Kingston and St. Andrew Building Act

Link to law: http://www.moj.gov.jm/laws/kingston-and-st-andrew-building-act-0

KINGSTON AND ST. ANDREW BUILDING

THE KINGSTON AND ST. ANDREW BUILDING ACT

REGULATIONS
(under section 25)

THE KINGSTON AND ST. ANDREW BUILDING (TRIBUNAL OF APPEAL)
REGULATIONS, 1932

(Made by the Corporation on the 14th day of March, 1932 and G . ~ . 489132
approved by the Governor in Privy Council on the ~ m d : L.N. 47/92

28th day of June, 1932)

1. These Regulations may be cited as the Kingston and St. Andrew
Building (Tribunal of Appeal) Regulations. 1932.

2. Every person whose plans or drawings the Building Authority
may have refused to approve may appeal to the Tribunal of Appeal
against the decision of the Building Authority within fourteen days
aftor the communication to such person of the said decision by leaving
with the Building Authority a notice (in triplicate) of his intention to
appeal containing the grounds on which he appeals and an address
for service and shall at the same time pay to the Building Authority
the sum of $500.00 as a fee on such appeal.

3. The Building Authority shall within two days after the receipt of
the notice of appeal and fee forward to the Tribunal of Appeal-

(i) the notice of intention to erect, re-erect or extend any
building and the plans and drawings and any amendments
thereof relating to the proposed building which may have
been lodged with or supplied to the Building Authority;

(ii) a statement of the names and addresses of the persons, if
any, called and examined as witnesses before the Building
Authority;

(iii) the decision, if any, of the surveyor;

(iv) the decision of the Building Authority; and
(v) the notice and grounds of appeal.

The foregoing documents together with any notice and grounds of
objection shall be deemed the record on the appeal.

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THE KINGSTON AND 92'. ANDREW BUILDING (TRIBUNAL OF
APPEAL) REGULATIONS. 1932

4. If any person (hereinafter referred to as "the objector") shall have
been heard by the Building Authority in opposition to the appellant
the Building Authority shall fmward a copy of the notice and grounds
of appeal to such person and such person may within seven days after
the receipt of such notice leave with the Building Authority notice (in
triplicate) of his intention to oppose the appeal containing the grounds
of opposition and an address for service and pay to the Building
Authority the sum of $100.00 as a fee on lodging such notice.

5. Within two days after the receipt of the notice and fee mentioned
in regulation 4 the Building Authority shall forward such notice to the
Tribunal of Appeal.

6. The Chief Technical Director may within seven days after the
receipt by him of the notice and grounds of appeal by writing under
his hand appoint some person to hear and determine the appeal and if
any such appointment shall be made the person so appointed shall
thereafter be deemed the Tribunal of Appeal.

7. The Tribunal of Appeal shall within fourteen days after the
receipt by the Chief Technical Director of the notice and grounds of
appeal appoint a time (not being more than fourteen or less than seven
days thereafter) and place for the hearing of the appeal and shall give
notice in writing to the Building Authority and to the appellant and to
the objector (if any) of the time and place so appointed.

8. The Tribunal of Appeal shall at the time and place appointed
proceed to hear and determine the appeal with power however to
adjourn or postpone the hearing to any other time or place, but no
appeal shall be heard unless the notice and grounds of appeal and the
fee thereon shall have been lodged and paid within the prescribed
time.

9. The appellant shall be entitled to begin and if any fact is in
dispute may call and examine witnesses who may be cross-examined
by the Building Authority and the objector and re-examined by the
appellant; then the objector, if any, shall be entitled to be heard and to
call and examine witnesses who shall be liable to be cross-examined by
the Building Authority and the appellant and re-examined by the
objector and then the Building Authority shall be entitled to be heard
provided that no party shall be entitled to call or examine any person
as a witness who was not called and examined before the Building
Authority.

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THE KINGSTON AND ST. ANDREW BUILDING (TRIBUNAL OF
APPEAL) REGULATIONS, 1932

10. The appellant and objector may appear at the hearing of the appeal
in person or by counsel or solicitor and the Building Authority may
appear by any member or officer m by counsel or solicitor.

11. Neither the appellant nor the objector may raise or rely upon
any ground not contained in the notice lodged by him.

12. Within seven days after the conclusion of the hearing the
Tribunal of Appeal shall forward to the Building Authority the record
of the appeal1 and the notes of evidence, if any taken by him and a
written statement of his decision and the Building Authority shall
forthwith forward to the appellant and the objector (if any) copies of
such statement of decision.

13. The decision of the Tribunal of Appeal shall be enforced in the
same manner in all respects as a decision of the Building Authority.

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KINGSTON AND ST. ANDREW BUILDING

THE KINGSTON AND ST. ANDREW BUILDING ACT

REGULATIONS
(under section 25)

(Made by the Corporation on the 13th day of June, 1938 and approved 2.Nd':735/38
by the Governor in Privy Council on the 30th day of August, 1938) z: ,!&?.,I;;

[lst October, 1938.1 ;g,g
1. These Regulations may be cited as the Kingston and St. Andrew

Building (Notices and Objections) Regulations, 1938.

