service law or regulations, or otherwise in pur-
suance of military duty, and purporting to be signed by the
commanding officer or by a person whose duty it was to
make the record, shall be evidence of the facts stated there-
in; and a copy of a record (including the signature thereto)
in any such book or other document as aforesaid, pur-
porting to be certified to be a true copy by a person stated
in the certificate to have the custody of the book or other
documcnt, shall be evidence of the record.

(6) A document purporting to be issued by order
of the Defence Board or the Chief of Staff and to contain
instructions or orders given or made by the Defence Board
or ,the Chief of Staff shall be evidence of the giving of the
instructions or making of the orders and of their contents.

[The inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480/1973]

140 DEFENCE

Proof of
outcome of
civil trial.

(7) A certificate purporting to be issued by or on

(a) that a decoration of a description specified in or
annexed to the certificate is a military, naval or
air force decoration; or

(b) that a badge, wound stripe or emblem of a des-
cription specified in or annexed to the certificate
is one supplied or authorized by the Defence
Board or by the Government of the United King-
dom,

shall be evidence of the matters stated in the certificate.
(8) A certificate purporting to be signed by a

person's commanding officer or any officer authorized by
him to give the certificate, and stating the contents of, or
any part of, standing orders or other routine orders of a
continuing nature made for-

(a) any formation or unit or body of troops; or
(b) any command or other area, garrison or place; or
(c) any vessel, train or aircraft,

shall in proceedings against the said person be evidence of
the matters stated in the certificate.

behalf of the Defence Board, and stating-

191.-(1) Where a person subject to military law under
this Act has been tried before a civil court (whether at the
time of the trial he was so subject or not) a certificate signed
by the Registrar of the court or a Judge, or a Resident
Magistrate or a Justice of the Peace and stating all or any
of the following matters-

(a) that 'the said person has been tried before the
court for an offence specified in the certificate;

(b) the result of ,the trial;
(c) what judgment or order was given or made by the

court,
[The inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480/1973]

shall for the purposes of this b be evidenrme of the matters
stated in the certificate.

(2) A document purporting to be a certificate
under this section and to be signed by the Regiistra of the
court or a Judge, or a Resident Magistrate or a Justice of
the Peace, shall, unless the contrary is shown, be deemed
to be such a certificate.

192.-(1) The original ,record of the proceedings of a ~ v i c h r c e ~ d -
f court- court-martial under service law purporting to be signed by

the president of the court and being in the custody of any Martial-
person having the lawful custody thereof shall be admissible
in evidence on production from that custody.

(2) A document purporting to be a copy of the
original record of the proceedings .of a courtmartid under
service law or any part thereof and to be certified by the
person having the lawful custody of the proceedings to be a
true copy shall be evidence U€ the contents of the proceed-
ings or the part to which the document relates, as the case
may be.

(3) This section applies to evidence g h in any
C O R ~ ~ , whether civil CYT criminal.

Miscellaneous provisions
l93.-(1) Where a p m is in mhtmy m m d y when bmporary

charged with, or with a vim 50 his being &ged witlt, an Ed
offence against Part V OF the corresponding provisions of ~~~~m
any other m i a e law it U be the duty uf the super-
intendent OT other person h >&rge of a chd prison ~r of
the person having charge of any poktcc station cxr 0th
phue in which pr i smas may be lawfully detained, upon
delivery to him fof a written oltdar pmporkbg be si jped
by the commanding officer of the p s m iu custody to

ption

Escort.

inahsbn d tlrip gasz i autbakal by U. lreo/m

142 DEFENCE

receive him into his custody for a period not exceeding
seven days.

(2) In this section “civil prison” has the meaning
ascribed to it in section 136.

Avoidance

mentof,or
chargeon military

P a ~ ~ p e n -

194.-(1) Every assignment of or charge on, and every
agreement to assign or charge, any pay, award, grant,
pension or allowance payable to any person in respect of
his or any other person’s service in Her Majesty’s forces
shall be void.

(2) Save as expressly provided by this Act, no order
shall be made by any court the effect of which would be to
restrain any person from receiving anything which by virtue
of this section he is precluded from assigning and to direct
payment thereof to another person.

(3) Nothing in this section shall prejudice any law
providing for the payment of any sum to a bankrupt’s
trustee in bankruptcy for distribution among creditors.

of assign-

sions, etc.

