Interpretation Act

Link to law: http://www.moj.gov.jm/laws/interpretation-act
Published: 1968-04-01

INTERPRETA TlON 1

THE INTERPRETATION ACT

ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS

1. Short title.
2. Interpretation.

General PrincipIes of Interpretation

3. Interpretation of terms applicable generally.
4. General interpretation of gender and number.
5. References to public officers by title of office.
6. References to the Crown.
7. Standard time: and references to sunrise and sunset.
8. Computation of time.
9. Provisions where no time prescribed.

10. Measurement of distances.
11. Referenws to the number of a line.
12. Definitions subject to context and to apply to regulations, etc.

Commencement and Citation of Acts

13. Authenticated copy and assent to Bills.
14. Notification of assent to be published.
15. Commencement of Act on publication of assent, etc.
16. Moment when Act or regulations comes into operation.
17. Mode of citing Acts
18. References in Acts.
19. Collective titles.
20. Words to be included in citation of portion of Act.

Operalion of Enmiments

21. Acts to be public Acts and judicially noticed.
22. Provisions to be substantive enactments.
23. Repeal of a repealing enactment.

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2 INTERPRETATION

24. Repeal and substitution.
25. Effect of repeal.
26. Provisions ceasing to have effect, deemed to be repealed.
21. Effect of repeal and re-enactment of regulation making section.
28. Effect of words of incorporation.

Provisions as to Regulafiom

29. Provisions as to making of regulations.
30. Definition for legislative purposes.
31. Commencement and proof of regulations.
32. Acts done under regulations deemed done under Act.

Provisions as to Powers

33. Exercise of powers between passing and commencement of Act.
34. Construction of provisions as to exercise of powers, etc.
35. Power to appoint includes power to suspend or dismiss.
36. Power to fill vacancy temporarily.
37. Power to make overlapping appointments
38. Power to appoint chairman.
39. Power to appoint by official designation.
40. Construction of enabling words.

Provisions as to United Kingdom Acts

41. English Laws in force in the Island.
42. Referene in Act to provision of United Kingdom Act.
43. United Kingdom Acts to be read with necessary modihcation.

Provisions as to Penuifies

44. Statement of penalty means maximum penalty.
45. Penalty at foot of section indicates maximum penalty for

46. Payment of portion of penalty by direction of Governor-General.
47. Disposal of forfeits
48. Imposition of sentence.

contravention of section.

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INTERPRETATION

Provisions as to Oflences

49. Offences.
50. Attempt to commit an offence to be deemed an offence

Miscehneous

51. Change in title of public office.
52. Service of documents.
53. Signification of orders of Governor-General.
54. Power of majority.
55. Division of Act into Parts.
56. Construction of preamble and Schedules of Act%
57. Deviations in forms.
58. Construction of amending Act with amended Act.
59. Reprint of amended Acts.
60. Notification of enactment and sale of Regulations, etc.
61. Evidenoe of signature of Attorney-General or the Director of

Public Prosecutions.
62. Amendment or repeal in same Session.
63. Saving of rights of the Crown.
64. Mandated territories construction of enactments.
65. Act binding on Crown.

Supplemental

66. Saving for past Acts

3

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INTERPRETATION 5

A01
8ofl%8,
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[Ist April, 2968.1 ’’ d1*7*
THE INTERPRETATION ACT

1. This Act may be cited as the Interpretation Act.

2. In this Act unless the contzxt otherwise requires--

short title.

1nterplYStl-
tion.

“Act” used with reference to legislation means any
statute enacted by the Legislature of the Island
whether before or after the 1st April, 1968, and
includes any regulations made thereunder.

General Principles of Interpretatiori

3. In this Act and in all Acts, regulations and other bmreb-
instruments of a public character relating to the Island, :Ef
now in force or hereafter to be made: the following words appli-bb

pcncnlly.
and expressions shall have the meanings hereby assigned
to them respectively, znless there is something in the sub-
ject or context inconsistent with such construction. OT unless
it is therein otherwise expressly provided-

“act” used with reference to an offence or civil wrong,
includes a series of acts, and words which refer to
acts done extend to omissions;

“affidavit” includes any document in relation to which
an affirmation or declaration has been made by
any person allowed by law to affirm or to declare
instead of swearing;

‘Broad Seal” means the Broad Seal of Jamaica;
“Cabinet” means the Cabinet of Jamaica;
“Christian name” means any name prefixed to a

surname, whether received in Christian baptism
or otherwise;

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6 INTERPRETATION

“Circuit Court” means a Circuit Court constituted

“coin” m:ans any coin legally current in Jamaica;
"Collector of Taxes” includes Assistant Collector of

Taxes ;
“Commonv;enlth” has the meaning assigned to it by

the Comti~ution of Jamaica:
“commencement” used with reference to an Act means

the time at which the Act comes into operation;
”committed for trial” used in relation to any person

msans committed to prison with the view of being
tried before a Judge and jury by any authority
having power to commit a person to prison with
a view to his trial, and includes a person who is
admitted to bail upon a recognizance to appear
and take his trial before a Judge and jury;

“Consolidated Fund” has the meaning assigned to it
by the Constitution of Jamaica:

“constab!e” indudes all ofirxrs and sub-officers of the
Jamaica Constabulary Force and all members of
the Rural Police;

“Consul” or “consular officer” includes Consul-General.
Consul, Vice-Consul> Consular Agent and any
person for the time authorized to discharge the
the duties of a Consul-General, Consul, or Vice-
Consul;

“contravene”, in relation to any requirement or con-
dition prescribed in any Act. or in any permit.
licence. or other authority. granted under any Act,
includes a failure to comply with that requirement
or condition;