2. In these Regulations unless the context otherwise requires,
"proposed site" means the holding or site upon which a person proposes
to erect, change the class of or re-erect any building.

3. Where any person-

(a) desires to erect or re-erect-

(i) a building to be used for the sale of petroleum products
or for the purposes of a factory wherever the proposed
site may be situated; or

(ii) a building intended to be used for the purposes of any
trade or business or as a church, school or place of
assembly on any site not within a "business area" as
defined by section 2 of the Act; or

(b) desires to change the class of an existing building,
such person shall not less than three nor more than seven days before
giving to the Building Authority the notice prescribed by section 10 of
the Act, give notice of his intention to submit plans under that section.

4. The notice of intention to submit plans shall be in the Form No. 1 gEEb.
in the Schedule and shall accurately describe the site on which it is
proposed to erect or re-erect or change the class of the building by
stating the name of the roadway and the number or name of the site
and shall state the class of building to which the notice relates and the
name and address of the owner of the proposed site and also the name

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THE KINGSTON AND ST. ANDREW BUILDING (NOTICES A N D
OBJECTIONS) REGULATIONS, 1938

and address of the builder, if any, whom it is proposed to employ, and
a copy of such notice shall be served upon the owner and occupier of
every holding adjoining the psoposed site and a copy thereof in letters
not less than half an inch high shall be posted on some part of the
proposed site in such manner as to be distinctly visible from the road-
way and the original notice together with proof of the service and
posting of the copies thereof shall accompany the notice and plans pre-
scribed by section 10 of the Act:

Provided that in proving service on the occupier or owner of an
adjoining holding it shall be sufficient to prove that a copy of the
notice was sent by registered post addressed to the last known address
of such owner or occupier or in case any adjoining holding is un-
occupied and the owner or his address is unknown that such copy was
posted on a conspicuous part of such holding.

5. The Building Authority shall not approve of the erection or re-
erection of any such building until the expiration of thirty days from
the service or posting of the last of such copy notices.

6.-(1) The owner or occupier of an adjoining holding and the owner
of any holding within a radius of two hundred yards of a proposed
site may object to the approval of any plans submitted in respect of such
proposed site by serving (personally or by registered post) upon the
owner of the proposed site a notice in writing of such objection and of
the grounds thereof and by delivering to the Building Authority a
duplicate of such notice together with proof of the service thereof on
the owner of the proposed site.

Form NO. 2. (2) Every such notice of objection shall be in the Form No. 2
in the Schedule and shall be served upon the owner of the proposed
site and a copy thereof delivered to the Building Authority within thirty
days after the day on which the notice of intention to submit plans
shall have been posted on the proposed site.

7. The Building Authority shall before coming to a determination
on the plans submitted take into consideration all objections which may
be made and the grounds thereof and may either grant or refuse
approval of the plans submitted or may appoint a time and place to
hear the parties and give notice of such appointment to the owner
of the proposed site and to every objector and at such hearing the
owner of the proposed site and the persons who have objected may

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THE KINGSTON AND ST. ANDREW BUZLDZNQ ( N 0 T L G E S . N
OBJECTZONiT) REGIJkl 'TZO~i 1938

appear or be repregent& by coumgel or solicitor but at such hearing
no objeotion to the propaseq-budding other t4an :.those ~ontained in
the notices delivered may be put forward or argued. + . - . ,

8. For the purposes of an appeal to the Tribunal of Appeal every
person who may have given a notice containing grounds of objection
,ahall be deemed a person heard by the Building Authority in opposition
to the application.

Form No. 1
~ U L E

(Regulation 4)

Notice of intention to submit plans
TAKE NOTICE that it is my intention to submit plans and apply for permission

to erect or ohange the o l w d (here state the buildin to which the notice
relates and the putposes for which it is intertded to be use8
on the land known as
street or road in the parish of

All persons proposing to object to the approval of plans submitted are required
to give notice in writing in the prescribed form of their objection and of the
grounds thereof to the undersi ned owner and to the Building Authority within
rhirty (30) days from the date %ereof.

Dated the day 9f 19 .
..................................................................

Owner

..................................................................
Postal Address

..................................................................
Builder

..................................................................
Postal Address

NOTE: Information as to the prescribed form and the procedure to be
adopted may be obtained from the oface of the City Engineer.