Power of
certain

totake
statutory
declara-
tions.

195.-(1) An officer of Her Majesty’s forces of a rank

referred to as an “authorized officer”) may, outside Jamaica,
take statutory declarations from persons subject to military
law under this Act.

(2) A document purporting to have subscribed
thereto the signature of an authorized officer in testimony
of a statutory declaration being taken before him in pur-
suance of this section and containing in the jurat or attes-
tation a statement of the date on which and the place at
which the declaration was taken and of the full name and
rank of that officer shall be admitted in evidence without
proof of the signature being the signature of that officer or
of the facts so stated.

not below that of major or corresponding rank (hereinafter

m e inclusion of this page is authorized by LN. 480119731

DEFENCE 143

PART IX. The Jamaica National Reserve
1%. The Jamaica National Reserve shall consist of two Composi-

tion of
Jamaica classes which shall be constituted as follows :
National

3/ 1967
&SCNC. (1) A first class consisting of-

officers appointed or transferred to the said class; a. 2 (a).
soldiers enlisted or deemed to be enlisted or re-
engaged in pursuance of this Part for service in
the said class;
soldiers of the second class of the Reserve who
have, after written application made by them in
that behalf to the competent military authority,
been accepted by that authority for service in the
first class;
soldiers transferred to the said class under section 811969
29;

3/1967
$. 2 (b). officers appointed or transferred to the said class;

soldiers who are members of 'the said class by ~ 1 9 6 9
$. 4 (b). virtue of the provisions of Part IV;

soldiers enlisted or deemed to be enlisted or re- /1%7 4. 2 (d). engaged in pursuance of this Part for service in
the said class.

S. 4 (a).

(2) A second class consisting of-

l W . 4 1 ) The term for which a person enlisting in the Bnlistmat
Reserve may be enlisted shall be such a term beginning with
the date of his attestation as may be prescribed.

(2) A person enlisting in the Reserve shall be C!:967
attested in the same manner as a recruit in the regular Force
and the following provisions of Part IV, that is to say-

(a) section 18 (which relates to the mode of enlistment
and attestation);

(b) section 31 (which relates to the validity of attesta-
tion and enlistment), but omitting the references in
that section to the receipt of pay; and

me inclusion of this page is authorized by LN. 480/19731

144

(c) sectim 32 (which makes m i t s punishable for
false answers),

shall apply in like mamaer as if they were reenacted in this
Part with the substitution for the expression “regular
Force” the expression ‘‘Jgnxtim NatimF Reserve’@.

(3) A pmm endistin. in. the Reserve may be
attested by my officer and the prouisiosls af Part IV men-
tioned in subsection (2), together also w d h SeEtiOn 68 (which
da tes to false answers an enlistment)b, shall in their: applica-
tion tto the Reserve be carnstmd as if the expression
“Rtxmiting Officer” inicluded. my 08[im of the. Jamaica
hfetxe Fasc&.

3/1967
s. 3.

(4) Any soldier of the Reserve wha at any time
has completed, or is within six months before completing,
the term for which he enlisted or re-engaged in pursuance
of this Part, or the tern for which. He is Eabh te serve in
that R e m e undm the provisions of Part! IV, as the case
may be, may with tk approval of the competent d i t a ry
authority re-engage for such further period or periods of
service in the Reserve as may be pmmied.

Training

311967
s. 4.

198.-(1) Subject to the provisions of this section, every
of6w and W e r of the first c h af the Reserve shall
attend Ear training at such pIa= or places and for such
periods as may be determined by the Defence Board and
shall fu161 such conditions relating to training as may be
presrriw.

@ The xequiments ai this sectkm may be &-
pens& with in wiwleor in part as respects an.. unit of the
first class of the Reserve, by the B d , and as

the Resame, by hk cmnma- dker mbjed to any
general directions of the hard.

of Reserve.

3/1967
s. 4. r-angp- - af€icmorsI&&ell&ttae~classof

Cl3e inetrtsimL ofi thi~ t by L X wl9m

(3) Nothing m this stim shall be cmstmed as
preventing an afficer or suldier a€ the first class of the 3 1 1 % ~
Reserve, undergoing voluntary training in addition ta any '. 4.
training referred to in s u b d o n (I).

l99.-(1) The Defence Board may, at any time when Calloutof
occasion appears to require, call out the first class of the ofReserve
Reserve, or as many officers and soldiers of that class as ;&pm.y

(2) OfEicers and. s d c k n called out for service under
this section shall not be liable to serve at any one time €or a
period exceeding twenty-eight days.

first class

they think is necessary, on temporary service. SCMtX.