“court” means any court of Jamaica of competent
jurisdiction:

under the Judicature (Supreme Court) Act;

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INTERPRETATION

“court of summary jurisdiction” means--
(a) any justice or justices of the peace to whom

jurisdiction is given by any Act for the time being
in force, or any Resident Magistrate sitting either
alone or with other justices in a Court of Petty
Sessions;

( b ) a Resident Magistrate exercising special statutory
summary jurisdiction;

‘‘Crown Agents” means the persons for the time being
acting as Crown Agents for Oversea Governments
and Administrations in England, or any of them;

“Custos” means the Custos Rotulorum of a parish, and
where there is no substantive Custos, or where
the substantive Custos is absent, means the person
appointed by the Governor-General to act as
Custos;

“financial year” means the twelve months ending the
31st March in any year;

“folio” means seventy-two words;
“Gazette” or “Government Gazette” or “Jamaica

Gazette” means the Jamaica Gazerre published by
order of the Government and includes any
Supplements thereto and any Gazette Extra-
ordinary so published;

‘‘gazetted” means published in the Gazerre;
“general notice” means any announcement not of a

legislative character made by or with the authority
of the Government in the Gazette;

“Government” means the Government of Jamaica;
“Government Printer” means the Government Printer

of Jamaica, and includes any printer purporting to
be the printer authorized by Government to print
Acts and regulations;

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8 1NTERPRETATION

“Governor-General” means the Governor-General of
Jamaica;

“Governor-General in Council” means Governor-
General acting in accordance with the advice of
the Cabinet;

“His Majesty” or “Her Majesty”, “the King” or “the
Queen” or “the Crown” means His Majesty the
King or Her Majesty the Queen, the Sovereign for
the time being and includes the predecessors and
the heirs and successors of such King or Queen;

“house” includes every messuage, part of a messuage,
house, part of a house, building, or other construc-
tion, whether wholly or in part above or below the
surface of the ground, inhabited or occupied
either by day or by night by man, whether
beneficially or otherwise, or intended to be so
inhabited or occupied;

“the Island” or “this Island” means Jamaica and where
the circumstances so require, includes reference to
the former Colony of Jamaica;

“Jamaica” has the meaning attributed to that expression
in the Jamaica Independence Act, 1962;

“a justice” or “a justice of the peace” means a person
appointed by the Governor-General to be a justice
of the peace for the parish in which the matter
requiring the cognizance of a justice arises;

“land” and “premises” include all tenements or heredita-
ments, and also all messuages, houses, buildings, or
other constructions, whether the property of Her
Majesty, her heirs or successors, or of any corpora-
tion, or of any private individual, except where
there are words to exclude houses and other
buildings;

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IOandl l
Elk. 2
Cap. 40.

INTERPRETATION 9

“Minister” means either the Minister appointed under
section 70 or a temporary Minister appointed
under section 73 of the Constitution of Jamaica,
and charged for the time being with responsibility
for the department or subject to which the context
refers :

sion is provided in any Act (other than this Act)
the Prime Minister may by order repeal or vary
such definition;

“oath” includes affirmation or declaration in the case
of persons by law allowed to- &irm or declare
instead of swearing;

“to occupy” includes, in addition to its ordinary
signification, to use, inhabit, possess or enjoy the
premises in respect whereof that verb is used, other-
wise than as a mere servant and for the mere
purpose of the care, custody, and charge, thereof;

“person” includes any corporation, either aggregate or
sole, and any club, society, association or other
body, of one or more persons;

“prescribed” means prescribed by the Act in which the
word occurs or by any regulations made thereunder,
and, in relation to any regulations, where no other
authority is empowered in that behalf in the Act,
means prescribed by the Governor-General in
Council;

“Prime Minister” means the Prime Minister of Jamaica
and includes the Minister for the time being
authorized pursuant to section 72 of the Constitu-
tion of Jamaica to perform the functions of the
Prime Minister;

“proclamation” means a proclamation of the Governor-
General under the Broad Seal;

Provided that where a definition of this expres- i‘i96g

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10 1NTERPRETATION

“property” includes money, goods, things in action,
land and every description of property, whether
real or personal; also obligations, easements and
every description of estate, interest and profit,
present or future, vested or contingent, arising
out of or incident to property as above defined;

“public general holiday” means any day which under
the provisions of any Act for the time being in
force, is or is declared to be, or is proclaimed as,
a public general holiday;

“public place” includes every public highway, street,
road, square, court, alley, lane, bridleway, foot-
way, parade, wharf, jetty, quay, bridge, public
garden or open space, and every theatre, place of
public entertainment of any kind, or other place of
general resort, admission to which is obtained by
payment, or to which the public have access;

“recorded”, used with reference to a document, means
recorded under the provisions of the Act applicable
to the recording of such document;

“registered”, used with reference to a document, means
recorded under the provisions of the Act applicable
to the registration of such document;

“regulations” includes rules, by-laws, proclamations,
orders, schemes, notifications, directions, notices
and forms;

“repeal” includes revoke or cancel;
“rules of court”, when used in relation to any court,

means rules made by the authority having for the
time being power to make rules or orders regu-
lating the practice and procedure of such court;

“sell” includes exchange and barter;
“ship” means every description of vessel used in

navigation not exclusively propelled by oars;

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INTERPRETATION 11

“sign” with reference to a person who is unable to write
his name, includes “mark” with its grammatical
variations and cognate expressions;

“statute” includes an Act of the United Kingdom
Parliament;

“street” or “road” includes any public highway, street,
road, thoroughfare, square, court, alley, lane,
bridleway, footway, parade, passage, or open place
used or frequented by the public, or to which the
public have or are permitted to have access;