Fonn No. 2 (Regulation 6 )

Notice of Objection
J being the owner or occupier

of No. a holding adjoining the site No.
in the parish of or being

the owner of No. a holding within
200 yards of the site No.
in the parish of HEREBY GIVE NOTICE that I object
to the approval of plans submitted for the erection or change of class of

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THE KINGSTON AND ST. ANDREW BUlLDING (NOTICES AND
OBJECTIONS) REGULATIONS, I938

(here set out the nature of the building) on the ground that

My address for the purposes of this objection ia

Dated the day of 19 .
(Signaqbre of objector)

NOTE: This form must be carefully completed aad a copy served personally
or by registered post on the owner of the site on which it is proposed
to build and a copy together with proof of service delivered to the
Buildiig Authority within 30 days from the date on which the notice
of intention to submit plans was posted on the site.

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KINGSTON AND ST. ANDREW BUILDING

THE KINGSTON AND ST. ANDREW BUILDING ACT

REGULATIONS
(under Part 1V of the First Schedule to the Act)

THE KINGSTON AND ST. ANDREW BUILDING (REINFORCED CONCRETE
CONSTRUCTION) REGULATIONS, 1908

(Approved by the Governor in Privy Council on the 14th day of 2$d':17/08
October, 1908) G.N. 913139 L.N. 29/52

301 52

1. These Regulations may be cited as the Kingston and St. Andrew
Building (Reinforced Concrete Construction) Regulations, 1908.

2.-(1) For the purposes of this Part the term "a reinforced concrete
structure" shall apply to any part of a building constructed of reinforced
concrete, including Bressumers, except any of those par& hereafter
mentioned which are specially required or allowed to be of reinforced
concrete by the Regulations in the First Schedule to the Act, viz-

walls of a greater thickness than 8y provided they comply with the
requirements of regulations 14, 38 and 41;
lintels of Hearths (regulation 25);
parapets more than 15" and less than 2' 0" high (regulation 28 (4));
belt courses (regulations 39. 40);
window and door sills and lintels (regulation 42).

(2) A reinforced concrete building is a building in which the walls,
floors, flom beams and roofs are constructed of reinforced concrete.

Supervision

3. No person shall erect any reinforced concrete structure or building
except under the supervision of a qualified overseer or inspector
approved by the Buildhg Authority : but it shall be allowed for any
builder or owner to apply to the Building Authority for an inspector
to supervise the work, such application to be made at least two days
before the work on the building is commenced, and the Building
Authority shall appoint such inspector. In no case shall any mixing
or depositing of concrete be done except in the presence of such an
inspector.

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THE KINGSTON AND ST. ANDREW BUILDING (REINFORCED
CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION) REGULATIONS, 1908

4. No work on reinforced concrete shall be commenced until the
Building Authority has been satisfied that all appliances necessary
for carrying out such work have been provided.

Applications to be accompanied by drawings, details, etc.

5. All applications for sanction to erect reinforced concrete buildings
or structures shall be accompanied by-

(a) complete detailed drawings in duplicate, showing the nature,
size and disposition of the reinforcing metal, and all other
details in regard to the construction required by the Building
Authority;

(b) the calculations, if required by the Building Authority, by
which such dimensions were arrived at;

(c) the arigin and nature of the materials to be used: proof may
be required by the Building Surveyor of any statement made
under this clause;

(4 the proportions in which the ingredients of the concrete are
to be mixed, and the size and nature of the aggregate to be
used;

(e) the use to which all rooms above the ground floor are to be
put.

Copy of drawings to be kept on the site

6. A copy of the drawings as approved by the Building Authority
is always to be kept on the site, and to be available for the use of the
inspector at all times.

Cement

7.-(1) Cement shall be of a slow setting quality to comply with the
requirements of the last revise of the British Engineering Standards
Committee, or with the specification of the American Society for
Testing materials, November 14th, 1904, or otherwise of a brand and
description approved by the Building Authority.

(2) Cement is to be delivered in its original packages marked
with the maker's name and must be kept in a perfectly dry place. All
cement which has been rejected as unsatisfactory is to be removed
from the site.

Sand

8. All sand is to be clean and sharp and free from organic or earthy
matter gnd is to be screened through a 4" sieve if required by the
Building Surveyor.

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THE KINGSTON AND ST. ANDREW BUILDING (REINFORCED
CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION) REGULATIONS, 1908

Aggregate

9.-(1) The aggregate may be broken stone or brick, or other hard
substance approved by the surveyor, or of gravel which is free from
organic or earthy matter.

(2) The aggregate, if required by the surveyor, is to be screened
twice, for maximum and minimum size before measuring, and must
pass through a sieve of 1" mesh and be retained on a sieve of 4" mesh.
The material which will pass through the &" mesh may if clean be used
as sand, and measured therewith when gauging, except in the case of
broken brick in which case the portion which is less than 4" must
be removed from the site.

(3) In no case is the size of the aggregate to be greater than
will easily pass between the reinforcing bars and the boxing or the
meshes of the wire cloth or expanded metal, and for columns the
maximum size must not be greater than will pass through a sieve
of Q" mesh.

