Companies Act 2006

Link to law: https://legislation.gov.im/cms/images/LEGISLATION/PRINCIPAL/2006/2006-0013/CompaniesAct2006_5.pdf
Published: 2015-11-01

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Companies Act 2006

c i e
AT 13 of 2006

COMPANIES ACT 2006

Companies Act 2006 Index


c AT 13 of 2006 Page 3

c i e
COMPANIES ACT 2006

Index Section Page

PART I – INCORPORATION AND STATUS OF COMPANIES 11

CHAPTER 1 - INCORPORATION 11
1 Types of company ......................................................................................................... 11
2 Application to incorporate a company ...................................................................... 11
3 Incorporation of a company ........................................................................................ 12
4 Subscribers become members of the company on incorporation .......................... 12
CHAPTER 2 - MEMORANDUM AND ARTICLES 12
5 Memorandum................................................................................................................ 12
6 Power to prescribe model articles .............................................................................. 13
7 Effect of memorandum and articles ........................................................................... 14
8 Amendment of memorandum and articles ............................................................... 14
9 Filing of notice of amendment of memorandum or articles ................................... 15
10 Provision of copies of memorandum and articles to members .............................. 15
CHAPTER 3 - COMPANY NAMES 15
11 Required part of company name ................................................................................ 15
12 Requirement for name approval ................................................................................ 16
13 Foreign character name ................................................................................................ 16
14 Company may change name ....................................................................................... 16
15 [Repealed] ...................................................................................................................... 17
16 [Repealed] ...................................................................................................................... 17
17 [Repealed] ...................................................................................................................... 17
18 [Repealed] ...................................................................................................................... 17
19 Use of company name .................................................................................................. 17
CHAPTER 4 - CAPACITY AND POWERS 17
20 Separate legal entity ..................................................................................................... 17
21 Capacity ......................................................................................................................... 17
22 Power of directors to bind the company ................................................................... 18
23 Personal liability ........................................................................................................... 18
24 Constructive notice ....................................................................................................... 18
Index Companies Act 2006


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PART II – SHARES 19

CHAPTER 1 - GENERAL 19
25 Application of this Part................................................................................................ 19
26 Legal nature of shares .................................................................................................. 19
27 Rights attaching to shares ........................................................................................... 19
28 Types of shares ............................................................................................................. 19
29 Par value and no par value shares ............................................................................. 20
30 Prohibition on bearer shares ....................................................................................... 20
31 Fractional shares ........................................................................................................... 20
32 Alteration of share capital ........................................................................................... 21
33 Share certificates ........................................................................................................... 21
CHAPTER 2 - ISSUE OF SHARES 22
34 Issue of shares ............................................................................................................... 22
35 Power to pay commissions ......................................................................................... 22
36 Pre-emptive rights ........................................................................................................ 22
37 Consideration for shares ............................................................................................. 23
38 Shares issued for consideration other than money ................................................. 23
39 Consent to issue of shares ........................................................................................... 23
40 Time of issue ................................................................................................................. 23
41 Lien on shares ............................................................................................................... 23
42 Calls on shares .............................................................................................................. 24
43 Forfeiture of shares ...................................................................................................... 25
44 Variation of class rights ............................................................................................... 25
45 Offering documents ..................................................................................................... 26
CHAPTER 3 - TRANSFER OF SHARES 27
46 Transferability of shares .............................................................................................. 27
47 Method of transfer of shares ....................................................................................... 28
48 Transfer of securities without a written instrument ............................................... 28
PART III – DISTRIBUTIONS 30

49 Meaning of “solvency test” and “distribution” ....................................................... 30
50 Distributions ................................................................................................................. 30
51 Recovery of distributions made when company did not satisfy solvency
test .................................................................................................................................. 30
52 Company may purchase, redeem or otherwise acquire its own shares ............... 31
53 Process for purchase redemption or other acquisition of own shares .................. 31
54 Offer to one or more shareholders ............................................................................. 32
55 Redemption of shares .................................................................................................. 33
56 Effect of company’s failure to purchase, redeem or acquire own shares ............. 33
57 Dividends ...................................................................................................................... 34
58 Reduction of share capital ........................................................................................... 34
Treasury shares 35

58A Power to permit the holding of treasury shares ...................................................... 35
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PART IV – MEMBERS 35

59 Meaning of “shareholder”, “guarantee member” and “unlimited member” ...... 35
60 Company to have one or more members .................................................................. 36
61 Liability of members..................................................................................................... 36
62 Register of members ..................................................................................................... 37
63 Register of members as evidence of legal title .......................................................... 38
64 Rectification of register of members .......................................................................... 38
65 Members’ resolutions ................................................................................................... 39
66 Votes of members ......................................................................................................... 39
67 Meetings of members ................................................................................................... 39
68 Notice of meetings of members .................................................................................. 40
69 Quorum for meetings of members ............................................................................. 41
70 Court may call meeting of members .......................................................................... 41
71 Written resolutions ....................................................................................................... 41
72 Service of notices on members .................................................................................... 42
PART V – COMPANY ADMINISTRATION 42