“summarily”, “in a summary manner” or “on summary
conviction” means respectively before a court of
summary jurisdiction;

“Supreme Court” meam the Supreme Court of Jamaica;
“swear” includes to affirm or to declare in the case of

any person allowed by law to affirm or to declare
instead of swearing;

“Treasury” means the Department of the Accountant-
General;

“United Kingdom” means Great Britain and Northern
Ireland;

“vessel” includes any ship, boat, lighter, or other floating
craft, used for transport by water;

“voluntary declaration” or “statutory declaration” if
made-

(U) in the Island, means a declaration made
under the Voluntary Declarations Act;

(b) in the United Kingdom or any other Com-
monwealth country beyond the Island,
meam a declaration made before a justice
of the peace, notary public, or other person
having authority therein under any law for
the time being in force to take or receive
a declaration;

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I2 INTER PRETATlON

(c) in any other place, means a declaration made
before a Jamaican or British Consul or Vice-
Consul, or before any person having
authority under any statute for the time
being in force to take or receive a declara-
tion;

“will” includes codicil;
“writing” includes printing, lithography, typewriting,

photography and other modes of representing or
reproducing words or figures in visible form;

‘‘year” and “month” means respectively a year or a
month reckoned according to the British calendar.

General
interarc-
tation of
gender and
numbcr.

Referenced
to public
officers by
ti1le of
Office.

Refermms
to the
CIOWn.

4. In this Act and in all Acts, regulations and other instru-
ments of a public character relating to the Island now in
force or hereafter to be made, unless there is something in
the subject or context inconsistent with such construction,
or unless it is therein otherwise expressly providd-

(a) words importing the masculine gender include
females; and

(b) words in the singular include the plural, and words
in the plural include the singular.

5. A reference in any Act to any public officer by the
usual title of his office shall, if there be such an office
customarily in Jamaica and unless the contrary intention
appears, be read and construed as referring to the person
for the time being holding or carrying out the duties of that
office in Jamaica.

6. In any Act references to the Sovereign reigning at the
time of the passing of the Act or to the Crown shall, unless
the contrary intention appears, be construed as references
to the Sovereign for the time being.
-

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INTERPRETATION 13

7.-(lj Whenever any expression of time occurs in any standard
Act, deed or other legal instrument, the time referred to ~ ~ & ~ ~ & ~
shall, unless it is otherwise expressly provided, be held to zrs;,;t,
signify the standard time adopted for Jamaica; and for such
purpose the Governor-General in Council may by order
declare the standard time for Jamaica.

(2) Where a general notice is published specifying
the hour of sunrise or sunset in respect of any day the
reference in any Act to the hour of sunrise or sunset shall,
in relation to any part of Jamaica, unless the context other-
wise requires, be deemed in respect of that day to refer to the
hour specified in the general notice.

8.-(1) In computing time for the purpose of any Act, CnrnpuU-
tation of
time.

(a) a period of days from the happening of an event
or the doing of any act or thing shall be deemed
to be exclusive of the day in which the event
happens or the act or thing is done;

( b ) if the last day of the period is Sunday or a public
holiday (which days are in this section referred
to as excluded days) the period shall include the
next following day, not being an excluded day;

(cj when any act or proceeding is directed or allowed
to be done or taken on a certain day, then if that
day happens to be an excluded day, the act or
proceeding shall be considered as done or taken in
due time if it is done or taken on the next following
day, not being an excluded day;

(d) when an act or proceeding is directed or allowed
to be done or taken within any time not exceed-
ing six days, excluded days shall not be reckoned
in the computation of the time.

unless the contrary intention appears-

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14 INTERPRETATION

Provisions
where no
time pre
scribed.

Measure
ment of
distances.

References
to the
number of
a line.

Deiinitiona
subject to
mntext and
to apply to

etc.
Iegulauons,

(2) In this section “public holiday” means any public
general holiday and includes Good Friday and Christmas
Day.

9. Where no time is prescribed or allowed within which
anything shall be done, such thing shall be done with all
convenient speed, and as often as the prescribed occasion
arises.

10. In the measurement of any distance for the purpose
of any Act, that distance shall, unless the contrary inten-
tion appears, be measured in a straight line on a horuon-
tal plane.

11. A reference in any Act to the number of a line of
any section of any Act means such line in the latest official
printed copy of such Act at the time of the passing of the
Act containing such reference.

1 2 . 4 1 ) Where expressions are defined in or for the
purposes of any Act, such expressions shall have the mean-
ings assigned to them, unless there is anything in the subject
or contest repugnant to, or inconsistent with, such meaning.

(2) Where expressions defined for the purposes of
or used in any Act are used in any regulations or instru-
ment made under such Act such expressions shall have the
respective meanings assigned to them by the Act, unless there
is anything in the subject or contest repugnant to, or
inconsistent with, such meaning.

(3) Where a word is defined in or for the purposes
of any Act, other parts of speech and grammatical varia-
tions of that word, and cognate expressions, shall have
corresponding meanings in or for the purposes of that Act.

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INTERPRETATlON 15

Commencement and Citation of Acts
13.41) A copy of every Bill which may be passed by Authenti-

Parliament shall immediately after it is so passed be printed mdaJrent
by the Government Printer on vellum or some durable paper t o B i ~ .
and shall. if such be the case, be authenticated by the Clerk
of either House of Parliament as being a true and correct
copy of the Bill which was passed.

(2) Where the Governor-Gencral assents to any Bill
so passed, his assent shall be made on the authenticated
copy and that copy shall then be forwarded to the Deputy
Keeper of the Records for the purposes of record.

cated copy

14. In the case of every Rill which may hereafter be Nnficatlon
of assent passed in Jamaica the Governor-General shall, on assent- tobc

ing thereto, cause a notification of such assent to be published Publiahd
in the Gazette.