Proportions of mixture of concrete
10. No weaker mixture of concrete shall be used than that specified

in the following schedule-
aggre-

For foundations and wdls cement sand gate.
more than 6" thick 1 3 6

For walls less than 6"
thick, floors, beams,
roofs and slabs 1 2 4

For columns 1 13 3

Mixing

11. The ingredients for each batch of concrete are to be measured
in gauging boxes of the proper size or in any other way approved by
the surveyor.

Metal

12. All reinforcing metal shall be of steel of a medium or high elastic
limit and must be of a description especially constructed for reinforced
concrete work or otherwise as approved by the swveyor.

Position o f reinforcement to be adhered to
13. The exact positions shown in the drawings for the reinforcement

shall be strictly adhered to, and no concrete shall be deposited until

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THE KINGSTON AND ST. ANDREW BUILDING (REINFORCED
CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION) REGULATIONS, 1908

the inspector has satisfied himself that the reinforcement is accurately
placed, and securely held in place.

Casing or Boxing

14. All casing or boxing shall be sufficiently supported and braced
to the satisfaction of the Surveyor, and no concrete shall be deposited
in any casing or boxing not approved by the Surveyor.

Test Load

15. If required by the Building Surveyo~r, floors shall be tested to a
load not exceeding 23 times the calculated live load for which such
floors were designed.

Live load on roofs

16. The live load on flat roofs shall be taken as 50 lbs. per square
foot.

Stresses

17. The following shall be the allowable stresses in materials used
for reinforced concrete structures-

(a) Concrete. In tension. Nil.
If made of hroken stone or gravel-

Mixture.

Cement, sand, aggregate.

In. x Ms.
-

Shear x Mc.

If made of broken brick the stresses allowed are to be
75 per cent of the above stresses and the fraction Ms/Mc is
to be taken at 30 perr cent above the figure given in the table.

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THE KINGSTON AND ST. ANDREW BUILDING (REINFORCED
CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION) REGULATIONS, 1908

For hooped columns a direct compression stress of 750 lbs.
may be allowed measured on the area contained within the
hoops.

For the purposes of this regulation a column may be considered to be
a hooped column if the enclosing spirals or hoops are circular in plan,
and are spaced not more than 1-7 nor less than 1-10 of the inside
diameter of such spirals or hoops apart, and if the material of the
spirals is not less than 4" diameter.

x Ms is the modules of elasticity of the steel to be used.
Mc is the modules of elasticity of the concrete to be used.

(b) Steel in tension 16,000 lbs. per square inch unless specially
approved otherwise and in any case not less than 14,000 or more than
18,000 lbs. per square inch nor more than half of the elastic limit.
Bending moments are to be calculated as follows where

L=Length of span in inches;
W=The total distributed load in lbs.

For beams freely supported at both ends WL/ 8
For beams continuous WL/ 10

For continuous slabs with tension bars running one way only WL/ 16
Far continuous slabs with tension bars running

both ways, according to arrangement of
metal and ratio of length to breadth of
dab WL/ 12 to WL/24

For slabs not continuous with tension bars
running one way only

For slabs not continuous with tension bars
running both ways according to arrange-
ments of metal and ratio of length to
breadth of slab WL/8 to WL/ 16

Length of columns

18. The maximum ratio of bngth to diameter or side of column
measured on the outside of reinforcing bars shall be 1/ 15, but in no
case shall a column be less than 10" in least diameter measured on
the outside of the reinforcing bars.

Weight of concrete

19. For purposes of calculation the weight of concrete may be
assumed to be 144 lbs. per cubic foot.

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CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION) REGULATIONS, I908

Span of beams or Slabs
20. The length of span of a beam or slab shall be taken as the

clear distance between the vertical edges of the supports. No deduc-
tion is to be made for angle brackets.

Angle bracing

21. In order as far as possible to guard against the racking strains
caused by earthquakes all external columns, buttresses or piers in a
"reinforced concrete building" shall be provided with angle brackets
or with special reinforcement to columns or beams of a design approved
by the surveyor, such design having in contemplation the withstanding
of a horizontal pressure equivalent to 50 lbs. per square foot, acting
at right angles to and upon the entire surface exposed to it.

Walls, thickness of

22.-(1) No part of any wall shall be of a less thickness than 4" and
no part of any external wall shall be of a less thickness than 6",
unless the building is a single storey one and the roof of it has a
span of 16 feet or less, in which case the thickness shall be such as
shall be approved by the Surveyor.

In buildings of mme than one storey of which the walls are of rein-
forced concrete the topmost storey shall have external walls of at least
7" in thickness and each succeeding lower storey ,shall have external
walls at least 3" thicker than the external walls of the storey immediately
above it, provided that the height of no storey exceeds 14 feet measured
from the top of the floor or joists supporting the floor of such storey
to the top of the joists of the flom of the storey next above it, or in
the case of the topmost storey to the bottom of the tie beam of
the roof trusses or the underside of the roof slab at the line of the
wall. If any storey exceeds 14 feet in height the external walls of
such storey shall be increased in thickness by at least 3" beyond the
thickness above required or any greater amount approved by the
Surveyor.