200.-(1) In the event of a state of war being declared a o u t

lawful for the Gmemm-Gmeral by pmclamaticnr to direct rsg!
that the Reserve, or either class thered, shall be called out
on permanent service.

of Reserve or of insurrection, hmtifities or public emergency, it &all be on per-

(2) Upon the making of a proclamation under sub-
sedcm f l X th Defence Bard shall call crut the Reserve, or
the data thenof so directed to be called as the case
may he, or as many officers a d &ers of the Reserve or
of that class as it thinks is necessary, on permanent service.

(3) Every officer and soldier of the Reserve when
called out on permanent service shall be 1kbIe to continue
in service until his services are no longer required.

2 0 1 4 1 ) where the whale 06 any paPt d the first Class Attendana
of the Reserve is called out on t m p ~ service OT on :rd
permanent service, or where the whole or any part of the ;!\967
second class of the Reserve is caM out on permanent
semi- it shall be the duty of every officer and soldier khw .ta any m& class, or, as the ease xnay be, to the
part af anyr Such class, so am out; I33 attend m person at
sdplaccc:clr@acesasmay/bepscribed:

m ~ h s i I 3 l t l of thk w, c itnthpnesdr - b p L M 4Wpl9W.

146 DEFENCE

Provided that no officer or soldier shall be liable to be
proceeded against for an offence under this Act by reason
of his failure to attend as aforesaid unless he has been served
with a notice under the provisions of subsection (2)
requiring him to attend.

(2) Where the first class of the Reserve is called
out on temporary service or where the Reserve is called
out on permanent service, the Defence Board may cause
any officer or soldier liable to such call out to be served with
a notice requiring him to attend at the time and place there-
in specified.

(3) A notice under subsection (2) may be served on
any officer or soldier by-

(a) being delivered to him personally;
(b) being left at his last known address;
(c) being sent by registered post addressed to him at

his last known address.

Effective

callout.

202. Where an officer or soldier of the Reserve is called
out on temporary service or on permanent service he shall,
for the purposes of section 208 and paragraph (c) of sub-
section (1) of section 209, be deemed to be so called out
with effect from either-

(a) the time of his attendance under subsection (1) of
section 201; or

(b) the time specified in any notice served under sub-
section (2) of that section,

time of

whichever shall be the earlier.

Termination 203. Where any officer or soldier of the Reserve has
been called out on temporary service or on permanent
service, the Defence Board may at any time thereafter give
such directions as it may think fit for terminating the
service of any officer or soldier so called out but without

of Service.

me inclusion of this page is authorized by LN. 480/1973]

DEFENCE 147

prejudice to the power of the Defence Board by notice
served under section 201 to call out for further service any
officer or soldier whose service has been terminated by
directions given under this section.

204. Every officer and soldier of the Reserve may, when Postineor
called out on temporary service or on permanent service ofmembers
or when undergoing training, be posted or attached to any Of
unit of the regular Force or the Reserve.

attachment

2 0 5 . 4 1) Any officer or soldier of the Reserve in Jamaica Punishment
who, without leave lawfully granted or other reasonable attendme.
excuse, fails to appear at the time and place appointed for
annual camp, or at the time and place specified in any notice
under subsection (2) of section 201, shall-

(a) if called out on permanent service, be guilty,
according to the circumstances, of desertion within
the meaning of section 47 or of absenting himself
without leave within the meaning of section 48; or

(b) if called out on temporary service or due to attend
annual camp, be guilty of absenting himself with-
out leave within the meaning of section 48.

for non-

(2) Any officer or soldier of the Reserve who com-

(a) to be tried by court-martial, and on conviction
shall be punishable as for an offence under section
47 or, as the case may be, section 48; or

(b) to be tried summarily by a Resident Magistrate
and on conviction shall be liable to a fine not
exceeding sixty dollars and in default of payment
to imprisonment for any term not exceeding six
months.

mits any offence under this section shall be liable-

me inclusion of this page is authorized by LN. 480/1973]

(3) Section 81 shall apply to officers and ddiers
of the Reserve who mmmit an offence against this section
as it applies to OfEiCers and soldiers of the regular Farce.