15.-(1) Every Act shall. unless i t is otherwise therein c o m e -
meut of

publication
of arsentr,
ctc

expressly provided, come into operation on the day of the Aclon

(2) The date on which an Act comes into operation,
whether under the provisions of this section or according
to the express provisions contained in the Act, shall be
written on the original of the Act and on all copies thereof
in some convenient place near the heading thereof.

publication of the notification of assent,

16. Where any Act, or part of an Act, or any regulations Momcnt
when An

made thereunder came or comes into operation on a or regula-
particular day, it shall be deemed to hzve come or shall come 2:
into operation immediately on the expiration of the day next opcntioa
preceding such day.

17. When any Act is referred to, it shall be sufficient for M ~ I O O ?
citing Am all purposes to cite such Act either by the short title (if any)

by which it is made citable, or by the year in which it was
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INTERPRETATION

made and its number among the Acts of that year, or in
the case of a revised edition of the laws issued under any Act
providing for the issue of a revised edition, by its short title
or its chapter number; and the reference may in all cases
be made according to the copies of Acts printed by the
Government Printer.

~ e ~ a m c ~ ~ lS.-(l) A reference in an Act by number or letter to a
Part, section, subsection, paragraph, sub-paragraph or
other division of another enactment shall be construed as
a reference to such Part, section, subsection, paragraph, sub-
paragraph or other division of such other enactment as
printed by authority of law.

(2) Where in an Act reference is made to a Part,
division, section, schedule or form without anything in the
context to indicate that a reference to a Part, division,
section, schedule or form of some other enactment is in-
tended, the reference shall be construed as a reference to a
Part, division, section, schedule or form of the Act in which
the reference is made.

(3) Where in a section of an Act reference is made to
a subsection, paragraph, sub-paragraph or other division
without anything in the context to indicate that a reference
to a subsection, paragraph, sub-paragraph or other division
of some other section or provision is intended, the reference
shall be construed as a reference to a subsection. paragraph
sub-paragraph or other division of the section in which the
reference is made.

(4) Where in a scheduie or Part of a schedule to an Act
refeIence is made to a paragraph, sub-paragraph or other
division without anything in the context to indicate that a
reference to a paragraph, sub-paragraph or other division of
some other provision is intended, the reference shall be con-
strued as a reference to the paragraph, sub-paragraph or

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INTERPRETATION 17

other division of the schedule or the Part of the schedule in
which the reference is made.

(5) Where in an Act reference is made to any regu-
lations, without anything in the context to indicate that a
reference to regulations made under some other enactment-
is intended, the reference shall be construed as a reference to
regulations made under the Act in which the reference occurs.

19. If it is provided that any Act may, as to the whole or Collective
titlw. any part thereof, be cited-

(a) with any other Act to form a group of Acts; or
(b) with any group of Acts,

that group shall be construed as including that Act or part,
and the collective title of the group shall state the year of the
first Act in the group and the year of the last Act in the group;
and as often as any subsequent Act is added to that group
the year in which the subsequent Act is passed shall be sub-
stituted for the last year of the group.

20. In any Act a description or citation of a portion of Wordstobo
included in

portion of
another Act, shall, unless the contrary intention appears, be citation of
construed as including the word, section, or other part, men-
tioned or referred to as forming the beginning and as forming
the end of the portion comprised in the description or
citation.

Operation of Enactrnents
21. Every Act (which expression in this section does not Actstobe

include regulations) shall be a public Act and shall be judicial- and j ~ d i -
ly noticed as such, unless the contrary is expressly provided ttiL.
by the Act.

public A m

22. Every section of an Act shall have effect as a sub- Provisions
to bo
substan tivc stantive enactment without introductory words.
enactment%

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18 INTERPRETATION

Repealofa

enactment.

23. Where an Act, whether before or after the 1st April,
1968, repeals a repealing enactment, it shall not be con-
strued as reviving any enactment previously repealed, unless
words are added reviving that enactment.

repealing

Repeal and 24. Where an Act repeals wholly or partially any former
Act and substitutes provisions for the Act repealed, the
repealed Act shall remain in force until the substituted
provisions come into operation.

substitution.

Effect of 2 5 . 4 1 ) Where any Act repeals and re-enacts, with or
without modification, any provision of any Act in force,
references in any other Act to the provision so repealed
shall, unless the contrary intention appears, be construed
as references to the provision so re-enacted.

(2) Where any Act repeals any other enactment, then,
unIess the contrary intention appears, the repeal shall not-

(a) revive anything not in force or existing at the time
at which the repeal takes effect; or

( b ) affect the previous operation of any enactment so
repealed or anything duly done or suffered under
any enactment so repealed; or

(c) affect any right, privilege, obligation, or liability,
acquired, accrued, or incurred, under any enactment
so repealed; or

(d) affect any penalty, fine, forfeiture, or punishment,
incurred in respect of any offence committed against
any enactment so repealed; or

(e) affect any investigation, legal proceedings, or
remedy, in respect of any such right, privilege,
obligation, liability, penalty, fine, forfeiture, or
punishment, as aforesaid,

and any such investigation, legal proceeding, or remedy,
may be instituted, continued, or enforced, and any such

repeal.

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INTERPRETATION 19

penalty, fine, forfeiture or punishment may be imposed,
as if the repealing Act had not been passed.