Buttresses for Walls

(2) All walls of a greater length than 15 feet are to be strength-
ened with piers, buttresses, or cross walls, not more than 15 feet apart,
or less if required by the Surveyor, extending from the foundations to
the top of the walls and are to be securely anchored to such pier or
buttress in a manner approved by the Surveyor.

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THE KINGSTON AND ST. ANDREW BUILDING (REINFORCED
CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION) REGULATIONS, 1908

The projection or accumulated projections of such pims or buttresses
shall be in accordance with the following table-

For walls of 7" but less than 10" thick
99 O 99 99

5"
10" 13" " 4"

19 99 13" 99 99 16" " 3 "
The width of such piers or buttresses shall in every case be not less

than the total thickness of the wall and the projection or accumulated
projections of the buttresses or piers.

Steel fm Walls

(3) Steel for reinforcement of walls shall be used to at least
the extent specified in the following schedule.

For walls of 6" and t s s than 10" in thickness 3'' square rods placed
vertically and horizontally 12" apart alternately near each face of the
wall and not less than 1" or more than 2" from either face of the wall.

For walls of 10" and less than 16" in thickness 3" square rods placed
as above.

For walls of 16" and more in thickness 4" square rods placed as
above but 9" apart or as approved by the surveyor. As far as practi-
cable the vertical and horizontal rods shall be continuous throughout
the whole length and height of the wall. Whwe a joint occurs rods
are to be overlapped to a distance of 40 times the diameter or size of
the rods. The rods are to be bent at the junctions and angles of walls
so as to tie the adjacent parts together thoroughly and securely.

Curtain Walls

(4) Walls of a less thickness than 7" shall be considered to be
curtain walls.

Curtain walls shall not be considered to bear any part of the super-
imposed loads or stresses, such loads or stresses being considered to be
carried by the frame work without assistance from the curtain walls.

Curtain walls shall be reinforced in such a mannm that they are
securely connected to the columns by rods running continuously through
the columns or otherwise as approved by the surveyor, and such
curtain walls shall be reinforced throughout their length and breadth
by $' square rods not more than 18" apart vertically and horizontally.

Internal Walls

(5) Internal walls may be reinforced with rods, wire mesh, or
in any other way approved by the surveyor.

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Roofs

23. Roofs made of reinforced concrete shall be reinforced along the
edges resting on the external walls so as thoroughly to tie the roof slabs
to such walls, and in this way to assist the beams carrying the roof
slabs in making an homogeneous structure.

For this purpose rods 19" apart and 4' square extending into the
roof slab for a distance of two feet, and cranked downwards into the
wall (in the centre of such wall) for a distance of 1 foot may be
considered as forming secure ties.

24. Every building and structural part thereof shall be designed in
accordance with such detailed methods of design as are set forth herein
and are applicable to the said building. In the absence of definite
detailed provisions herein for the design of any building or structural
part thereof, no method of design shall be employed which will not
admit of a rational analysis and which is not in accordance with the
established principles of mechanics and of structural design.

25. Evcry building and all structural parts thereof shall be of suffi-
cient strength to suppmt the estimated or actual imposed loads, including
lateral forces, without exceeding the allowable working unit stresses
specified herein for the material, materials or permissible combinations
thereof, of which the said building m structural parts thereof are
constructed; but no building or structural part thereof shal be designed
for live loads which are less than those specified herein and which are
applicable to the said building by virtue of its type of occupancy.

26. Unless specifically stated otherwise in each instance, all specified
allowable working unit stresses given hereinafter for the various
materials of construction and permissible combinations thereof are the
maximum that shall be employed for the most adverse combination of
dead and live loads that are hereinafter specified or, in the absence of
definite specifications relative thereto, may in the opinion of the
Surveyor be expected to occur.

27.-(1) In resistance to the combination of wind loads and other
loads except earthquake, and in resistance to wind load alone, the
specified allowable working unit stresses of this regulation for any
material of construction, or permissible combination of structural

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materials may be increased by an amount not to exceed 333 per cent;
but the effective section and size of any structural member shall not be
less than that required to resist the combination of dead and live 'loads
alone, as specified herein, without exceeding the allowable working unit
stresses specified for the said combination of dead and live loads
alone.

(2) In resistance to the combination of-
(a) forces due to earthquake, as specified herein; and
(b) dead and live loads specified in the regulations,

the specified allowable working unit stresses of the regulations may be
increased by an amount as specified under unit working stresses; but
the effective section and size of any structural member shall not be
less than that required to resist the combination of dead and live loads
alone, as specified herein, without exceeding the allowable working
unit stresses specified for the said combination of dead and live loads
alone.

(3) Where the size and strength of a member designed to resist
the combination of dead load, Jive load, and earthquake forces equals
or exceeds that under the combination of dead load, live load, and the
wind forces as specified below, then no account need be taken of the
effect of wind on that member.