(4) Where an offiw or soldier of the Reserve fai%
to appear at the time and place appointed for training or
at the time and place specified in any notice under sub-
section (2) o€ section 201, and his absence continues for not
less than twenty-one days, an entry of such absence shall
be made by an officer in the service books and such entry
shall be prima facie evidence o€ the fact of such absence.

w r o m

Prope*.

206.-(1) If any person designedly makes away with, or
pawns, or wrongfully destroys or damages, or negligently
loses anything issued to him as an officer or soldier of the
Reserve, or wrongfully refuses or neglects to deliver up on
demand anything issued to him as such officer or soldkr
the value t h m f shall be recoverable from him summarily
before a R e n t Maigastrate on Complaint by my officer
of the Jamaica Defence Force.

(2) Witbut prejudice to the provisions of sub-
section (l), any ptzscm who designedly makes away with,
sells, pawns, or wmngfally destroys, rnythmg issued to
him as afo~said &all be liable on smimary conviction
before a Resident Magistrate to a fine not exceeding twenty
dollars.

Of

Discharge

from Reserve.

207.41) A soldier of the Reserve may be discharged by
the competent military authority at my lime during the
currency of may term af service in the Reserve upon such
grounds as may be prescribed.

(2) A saldier af the R w , other than a soldier
who is a m m k thereof by wirtue af the g n w i s b n s of Part
N, shall, unless the clw of the Rzserve of which he is a
member is called out on permanent service, be entitled to

3/1967
S. 6.

inausimn of this pgot is alJ&mizd by L*M a%O/Bzq

DEFENCE 149

be discharged before the end of his current term of service
on complying with the following conditions-

(i)

(ii)

giving to his commanding officer six weeks’ notice
in writing of his desire to be discharged; and
delivering up in good order, fair wear and tear
only excepted, all arms, clothing and equipment,
being public property issued to him or, in cases
where for any good or sufficient cause the delivery
of the property aforesaid is impossible, paying the
value thereof.

208.-(1) In their application to officers and soldiers of hppcca.
the Reserve, the provisions of this Act and, in particular, the
provisions of Parts V and VII, shall have effect subject to !$gg*I.

(2) Where, after the 1st January, 1%8, an offence
under this Act triable by court-martial has been committed,
or is reasonably suspected of having been committed, by an
officer or soldier of the Reserve during any period when
he was undergoing training, then-

(a) in relation to that offence, he may (without preju-
dice to any other provision of this Act) be dealt
with in accordance with the provisions of this Act
as to the summary dealing with charges during any
subsequent period of training, if proceedings
against him in respect of that offence are com-
menced within three months after the date when
the offence is alleged to have been committed; and

(b) subsection (6) of section 85 shall not apply in
relation to any proceedings taken against him in
respect of such an offence.
(3) Where an officer or soldier of the Reserve has

been found guilty of any offence under this Act triable by

the provisions of this section. 5. 7.

me inclusion of this page is authorized by LN. 480/1973]

150 DEFENCE

court-martial and the offence was committed after the 1st
January, 1968, and during any period when he was under-
going training, then-

(a) no fine awarded by a court-martial in respect of
any one such offence shall exceed $20; and

(b) where the charge is dealt with summarily, no fine
may be awarded in respect of any one such offence
in excess of $10,
(4) Where-

(a) an officer or soldier of the Reserve has (whether
before or after the 1st January, 1%8), by reason
of anything done or omitted to be done during any
period when he was undergoing training, become
liable, under Part V or Part VII, to pay any fine
or any sum of money by way of compensation
for any expense, loss or damage (whether or not
such fine or sum of money is to be recovered by
deductions from his pay); and

(b) subsequently to his becoming so liable, he has
ceased to be a member of the Reserve; and

(c) at the time when he ceased to be such a member
the whole or any part of such fine or sum of
money remains unpaid,

then the fine or sum of money or, as the case may be, such
part thereof as remains unpaid, shall be recoverable
summarily on complaint by any officer of the Jamaica
Defence Force before a Resident Magistrate as a debt due
to the Government.

( 5 ) The provisions of sections 160, 161, 165, 166,
167 and 168 shall not apply to officers or soldiers of the
Reserve except when called out on permanent service or
on temporary service or when serving on the permanent
staff of the Reserve.

me inclusion of this page is authorized by LN. 480/1973]

DEFENCE 151

(6) Nothing in subsection (3) shall be taken as
authorizing the imposition of a fine of an amount in excess
of the maximum amount that may be imposed under the
provisions of this Act other than this section.