26. Where by virtue of any enactment the whole or a Provisions
ceasing to part of an Act has expired or lapsed or otherwise ceased have

to have effect that Act shall be deemed to have been :fg;d;do
repaled to the extent to which it has so expired, lapsed be
or otherwise ceased to have effect.

repealed.

27. Where any section conferring a power to make Effectof
repeal and

ment of into operation of this Act) and other provisions, which regulation
section.

regulations is repealed (whether before or after the coming

include a power to make regulations, are substituted there- making
for, but the Act of which such section formed a part is not
itself repealed, then all regulations made under the repealed
section, and in force at the time of such repeal, shall continue
good and valid as if made under the substituted provisions
in so far as they are not inconsistent with the Act as amended
or are not varied or revoked by regulations made by virtue
of the substituted provisions.

28.-(1) Subject to subsection (2) where an Act passed E h t o f
after the 1st April, 1968, contains words establishing, or incorpora-
providing for the establishment of, a body corporate and tion.
applying this section to that body those words shall operate-

words of

(a) to vest in that body when established-
(i) the power to sue in its corporate name;
(ii) the power to enter into contracts in its

corporate name, and to do so that, as regards
third parties, the body shall be deemed to
have the same power to make contracts as
an individual has;

(iii) the right to have a common seal and to
alter or change that seal at pleasure;

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INTERPRETATION

(iv) the right to acquire and hold any real or
personal property for purposes for which the
body is constitutpd and to dispose of or
charge such property;

(v) the right to regulate its own procedure and
business; and

(vi) the right to employ such staff as may be
found necessary for the performance of
its functions;

(b) to make that body liable to be sued in its corporate
name;

(c) to require that judicial notice shall be taken of the
common seal of that body, and that every document
purporting to be a document sealed by that body
and to be attested in accordance with the statutory
provisions, if any, applicable to the attestation of
documents so sealed shall, unless the contrary is
proved, be received in evidence and be deemed to
be such a document without further proof;

Cd to vest in a majority of the members of that body
the power, subject to any quorum fixed by the
enactment under which it is established or by any
relevant standing orders, to bind other members
thereof; and

(e) to exempt from personal liability for the debts,
obligations or acts of that body, such members
thereof as do not contravene the provisions of the
Act under which the body is established.

(2) The application of this section to a body corpo-

(a) prevent the powers, rights and liabilities, conferred
or imposed, as the case may be, by virtue of such
application, being varied by any enactment; or

rate shall not-

me inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480/1973]

INTERPRETATlON 21

( b ) prejudice or atfect any liability of any member of
that body to be surcharged with the payment of
any amount which may bc disallowed, by an
auditor acting in pursuance of any statutory pro-
vision. in the accounts of that body.

Provisions as to Regulations

or issue regulations, thc following provisions shall, unless thz
contrary intention appears, have effect with referencr: to the
making, issue and operation of such regulations--

(a) a regulation may bc at any time amended: v;.iied,
suspended, rzsciiided or revoked by the same
authority and in the same manner by ;::id in which
it was made;

(b) the regulations may provide in respect of a brsxh
of any of the provisions thereof that the (3ffendi.r
shall. unless the Act otherwise provides, be Liable
to such fine not exceeding one thousand dollars.
or to such term of imprisonment with hard labour
not exceeding three months. or to both such fine
and imprisonment. as may be therein prescribed;

(c) where any Act confers power on any authority to
make regulations for any general purpose, and also
for any special purposes incidental thereto, the
enumeration of the special purposes shall not be
deemed to derogate from the generality of the
powers conferred with reference to the gzneral

(U’) no regulation shall be inconsistent with the pro-
visions of any Act;

(e) any breach of any regulation may. nnless the Act
otherwise provides. be prosecuted in a summary
manner.

29. Where an Act cdiifers power on m y authority to make PravisioM
of

as to

purpose;

~~. ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~
[The incliisiiin of this page is authorized hy L.N. 37/1988]

22 INTERPRETATION

v) any reference in any regulation to “the Act” shall
be read and construed as meaning the Act
conferring the power to make or issue such regu-
lations.

W t i o n

tive

30.-(1) In this section the expression “statutory period”
means in relation to any regulations a period of twenty-one
days beginning on the day on which the regulations were
laid before the Senate or the House of Representatives (as
the case may require) and reckoned without regard t o -

(a) any period during which the Parliament is dissolved
or prorogued;

(b) any period during which the House is adjoumed-

for lcgiala-

purpmm.

(i) as respects the Senate, for more than six
days;

(ii) as respects the House of Representatives,
for more than four days;

(i) in one or more than one Session of Parlia-
ment;

(ii) partly in a Session of Parliament which is
dissolved and partly in a Session of the
succeeding Parliament.

(c) whether the days are comprised-

(2) The expression “subject to affirmative resolution”
when used in relation to any regulations shall mean that
those regulations are not to come into operation unless and
until affirmed by a resolution of each House of Parliament.

(3) The expression “subject to affirmative resolution
of the House of Representatives” when used in relation to
regulations shall mean that those regulations are not to come
into operation unless and until a r m e d by a resolution of
that House.

-. - ._ - - - - - -
mc inclusion of thjs page is authorid by L.N. 37/1988]

INTERPRETATION 23

(4) The expression “subject to negative resolution”
when used in relation to any regulations shall mean that
those regulations, as soon as may be after they are made,
are to be laid before each House of Parliament, and if either
House, within the statutory period next after any such
regulations have been so laid, resolves that the regulations
be annulled, the regulations shall be void as from the date
of the resolution, but without prejudice to the validity of
anything done thereunder or to the making of new
regulations.