28. Pressures on all vertical surfaces shall be 20 pounds per square
foot below a level of 40 ft. above ground, and 25 pounds per square
foot above this level, but 40 pounds per square foot is to be taken on
sprinkler tanks, sky signs and exposed buildings and their supports.

Cylindrical surfaces are to be proportioned for the same pressure on
six-tenths of the projected area.

29. Every structural member subjected to the action of an eccentric
load or force shall be designed to provide for any stress due to that
eccentricity, whenever the increase in unit stress due solely to the
eccentricity exceeds 10 pm cent of the unit stress due to concentric
axial loads alone.

38. The effect of impact shaP be provided for in such manner and
in such members as the Surveyor may deem necessary.

31.-(1) The dead load of all buildings constructed of reinforced
concrete shall consist of the actual weights of walls, floors, ,stairs,
landings, roof, and all other permanent construction comprised in such
building.

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(2) The live or variable loads of such buildings shall consist
of all loads other than dead loads.

32. The following unit live loads in pounds per square foot of
horizontal projection of floors and/or roofs shall be the minimum
live loads which shall be used in the design of buildings-

Class

Unit Live
Load

Description (Column A)

Floors of private houses . .. . . . ... 50
Bedrooms on upper floors of hotels . . . ... 50
Private bedrooms in hospitals, infirmaries, and other

similar buildings . . . . . . ... 50
Residential flats . . . . . . ... 50
Dormitories in hospitals, infirmaries, and other

similar buildings . . . . . . ... 75
Art galleries ... ... ... 75
Assembly rooms or halls ... . . . . . .
Assembly rooms, lobbies and passages ... ...
Class rooms in schools and colleges . . . ...
Churches or chapels .. . . . . . . .
Theatres, music halls, cinemas, and similar buildings
Restaurants and reception rooms in hotels ...
Hotels ... ... . . . ...
Offices . . . . . . . . . ...
Floors for display of light-weight goods ...
Public auction rooms (not used for storage of goods)
Garages for private cars ... ... ...
Light workshops . . . ... ...
Drill-halls, gymnasia, dance halls, and ball-rooms . . .
Spectators' stands . . . . . . . . .
Rooms for storage of goods when the load to be

carried will not exceed 100 pounds per square foot
Wholesale stores (light merchandise) . . . . . .
Retail sales-rooms (light merchandise) . . .
Garages for vehicles up to 3 tons gros$ weight . . . 150
Medium weight workshops . . . ... 150
Rooms for storage of goods when the load to be

carried will not exceed 150 pounds per square foot 150
Theatres' stages ... . . . ... 150

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THE KINGSTON AND ST. ANDREW BUILDING (REINFORCED

Class

CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION) REGULATIONS, 1908

Unit Live
Load

Description (Column A)

... ... Book-stores at libraries ... 200
... Museums for heavy goods ... ... 200

Heavy-weight workshops ... ... ... 200
Rooms for the storage of goods when the load to be

carried will not exceed 200 pounds per square foot 200
... Pavement lights ... ... 200

Actual loads for extra heavy machinery or goods
Over ... ... ... ... 200

Flat roofs and sloping roofs with an inclination not
exceeding 15 degrees to the horizontal, curved and
barrel roofs with access thereto ... ... 40

Sloping roofs with inclination exceeding 15 degrees
to the horizontal, also curved and barrel roofs
without access thereto shall be designed for a live
load due to wind pressure of twenty-five pounds
per square foot acting at right angles to such roof-
slope.

Roofs designated as "without access" s h d provide
only for such access as is necessary for cleaning
and repair or fire protection.

Roofs designated as with access, shall provide access
for such purposes of fire escape or other similar
uses.

Partitions and other structures supeximposed on floors
and roofs may be included in the superimposed
load provided the weight of the partition or other
structures per square foot of base does not exceed
the permissible load per square foot of floor or roof
area as the case may be. Partitions and other
structures of greater weight shall be provided folr Actual

Weight.
To provide for the weight of partitions in cases where

their location is not determined on the plans, the
beams and floor slabs shall be designed to carry
an additional uniform distributed live load per
square foot equal to 10 per cent of the actual
weight per foot run of such partitions.

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THE KINGSTON AND ST. ANDREW BUILDING (REINFORCED
CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION) REGULATIONS, 1908

Unit Live
Load

Class Description - (Column A)

( j ) Loads not otherwise specified--Where the superim-
posed load on any floor, Itanding, stair or roof ex-
ceeds that hereinbefore specified for such floor,
landing, stair or roof, such greater load shall be
provided for.

( k ) Angle of dispersion-For calculating the resistance
moment the angles of dispersion of a point load
through hard filling and concrete shall not be taken
at more than 45 degrees from the vertical.