73 Registered office ............................................................................................................ 42
74 Registered agent ............................................................................................................ 42
75 Change of registered office or registered agent ........................................................ 43
76 Resignation of registered agent .................................................................................. 43
77 Registered agent ceasing to be eligible to act ............................................................ 44
CHAPTER 2 - COMPANY RECORDS 45
78 Documents to be kept at office of registered agent .................................................. 45
79 Other records to be maintained by company ........................................................... 45
80 Companies to keep accounting records ..................................................................... 46
80A Right to require financial statements to be prepared .............................................. 47
80B Additional provisions concerning presentation of financial statements .............. 47
80C Auditor to be qualified ................................................................................................. 48
80D Public oversight ............................................................................................................ 49
80E Regulations concerning accounts and audit ............................................................. 50
81 Form of records ............................................................................................................. 51
82 Inspection of records .................................................................................................... 51
83 Service of process etc. on company ............................................................................ 52
84 Records and common seal ........................................................................................... 52
CHAPTER 3 - ANNUAL RETURNS 53
85 Annual return to be made by a company.................................................................. 53
CHAPTER 4 - GENERAL PROVISIONS 53
86 Contracts and execution of documents ..................................................................... 53
87 Contracts before incorporation ................................................................................... 54
88 Promissory notes and bills of exchange .................................................................... 54
89 Power of attorney ......................................................................................................... 54
90 Authentication or attestation of documents ............................................................. 55
Index Companies Act 2006


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PART VI – DIRECTORS 55

CHAPTER 1 - MANAGEMENT BY DIRECTORS 55
91 Management by directors ........................................................................................... 55
92 Committees of directors .............................................................................................. 55
CHAPTER 2 - APPOINTMENT, RETIREMENT AND RESIGNATION OF
DIRECTORS 56
93 Persons not permitted to act as directors .................................................................. 56
94 Consent to act as director ............................................................................................ 56
95 Appointment of directors ............................................................................................ 56
96 Removal of directors .................................................................................................... 57
97 Resignation of directors ............................................................................................... 57
98 Liability of former directors ........................................................................................ 57
99 Power of court to grant relief in certain cases .......................................................... 57
100 Validity of acts of director ........................................................................................... 58
101 Register of directors ..................................................................................................... 58
102 Emoluments and expenses of directors ..................................................................... 58
CHAPTER 3 - DIRECTORS’ INTERESTS 59
103 Directors’ appointments and interests ...................................................................... 59
104 Disclosure of interests .................................................................................................. 59
105 Director disclosing interest may vote and count in quorum ................................. 60
CHAPTER 4 - PROCEEDINGS OF DIRECTORS AND MISCELLANEOUS
PROVISIONS 60
106 Meetings of directors ................................................................................................... 60
107 Notice of meetings of directors .................................................................................. 60
108 Quorum for meetings of directors ............................................................................. 60
109 Resolutions of directors ............................................................................................... 61
110 Alternates for directors ................................................................................................ 61
111 Agents ............................................................................................................................ 61
112 Indemnification ............................................................................................................ 62
113 Insurance ....................................................................................................................... 63
PART VII – PROTECTED CELL COMPANIES 63

CHAPTER 1 - FORMATION OF PROTECTED CELL COMPANIES 63
114 Interpretation of this Part ............................................................................................ 63
115 Protected cell companies ............................................................................................. 63
116 Fundamental nature of a PCC .................................................................................... 64
CHAPTER 2 - CELLS 64
117 Creation of cells and cellular and non-cellular assets ............................................. 64
118 Cellular and non-cellular assets: directors’ duties ................................................... 64
CHAPTER 3 - CELL SHARE CAPITAL AND DISTRIBUTIONS 65
119 Cell share capital .......................................................................................................... 65
120 Cellular and non-cellular distributions ..................................................................... 65
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CHAPTER 4 - ASSETS AND LIABILITIES 65
121 Attribution of non-cellular assets and liabilities ...................................................... 65
122 Liability of cellular and non-cellular assets .............................................................. 66
123 Disputes as to liability attributable to cells ............................................................... 66
124 Position of creditors ...................................................................................................... 67
125 Recourse to cellular assets by creditors ..................................................................... 68
CHAPTER 5 - RECEIVERSHIP ORDERS 68
126 Receivership orders in relation to cells ...................................................................... 68
127 Applications for receivership orders ......................................................................... 69
128 Functions of receiver and effect of receivership order ............................................ 70
129 Discharge and variation of receivership orders ....................................................... 71
130 Remuneration of receiver ............................................................................................ 72
CHAPTER 6 - LIQUIDATION 72
131 Provisions in relation to liquidation of PCC ............................................................. 72
CHAPTER 7 - GENERAL PROVISIONS 72
132 Company to inform persons that they are dealing with PCC ................................ 72
133 Security interests in respect of cell assets .................................................................. 73
134 Savings for directors’ functions .................................................................................. 73
135 Saving for internal arrangements ............................................................................... 73
PART VIII - REGISTRATION OF CHARGES 73