( 5 ) The expression “subject to negative resolution
of the House of Representatives” when used in relation to
any regulations shall mean that those regulations as soon
as may be after they are made, arc to be laid before that
House, and if that House, within the statutory period next
after any such regulations have been so laid, resolves that
the regulations be annulled, the regulations shall be void as
from the date of the resolution, but wi,thout prejudice to the
validity of anything done thereunder or to the making of new
regulations.

31.41) All regulations made under any Act or other commtn~a
lawful authority and having legislative effect shall be Foofof
published in the Gazette and unless it be otherwise pro- rrdation3.
vided shall take effect and come into operation as law on
the date of such publication.

(2) The production of a copy of the Gazeite con-
taining any regulations shall be prima fucfe evidence in all
courts and for all purposes of the due making and tenor of
such regulations.

mcnt and

32. An act shall be deemed to be done under an Act or m d o m
by virtue of the powers conferred by an Act or in pursuance y$zrrp
or execution of the powers of, or under the authority of, an ’&yndcr
Act if it is done under or by virtue of or in pursuance of any ACL

[The inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480/1973]

24 INTERPRETATION

regulation made or issued under any power contained in
such Act.

Provisions as 10 Powers

Exerciseof 33. Where any Act is not to come into operation imme-
diately on the passing thereof, and confers power to make

passing commence- and any appointment, or to make, grant or issue any regulations
mentof or instruments, or to do any other thing for the purpose of

the Act, that power may, unless the contrary intention
appears, be exercised at any time after the passing of the
Act, so far as may be necessary or expedient for the purpose
of bringing the Act into operation at the date of the com-
mencement thereof, subject to the restriction that any
regulations or instruments made, granted or issued under the
power shall not, unless the contrary intention appears in the
Act, or the regulations or instruments are necessary for
bringing the Act into operation, have any effect until the
Act comes into operation.

powers be
tween

Act.

Construe
"n of pro-
,1S10n9as
toexercise

etc.

34 .41 ) Where any Act confers a power or imposes a
duty, then, unless the contrary intention appears, the power
may be exercised and the duty shall be performed from time
to time as occasion requires.

(2) Where any Act confers a power or imposes a
duty on ,the holder of an office, as such, then, unless the
contrary intention appears, the power may be exercised
and the duty shall be performed by the holder for the time
being of the office or by a person appointed to act for him.

of powers.

Power to

includes
power to

dismiss.

35. Where by or under any Act a power to make any
appointment is conferred, then, unless the contrary intention
appears, the authority having power to make the appointment
shall also have power to remove, suspend, reappoint or
reinstate any person appointed in exercise of the power.

appoint

suspend or

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INTERPRETATION 25

36.-(1) Where by or under any Act, any powers are Powerto
conferred or any duties are imposed upon a public officer,
the Governor-General may direct, if from any cause the femporari'y.
office of such public officer is vacant or if during any period,
owing to absence or inability to act from illness or any other
cause, such public officer is unable to exercise the powers or
perform the duties of his office, that such powers shall be
had and may be exercised and such duties shall be performed
by the person named by, or by the public officer holding the
office designated by, the Governor-General; and thereupon
such person or public officer, during any such period, shall
have and may exercise such powers and shall perform such
duties, subject to such conditions, exceptions and qualifica-
tions as the Governor-General may direct.

(2) Where by or under any Act a power to make
any appointment to an office is conferred, the authority
having that power may if-

611

(a) the office is vacant; or
( b ) for any reason the substantive holder of the ofice

is unable to perform the functions thereof,
direct that those functions shall be performed by such person
and during such period as the authority may prescribe (not
exceeding the period for which an appointment to fill the
vacancy, if any, couId have been made); and any reference
in any enactment, instrument or document whatsoever to the
holder of the office shall during such period be construed as
a reference to the person so prescribed.

37. Where the provisions of any Act either expressly or Powerto

time be appointed to or hold an office, such provisions shall PO~tmm*.
not, if any substantive holder of the office is on leave of
absence pending relinquishment of office, prevent the
substantive appointment of another person to such office
or the discharge by such other person of the functions of the

make aver-
by implication limit the number of persons who may at any lapping a p

[The inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480119731

26 INTERPRETATION

office; and, if such an appointment is made, the fact that
temporarily there is more than one holder of such office shall
not prevent both the period of leave of the retiring holder
of the office and the period of service of his successor during
such leave from being treated as pensionable service for the
purposes of any Act permitting the grant of retiring benefits
in respect of service in such office.

Power to

chair-.

38. Where by or under any Act, power is given to the
Governor-General in Council, or to the Governor-General
or a Minister, or to any public officer or body, to appoint
any board, tribunal, commission, committee, or similar body,
it shall be lawful for the Governor-General in Council, or
the Governor-General or the Minister, o r such public officer
or body, in the absence of any provision to the contrary, to
appoint a chairman of such board, tribunal, commission,
committee, or similar body.

appoint

Power to

byofficial
d*lignauon.

39. Where by or under any Act, the Governor-General
in Council, or the Governor-General or a Minister, or any
public officer or body, is empowered to appoint or name a
person to be a member of any board, tribunal, commission,
committee or similar body, or to have and exercise any
powers or perform any duties, the Governor-General in
Council, or the Governor-General or the Minister, or such
public officer or body, may either appoint a person by name
or direct the person for the time being holding the office
designated by the Governor-General in Council, or by the
Governor-General or by the Minister, or by such public
officer or body, to be a member of such board, tribunal,
commission, committee, or similar body, or to have and
exercise such powers and perform such duties; and there-
upon, or from the date specified by the Governor-General
in Council, or by the Governor-General or the Minister, or
by such public officer or body, the person appointed by name
or the person for the time being holding such office shall be

appoint

F e inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480/19731

INTERPRETATION 21

a member of such board, tribunal, commission, committee,
or similar body, or shall have and may exercise such powers
and perform such duties accordingly.