33. To prevent overloading in all offices, warehouses, factories,
workshops and stores, the weight that each floor shall safely sustain
upon each square foot thereof or upon each varying part of such
floor shall be placed and maintained by the owner of the building on
stone, concrete, or metal or other approved tablets in approved con-
spicuous places in each storey.

The following variations in assumed live load shall be permitted in
the designing of columns, pillars, walls, foundations, trusses and girdars-

(i) no reduction of the assumed live load shall be allowed
in the design of any slabs, joists or beams;

(ii) for determining the total live loads carried by columns,
the following reductions shall be permitted, the
reductions being based on the assumed live loads
applied the entire building floor area.

Carrying the roof ... ... 0 per cent
Carrying 1 floor and roof . . . 0 per cent
Carrying 2 floors and roof . . . 5 per cent
Carrying 3 floors and roof . . . 10 per cent
Carrying 4 floors and roof ... 15 per cent
Carrying 5 or more floors and roof 20 per cent

34. Floor slabs and beams shall be capable of carrying the following
alternative live aoads on an otherwise unloaded floor-

CLASS OF FLOOR per square foot

(a)+) SLABS BEAMS
(a) 50 pounds NONE 2,240 pounds uniformly

distributed.

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TZJE KINGSTON AND ST. ANDREW BUILDING (REINFORCED
CONCRETE CONSTRUCTlON) REGULATIONS, 1908

CLASS OF FLOOR PER SQUARE FOOT, contd.

(a>--(f) SLABS -- BEAMS
(b) 75 pounds
(c) 100
(d) 150 pounds, ex- 840 pounds per foot 4,480 pounds uniformly

cepting garages width of slab distributed.
(e) 200 pounds
(f) Over 200 pounds
(g) Garages for vehi- 1.5 times the maximum wheel

cles up to 3 tons load, but not less than 1 ton
dead weight considered distributed over a

floor area of 2 ft. 6 in. square.

The reactions arising in the beams for this alternative live loads
need not be taken into the pillars.

35. In cases where a rolling load actuated by mechanical power is
to be provided for, such rolling load shall be taken as equivalent to a
static load of 20 per cent in excess of the actual rolling load or such
other allowance as may be specified by the Surveyor to meet special
conditions.

36. In case of lifts, elevators, hoists and similar machines, the equiv-
alent static load at the top of the lift-shaft is to be taken as at least 50
per cent in excess of the combined load of the actual pull in the ropes,
the weight of overhead machinery sheaves, supports and overhead beams.

37. The actual live loads in buildings of the industrial or commercial
type, in so far as such actual live loads may be reasonably estimated,
shall be used in the design of such bulidings or parts thereof; special
provisions shall be made for machine or apparatus loads when such
machine or apparatus loads would result in greater stress in the
structural member of the floors than would be caused by the loading
specified above for such occupancies.

38. Public garages and commercial and industrial buildings on which
loaded trucks are to be placed, used or stored, shala have their floor
systems designed to support a concentrated rearwheel load of a loaded
truck placed in any possible position, or combination of positions.
The weight of the concentrated wheel-load to be used in the design
shall not be less than 5,750 pounds per wheel.
-

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THE KINGSTON A N D ST. ANDREW BUILDING (REINFORCED
CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION) REGULATIONS, I908

39. Each floor and the individual structural members thereof shall
be designed for the most severe possible distribution of live loading on
the said floor and the said individual structural members thereof.

The web members of trussed structural members of floors and roofs
shall be properly proportioned for partial live loading, in any one span
of said trussed structural members.

40. In calculating stresses on columns due to lateral forces including
earthquake the length of the columns shall be taken as vertical distances
from the neutral axis of a beam or girder intemecting the column to the
neutral axis of the next beam or girder intersecting the same column.

In calculating the moment of resistance of the column a bending
moment not greater than the bending moment at the level of the
underside of the beam or bottom of its haunch as defined in these
Regulations, or the top of the beam, as the case may be, need be
provided for.

41. In calculating stresses in beams due to lateral forces indbding
earthquake, the length of the beams shall be taken as the horizontal
distance from the centre of the supporting column to the centre of the
next supporting column.

In calculating the moment of resistance of the beam or girders a
bending moment not greater than the bending moment at the face of
the supporting column need be provided for.

PART I11
Pre-stressed Concrete

42. In regulations 43, 44, 45, 46, 47 and 48 "pre-stressed concrete"
means high-strength concrete which has been pre-stressed by the use
of high grade tensile steel wires strengthened by means of hydraulic
jacks either by post-tensioning or pre-tensioning in such manna as to
set the stresses in structures which wiP act contrary to the applied loads
and "approved" means approved by the Building Authority or the
Building Surveyor.

43. Pre-stressed ooncrete complying with the provisions of these
Regulations may be used in the construction of reinforced concrete
buildings either alone or in combination with such other forms of
construction as may be approved.