PART X . Application of this Act and Supplementary
Provisions

209.-(1) Subject to the provisions of section 211, the Persons
following persons are subject to military law under this tnihtrrry lsubject to

law. Act-
(a) officers and soldiers of the regular Force;
(b) officers and soldiers when attached to the Jamaica

Defence Force or any part therdf;
(c) officers and soldiers of the Reserve when called

out on permanent service or temporary service
or when undergoing or performing any training
or other duty (whether in pursuance of an obliga-
tion or not) or when serving on the permanent
staff of the Reserve.
(2) This Act shall apply to the persons subject

thereto under the provisions of this section and in relation
to the Jamaica Defence Force as well outside as within
Jamaica.

210.41) Subject to the modifications hereinafter speci- l$:giiis
fied, where any unit is on active service, Part V shall apply ~ c t t o
to any person who is employed in the service of that unit
or any part or member thereof, or accompanies the said
unit or any part thereof, and is not subject to service law,
as the said Part V applies to soldiers subject to military law
under this Act.

lcivilians.

(2) The said modifications are the following-
(a) the punishments which may be awarded by a

court-martial shall include a fine, but shall not
me inclusion of this page is authorized by LN. 480/1973]

152 DEFENCE

include any other punishment less than imprison-
ment;

(b) the punishment which may be awarded where a
charge is dealt with summarily shall, in the case
of any offence, be a fine not exceeding sixty dollars
but no other punishment;

(c) the following provisions shall have effect in sub-
stitution for subsections (2) to (4) of section 81,
that is to say, that a person may be arrested by a
provost officer, by any warrant officer or non-
commissioned officer legally exercising authority
under a provost officer or on his behalf, or by
order of ahy officer subject to service law;

(d) where a charge is being dealt with summarily and
it has been determined that the accused is guilty,
a finding shall not be recorded until after the
accused has been afforded an opportunity of elect-
ing to be tried by court-martial, and if the accused
so elects a finding shall not be recorded but such
steps shall be taken with a view to the charge
being tried by court-martial as may be prescribed
by Rules of Procedure;

(e) the provisions of this Act relating to the investi-
gation of, and summary dealing with, offences shall,
save as otherwise expressly provided, apply as they
apply to soldiers;

( f ) for the purposes of the provisions of this Act
relating to the investigation of offences, the com-
manding officer shall be such officer as may be
appointed by the officer authorized to convene a
court-martial,

‘(g) for references in sections 125 and 126 to being,
continuing, or ceasing to be subject to this Act
there shall be substituted references to being, con-

[The inclusion of this page is authorized by LN. 480/1973]

DEFENCE 153

tinuing to be or ceasing to be in such circumstan-
ces that Part V applies and subsection (3) of
section 125 shall not apply.

(3) Any fine awarded by virtue of this section,
whether by a court-martial or the commanding officer, shall
be recoverable summarily on complaint by any officer of
the Jamaica Defence Force before a Resident Magistrate
as a debt due to the Government.

211.4 1) Officers, warrant officers and non-commis- AApPlica-
sioned officers who, being members of the United Kingdom the Act.
military forces, are subject to military law under the Act
and are seconded to serve with the Jamaica Defence Force
or any part thereof, shall remain subject to military law
under the Act and shall not be subject to military law under
this Act.

(2) The powers of arrest conferred by section 74
of the Act and the provisions of sections 186 to 190
inclusive of the Act (which relate to deserters and absentees
without leave) shall continue to apply in Jamaica to the
persons referred to in subsection (1) on or after the 6th of
August, 1 %2, as they applied before that date.