40. Where in any Act power is given to any person to ComtruE-
do or enforce the doing of any act or thing all such powers enabling
shall be understood to be also given as are reasonably
necessary to enable the person to do or enforce the doing
of the act or thing.

tion of

Provisions as to United Kingdom Acis
41. All such laws and Statutes of England as were, prior English

to the commencement of 1 George 11 Cap. I , esteemed, forcein
introduced, used, accepted, or received, as laws in the Island *clr'md.
shall continue to be laws in the Island save in so far as any
such laws or statutes have been, or may be, repealed or
amended by any Act of the Island.

Laws in

42. Where in any Act reference is made to any provision Reference
of a United Kingdom Act and that provision is subsequently prou,slon
repealed and re-enacted without substantial modification,
the reference in such Act to the provision of the Act so A n
repealed shall, if the context so requires and unless the
contrary intention appears, be construed as a reference to
the provision so re-enacted.

in A+!o

43. Where any United Kingdom Act is in force in the Unittd
Island, such Act shall be read with such formal alterations A ~ ~ ~ ~ I , ~
as to names, localities, courts, officers, persons, moneys, ::$
penalties and otherwise as may be necessary to make it mdif ia t ion.
applicable to the circumstances.

Kingdom

Provisions as io Penalties
44. Where any fine or penalty is imposed by or under statement

of penalty the authority of any Act it shall be implied that the amount means
of such fine or penalty is the maximum amount; and where ?;$;"

me indusion of th is page is authorized by L.N. 480/19731

28 1NTERPRETATlON

Penalty
at foot of
section
indicates
maximum
P M h '
for mntra-
vention of
section.

Payment of
portion of
penalty

: L i o n
of Governor-
General.

Disposal of
forfeits.

Imposition
of sentence.

by any Act any person may be sentenced to any term of
imprisonment it shall be implied that such term of imprison-
ment is the maximum term.

45. Where in any Act any fine, penalty or term of
imprisonment is set out at the foot of any section it shall
indicate that any contravention of the section, whether by
act or omission, shall be an offence against that Act and shall,
unless the contrary intention appears, be punishable by a
fine, penalty or term of imprisonment not exceeding the
amount or term stated.

46. Subject to the express provisions of any Act, where
any fine or penalty is imposed by or under the authority
of any Act, every such fine or penalty shall be payable into
the Consolidated Fund, but the Governor-General may
direct the payment to any aggrieved person, or to any person
whose information or evidence has led to the conviction of
the offender or to the recovery of the fine or penalty, of such
proportion of the fine or penalty as he may think fit.

47.-W Where under any Act any animal or thing is
adjudged by any court or other authority to be forfeited,
it shall, unless the contrary is otherwise provided or unless
it is expressed by law to be forfeited to any person, be
forfeited to the Crown, and the net proceeds thereof, if it is
ordered by competent authority to be sold, shall be paid into
the Consolidated Fund, unless other provision is made.

(2) Nothing in this section shall affect any provision
in any Act whereby any portion of any fine or forfeit or of
the proceeds of any forfeit is expressed to be recoverable
by any person or may be granted by any authority to any
person.

48. Where jurisdiction is given to a court to impose a
sentence of imprisonment any sentence so imposed may,

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INTERPRETA TlON 29

unless the context otherwise requires, be with hard labour
or without hard labour as the court thinks fit.

Provisions as to Otfences

under two or more Acts, or both under an Act and under
the common law, the offender shall, unless the contrary
intention appears, be liable to be prosecuted and punished
under either or any of those Acts or under the common
law, but shall not be liable to be punished twice for the same
offence.

(2) Where an offence under any Act passed after
the 1st April, 1968, has been committed by a body corporate
the liability of whose members is limited, then notwith-
standing and without prejudice to the liability of that body,
any person who at the time of such commission was a
director, general manager, secretary or other similar officer
of that body or was purporting to act in any such capacity
shall, subject to subsection (3) be liable to be prosecuted as
if he had personally committed that offence and shall, if on
such prosecution it is proved to the satisfaction of the court
that he consented to, or connived at, or did not exercise all
such reasonable diligence as he ought in the circumstances
to have exercised to prevent the offence, having regard to
the nature of his functions in that capacity and to all the
circumstances, be liable to the like conviction and punish-
ment as if he had personally been guilty of that offence.

( 3 ) A person shall not be charged under subsection
(2) except upon the direction of the Director of Public
Prosecutions.

(4) An Act creating criminal liability for an act or
omission which, apart from that Act, would give rise to
civil liability shall not, in the absence of express provision
to the contrary, operate to prejudice the civil liability; but

49.-(1) Where any act or omission constitutes an offence offcnees.

IThe inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480/19731

30 INTERPRETATION

this subsection shall not be construed as excluding the
application of any rule of law which restricts the right to
take civil proceedings in respect of an act or omission which
constitutes a felony.

Attempt to 50. A provision which constitutes an offence shall, unless
offencetobe the contrary intention appears, be deemed to provide also
deemedan off nce. that an attempt to commit such offence shall be an offence

against such provision, punishable as if the offence itself had
been committed.

cornit an

Miscellaneous
51. Whenever any change in title of any public office

occurs, the Minister, if occasion requires, may by notice
in the Gazetre declare that such change of title shall take
effect from a date specified in such notice, and, with effect
from such date, any reference in any Act or other instrument
of a public character to the former title of such office, shall
be read and construed as a reference to that office by such
new title as the Minister may declare in such notice.