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THE KINGSTON A N D ST. ANDREW BUILDING (REINFORCED
CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION) REGULATIONS, 1908

The materials to be used in pre-stressed concrete shdl be-
(a) Concrete consisting of suitably graded aggregate and cement

conforming to British Standard Specifications and attaining a
minimum compressive stress of 5,000 it. per square inch
at 28 days and shall have a minimum strength of twice the
compressive stress which will be applied to it at the time of
pre-stressing. After casting the concrete shaill be properly
protected to prevent rapid evaporation of moisture by being
covered in an approved manner at least until stressing takes
place and shall be adequately vibrated in an approved manner.
High tensile steel wire complying with the requirements of
British Standard Specifications and in support of which a
Certificate has been issued by the manufacturers stating-

(i) the ultimate tensile ~trength of the wire;
(ii) 0.1 % stress.

44. All pre-stressed concrete structural members shall be designed
to carry the loads prescribed under the building regulations in force.

45. The preliminary tension in the steel shall not exceed 65 to 70
per cent of the ultimate stress or 80 to 90 per cent of the proof stress.
The h a 1 working stress in the steel is to be limited to 60 to 65 per cent
of the ultimate stress.

Tensile stress in the concrete shall not exceed 10 per cent of the
designed compressive stress.

In pre-tensioned concrete the allowable loss in the steel may be 20
per cent and in post-tensioned concrete 15 per cent,

The load factor of the structure shall not be less than 2.5.

Complete calculations shall be submitted for the approvd of the
Building Authority along with the plans and application for the approval
thereof.

All units manufactured in a factory shall be guaranteed by the
manufacturer as complying with the requirements set out above and if
so required by the Building Surveyor shall be tested to ascertain
compliance with designed loads, and in such case the manufacturer
shall provide the necessary testing equipment and labour. No unit
which fails to pass the test shall be used for the purpose intended. The
Building Authority may however approve of the use of any membexs
under lighter bads than originally designed.

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THE KINGSTON AND ST. ANDREW BUILDING (REINFORCED
CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION) REGULATIONS, I908

46. All pre-stressed concrete units shall be manufactured under an
approved system and shall be guaranteed by the manufacturer to
satisfactorily withstand the load fa which it is designed.

The manufacturer shall place distinctive marks on each unit indicating
the load for which it is designed.

No unit shall be used until the manufacturer's certificate as to the
lbad for which it has been designed has been submitted to the Building
Surveyor and appmved, and such unit shall only be used to carry the
designed load as specified by the manufacturers.

47. When building units are assembled to form a building or any
part thereof the work shall be done in such manner that the stresses
in the building when fully loaded shall not exceed those provided
in the Regulations. Every portion of the building shall be thoroughly
secured to adjoining portions so that stresses induced by earthquake
and wind pressure as well as dead and live loads shall be propedy
distributed and taken care of.

48.-(1) In order to facilitate the making of tests of high strength
concrete to be used in the manufacture of pre-tensioned concrete units,
the manufacturer shall take samples immediately after the concrete
has been pl~ced, but if this is not possible, from the concrete as it is
being delivered at the point of placing. Each sample shall be of suffi-
cient size to make one test cube, and care shall be taken to ensure
that it is representative of the concrete and accurate record shall be
kept of the exact spot from which each sample is taken, the temperature
and weather conditions at the time of testing, the date and the identifi-
cation number of the cube.

(2) The mould for test cubes shall be made of steel m cast iron
with the inner surfaces parallel to each other and machine-faced.
Timber moulds shaP not be used. Each mould shall have a metal
base-plate with a true surface to support the mould and prevent leakage.
The mould and base-plate shall be kept dean and both shall be oiled
to prevent the concrete sticking to the sides. No undue strain shall
be used when the sides are screwed together. The sample of concrete
shall be taken as quickly as possible to the place where the cubes are
to be made and there remixed and placed in the mould. Adequate
vibration shall be applied to mould while filling. After the moulds are
filled, the top surface shall be ulkarly marked with an identification
number and the date.

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THE KINGSTON AND ST. ANDREW BUILDING (REINFORCED
CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION) REGULATIONS, 1908

(3) The test cubes shall be stored for twenty-four hours under
damp sacks in a place free from vibration. They shall then be removed
from the moulds and stored in water or buried in wet sand until they
are sent to the testing laboratory. When being removed from their
moulds the cubes shall be carefully handled to ensure that the anises
are not broken. A report to the Building Surveyor shall be made if
any test cube is damaged in any way.

Test cubes shdl be kept on the site for at least three-quarters of the
period before testing, except in the case of tests at ages less than seven
days. The storage temperature must not fall below 40°F. and a
record shdl be kept of the maximum and minimum day and night
temperatures at the place of storage during the time the cubes remain
on the site.

(4) The cubes shall be sent to a laboratory designated by the
Building Surveyor packed in damp sand and carefully crated to avoid
damage during transit. Written particulars shall be enclosed in the
crate of the identification number of the cubes and the date when the
test should be made.

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