(3) In the event of a person referred to in sub-
section (1) committing an offence against the provisions of
the Act, he may be held, tried and punished in Jamaica
under the Act for the offence thereunder.

tion of

212.41) Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Act, Power to
make the Defence Board may make regulations for the better

carrying out of the provisions of this Act and generally for tions.
the good government and organization of the Jamaica
Defence Force and for providing for matters required by
this Act to be prescribed and without prejudice to the
generality of the foregoing such regulations may make

[The inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480/1973]

154 DEFENCE

provisions with respect of all or any of the following
matters, that is to say-

the enlistment of persons into, and the discharge
of persons from, the regular Force and generally
for the carrying into effect of Part IV, including
the prescribing of the necessary forms and the
administration of oaths and afilrmations;
determining to what extent and under what con-
ditions colour service in any of Her Majesty’s
forces other than in the Jamaica Defence Force
may be counted as colour service in the regular
Force;
the pay, allowances, pensions, and gratuities of
officers and soldiers and of their dependants sur-
viving them, and the deductions therefrom and
the forfeiture thereof (including the reckoning
for pay, pensions and gratuities of service in Her
Majesty’s forces other than in the Jamaica Defence
Force, prior to the commencement of service in
that Force);
the description, supply, use and disposal of arms,
accoutrement, clothing and other stores;
the enlistment of persons into and the discharge
of persons from the Reserve including the pre-
scribing of the necessary forms and the ad-
ministration of oaths and 9ffirmations;
the calling out of officers and soldiers of the
Reserve on temporary service, on permanent
service and for training including prescribing the
manner in which notification of the places and
times appointed for training is to be given;
requiring officers and soldiers of the Reserve to
report themselves from time to time and generally
for the carrying into effect of Part IX;

[The inclusion of this page is authorized by LN. 480119731

DEFENCE 155

(h) prohibiting, restricting and regulating the holding
of meetings within the limits of any camp or other
military establishment and the admission thereto
of civilians for the purpose of holding, addressing
or attending any such meeting;

(i) in respect of matters for which regulations may
be made under the foregoing provisions of this
Act, other than under the provisions of Part I11
and Part VJ.

(2) Any regulations made under this section with
respect to the amounts of money payable under this Act
on account of pay, allowances, pensions, or gratuities or
with respect to the rates payable under this Act in respect
of pay, allowances, pensions or gratuities shall only be made
with the approval of the Minister, and any such regulations 1 ~ 1 9 7 7

$. 2 (4, @I. may be given retrospective effect whenever the Defence
Board is satisfied that it is equitable so to do in order to
confer a benefit upon or remove a disability attaching to
any officer or soldier :

Provided that no such regulation shall have retrospective
effect unless it has received prior approval of the House of
Representatives signified by resolution.

213.-(1) Any power conferred by this Act to make POW-
ercisable

power to make provision for specified cases or classes of s t g .
regulations, rules, orders or other instruments shall include

cases, and to make different provisions for different classes
or cases, and for the purposes of any such instrument classes
of cases may be defined by reference to any circumstances
specified in the instrument.

f

(2) Any such regulations, rules, orders or other
instruments as aforesaid may impose conditions, require
acts or things to be performed or done to the satisfaction
of any persons named therein whether or not such persons

me inclusion of this page is authorized by LN. 68/1978]

M

156 DEFENCE

are members of the Jamaica Defence Force or of Her
Majesty’s forces, empower such persons to issue orders
either orally or in writing requiring acts or things to
be performed or done or prohibiting acts or things from
being performed or done, and prescribe periods or dates
upon, within or before which such acts or things shall be
performed or done or such conditions shall be fulfilled and
provide for appeal against any such order, requirement or
direction.

Execution
instru- Of Orders*

ments-etc.

214. Save as expressly provided, by any regulations, any
order, determination, direction or appointment required or
authorized to be made under this Act by any military officer
or authority may be signified under the hand of any officer
authorized in that behalf, and any instrument signdying
such an order, determination, direction or appointment and
purporting to be signed by an officer stated therein to be so
authorized shall unless the contrary is proved be deemed
to be signed by an officer so authorized.

Transitional. 215.-(1) Any unit raised under the Local Forces Law
(1953Edtn.) (now repealed) shall be deemed to be raised under this Act

and to be a unit of the Reserve.
(2) Any person who, immediately before the 31st

July, 1%2, is holding any commission as an officer in the
Local Forces constituted under the Local Forces Law or is
a member of the Local Forces as defined in that Law shall
be deemed, as from that date-

(a) in the case of a person holding such commission as
aforesaid, to have been granted Her Majesty’s
commission pursuant to this Act and to have been
appointed to the first class of the Reserve; and

(b) in the case of a member as aforesaid, to have been
enlisted as a soldier under Part IX of this Act for
service in the first class of the Reserve, so, how-

Cap 226

me inclusion of this page is authorized by LN. 68/1978]

DEFENCE 157

c

\

ever, that any such member who held, immediately
before the 31st July, 1962, the rank of a warrant
officer or a non-commissioned officer in the Local
Forces shall be deemed to have been promoted
to that rank in the Reserve by virtue of the
provisions of this Act.
(3) No person shall pursuant to subsection (2), be

required, without his consent, to serve for a longer period
or on terms and conditions (including rights and privileges)
less favourable than he would have been required to serve
pursuant to the Local Forces Law if that Law had not been
repealed.