Changein

Office.

title of
public

Serr-ioe of 52.-(1) Where any Act authorizes or requires any docu-
ment to be served by post, whether the expression “serve”,
“give” or “send” or any other expression is used, then, unless
a contrary intention appears, the service shall be deemed
to be effected by properly addressing, prepaying and posting
a letter containing the document, and, unless the contrary is
proved, to have been effected at the time at which the letter
would be delivered in the ordinary course of post.

(2) Where an Act authorizes or requires a docu-
ment to be served on any person without directing it to be
served in a particular manner the service of that document
may be effected either-

documents.

(a) by personal service; or
(b ) by post in accordance with subsection (1); or

[The inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480/19731

INTERPRETATION 31

(c) in the case of a corporate body or of any associa-
tion of persons (whether incorporated or not), by
delivering it to the secretary or clerk of the body
or association at the registered or principal ofice
of the body or association or serving it by post on
such secretary or clerk at such office; or

(d) if it is not practicable after reasonable enquiry
to ascertain the name or address of an owner,
lessee, or occupier of premises on whom the docu-
ment should be served, by addressing the document
to him by the description of “owner” or “lessee”
or “occupier” of the premises (identifying them) to
which the document relates, and by delivering it to
some person on the premises or, if there. is no
person on the premises to whom it can be delivered,
by affixing it, or a copy of it to some conspicuous
part of the premises.

53. Where power is given to the Governor-General in Significa-
Council to make regulations, it shall be sufficient, unless orders of
it is otherwise expressed, for such regulations to be signified gg?sy-
under the hand of the Secretary to the Cabinet :

Provided that any proclamation, warrant, or other instru-
ment issued under the Broad Seal, shall be issued under the
hand of the Governor-General himself.

tion of

54. Save as is otherwise expressly provided by any Act, powerof
whenever any act or thing is required to be done by more
than two persons, a majority of them may do it.

55. Where any Act is divided into Parts, Titles, or other Division
of Act divisions, the fact and particulars of such division shall with into

or without express mention thereof in any Act, be taken
notice of in all courts and for all other purposes whatsoever.

me inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480/19731

32

Construc-
tion of pre-
ambleand
Schedules
of Acts.

Deviations
informs.

Construc-
tion of
amending
Act with
amcnded
Act.

Reprint of
amended
Act%

Notification
of enact-
ment and
sale of
regulations,
etc.

INTERPRETATION

5 6 . 4 1 ) The preamble of any Act may be referred to for

(2) Every Schedule or Table to any Act, or part of
any Act, shall, together with any notes thereto, be construed
and have effect as part of the Act.

assistance in explaining the scope and object of the Act.

57. Whenever forms are prescribed in any Act slight
deviations therefrom, not affecting the substance or cal-
culated to mislead, shall not invalidate them.

58. Where one Act amends another Act the amending
Act shall, so far as it is consistent with the tenor thereof,
and unless the contrary intention appears, be construed as
onc with the amended Act.

59. When any Act is amended it shall be lawful for the
Government Printer with the authority of the Governor-
General to print copies of the Act with all the necessary
additions, omissions, substitutions and amendments effected
by the amending Act or Acts and such copies shall be deemed
to be authentic copies of the Act so amended.

60. Where any regulation or other instrument of a public
character is required either expressly or by implication to be
published or notified in the Gazerre, a notice in the Gazetre
that such regulation or other instrument has been made and -
of the place where copies thereof can be purchased or
perused shall be sufficient compliance with such requirement.

Evidence 61. Whenever the fiat of the Attorney-General or the
Of signat"= Director of Public Prosecutions is necessary before any
o f Attorney-
Generalor prosecution or action is commenced, any document pur-
the
Direcloror porting to bear the fiat of the Attorney-General or the
Public
Prosecutions. Director of Public Prosecutions shall be received as prima

fucie evidence in any proceeding without proof being given

[The inclusion of this page is authorired by LN. 480119731

INTERPRETATION 33

that the signature to such fiat is that of the Attorney-
General or the Director of Public Prosecutions.

62. Any Act may be altered, amended, or repealed, in Amendment
or repeal
in same
Session.

the same Session of Parliament.

63. No Act shall in any manner whatsoever affect the Sarzing
right of the Crown, unless it is therein expressly stated, or ofthe
unless it appears by necessary implication, that the Crown Crown.
is bound thereby.

of rights

a.-( 1 ) In this sectim- Mandated
territorics

tion of
“mandated territory” means territory in respect of OOnStmc-

which a mandate from the League of Nations was enactmcnts,
accepted by Her Majesty, being territory under the
administration of Her Majesty’s Government in
the United Kingdom or by the Government of any
part of the Commonwealth;

“trust territory” means territory administered by Her
Majesty’s Government in the United Kingdom or
by the Government of any part of the Common-
wealth under the trusteeship system of the United
Nations.

(2) Where any enactment (whether passed before
or after the termination of the League of Nations) refers
in whatever terms to mandated territories (or to a particular
mandated territory) then notwithstanding that such territory
may have become a trust territory since the termination of
the League of Nations, Mandates of the League of Nations
shall not for the purposes of that enactment be deemed to
have come to an end with the termination of the League.

(3) This section shall be deemed to have had effect
from the date of the termination of the League of Nations.

65. This Act shall be binding on the Crown. Act binding
on Crown.

IThc inclusion of this page is aulhorized by L.N. 480/19731

34 INTERPRETATION

Supplemental

65. The provisions of this Act which are expressed to
apply to Acts passed after the 1st April, 1968, shall not affect
the construction of any Act passed before that date, although
it is continued or amended by an Act passed subsequently.

Savingfor
past Acts.

p h e inclusion of this page is authorized by L.N. 480119731
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