(4) Where any question exists in relation to any
matter arising under subsection (3) such question may be
determined by the Defence Board, subject, however, to the
approval, either generally or in any particular case, of the
Governor-General acting on the recommendation of the
Privy Council.

( 5 ) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary, any
Band established pursuant to the provisions of Part V of the
Local Forces Law, and in existence immediately prior to thz
31st July, 1962, shall after that date form part of the Jamaica
Defence Force and the provisions of the said Part shall as
far as possible be deemed to continue to apply to such Band
until corresponding provisions, which may contain such
adaptations and modifications as the Defence Board thinks
fit, are prescribed under this Act.

me inclusion of this page is authorized by LN. 681 19781

158 DEFENCE

FIRST SCHEDULE

Commissions

FORM OF QUEEN’S ~ M M I S S I O N

(Section 14 (3) )

I.. ................................................................. Governor-General
of Jamaica acting under command of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the

Greetings and reposing especial trust in your loyalty. courage and good
conduct, do by these presents constitute and appoint you to be an

Second do give to .......................................................................

officer in the Jamaica Defence Force [for ..................... years]* from
the.. ........................... .day of.. ................................. .19.. .....

You are therefore carefully and diligently to discharge your duty as
such an officer in the rank of.. .............................................. or in
such other rank as you may from time to time hereafter be promoted
or appointed and you are in such manner and on such occasions to
exercise and well discipline in their duties, such officers and soldiers
as may be placed under your orders from time to time and use your
best endeavours to keep them in good order and discipline. I do
hereby command. all such officers and soldiers to obey you as their
superior officer, and you to observe and follow such orders and
directions as from time to time you shall receive from me or any of
your superior officers in pursuance of the trust hereby reposed in you.

41 I1971
s. 3.

Given under my hand and the Broad scal of Jamaica at ...............
this.. ............................. ..day of.. .............................. .19.. ....

Governor-Geneml

*to be omitted in the case of a commission granted for an indefinite period.

[The inclusion of this page is authorized by LN. 68/ 19781

DEFENCE

Offence Charged

1. Any offence against subsection
(1) of section 34.

2. Any offence against subsection
(1) of section 35.

3. Any offence against subsection
(1) of section 41.

4. Communicating with or giving
,intelligence to the enemy, either
with intent to assist the enemy
or without authority.

5. Striking his superior officer.

6. Using violence to his superior
officer otherwise than by strik-
ing him.

7. Using threatening language to
his superior oficer.

8. Disobeying, in such a manner
as to show wilful de6ance of
authority, a lawful command
given or semt to him personally.

9. Desertion.
10. Attempting to desert.
11. Stealing any property.

12. Any offence against section 46
of this Act involving wilfulness.

13. Any offence against subsection
(1) of section 61.

14. Any offence against subsection
(1) of section 62 involving
striking.

15. Any offence against section 62
involving the use of violence
other than striking.

[The inclusion of this page is

159 1
Alternative otfence

1. Any offence against sub-
section (2) of section 34.

2. Any offence against sub-
section (2) of section 35.

3. Any offence against sub-
section (2) of section 41.

4. Disclosing information with-
out authority.

5. (a) Using violence to his
superior officer otherwise
than by striking him.

(b) Wering violence to his
superior officer.

6. mering violence to his
superior officer.

to his superior officer.

mand.

7. Using insubordinate language

8. Disobeying a lawful com-

9. Absence without leave.
10. Absence without leave.
11. Fraudulently mhpplying the

property.
12. The corresponding offence in-

volving negligence.
13. Any offence a@st sub-

section (2) of sechon 61.
14. (a) The cotresponding of-

fence involving the use
of violence other than
striking.

(b) The corresponding of-
fence involving the offer-
ing of violence.

15. The corresponding offence in-
volving the offering of vio-
lence.

authorized by L.N. 480/1973]

SECOND SCHEDULE (Section 103)
Alternative offences of which accused m a y be convicted by court-

martial

i

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