136 Interpretation of this Part ............................................................................................ 73
137 Company to keep register of charges......................................................................... 74
138 Registration of charges ................................................................................................. 74
139 Variation of registered charge ..................................................................................... 75
140 Late registration of charges ......................................................................................... 76
141 Charge ceasing to affect company’s property .......................................................... 76
142 Registration of enforcement of security ..................................................................... 77
PART IX – RE-REGISTRATION 77

CHAPTER 1 - RE-REGISTRATION OF A COMPANY INCORPORATED
UNDER THIS ACT 77
143 Power of company to re-register ................................................................................ 77
144 Application to re-register ............................................................................................. 77
145 Restrictions on re-registration of company with shares .......................................... 79
146 Re-registration ............................................................................................................... 79
147 Consequences of re-registration ................................................................................. 79
CHAPTER 2 - RE-REGISTRATION OF A 1931 ACT COMPANY 80
148 Power of 1931 Act company to re-register ................................................................ 80
149 Application to re-register a 1931 Act company ........................................................ 80
150 Re-registration of a 1931 Act company ...................................................................... 82
151 Consequences of re-registration of a 1931 Act company ........................................ 82
Index Companies Act 2006


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PART X – SCHEMES OF MERGER, CONSOLIDATION AND

ARRANGEMENTS AND RIGHTS OF DISSENTERS 83

CHAPTER 1 - MERGERS AND CONSOLIDATIONS 83
152 Interpretation of this Part ............................................................................................ 83
153 Approval of merger or consolidation ........................................................................ 83
154 Registration of merger or consolidation ................................................................... 85
155 Memorandum of consolidated company .................................................................. 86
156 Effect of merger or consolidation ............................................................................... 87
CHAPTER 2 - ARRANGEMENTS 88
157 Power to enter into arrangements .............................................................................. 88
158 Provisions for facilitating arrangements ................................................................... 89
159 Registration of Court orders ....................................................................................... 90
CHAPTER 3 - DISSENTING SHAREHOLDERS 91
160 Power to acquire shares of shareholders dissenting from scheme or
contract approved by majority. .................................................................................. 91
161 Rights of dissenters ...................................................................................................... 93
CHAPTER 4 - TAKEOVERS AND MERGERS 94
161A Regulations concerning takeovers and mergers ...................................................... 94
PART XI – CONTINUATION 95

CHAPTER 1 - CONTINUATION OF FOREIGN COMPANIES 95
162 Application for consent to be continued in the Isle of Man ................................... 95
163 Consent .......................................................................................................................... 97
164 Registration ................................................................................................................... 97
165 Effect of continuance .................................................................................................... 97
166 Consequences of continuance of foreign company ................................................. 98
CHAPTER 2 - DISCONTINUATION OF ISLE OF MAN COMPANIES 99
167 Application for consent to discontinuance ............................................................... 99
168 Grant of consent ......................................................................................................... 100
169 Documents to be filed ................................................................................................ 100
170 Effect of discontinuance ............................................................................................ 101
171 Restrictions on discontinuance of Isle of Man company ...................................... 101
172 Consequences of discontinuance of company ....................................................... 101
PART XII – MEMBERS’ REMEDIES 102

173 Interpretation of this Part .......................................................................................... 102
174 Restraining compliance order ................................................................................... 102
175 Derivative actions ....................................................................................................... 102
176 Costs of derivative action .......................................................................................... 103
177 Powers of Court where leave granted under section 175 ..................................... 103
178 Compromise, settlement or withdrawal of derivative actions ............................ 104
179 Personal actions by members ................................................................................... 104
180 Prejudiced members .................................................................................................. 104
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181 Representative actions ............................................................................................... 105
PART XIII - LIQUIDATION AND RECEIVERSHIP, STRIKING-OFF,

DISSOLUTION AND RESTORATION 105

CHAPTER 1 - LIQUIDATION AND RECEIVERSHIP 105
182 Application of the Companies Act 1931 ..................................................................... 105
CHAPTER 2 - STRIKING-OFF 105
183 Striking company off register.................................................................................... 105
184 Appeal .......................................................................................................................... 106
185 Effect of striking-off .................................................................................................... 106
186 Dissolution of company struck off the register ...................................................... 107
187 Restoration of name of company to register by Registrar .................................... 107
188 Restoration of name of company to register by Court .......................................... 108
189 Appointment of liquidator of company struck off................................................. 108
CHAPTER 3 - ALTERNATIVE PROCEDURE FOR DISSOLVING SOLVENT
COMPANIES 109
190 Alternative procedure for dissolving solvent companies ..................................... 109
191 Restoration of dissolved companies by the Court ................................................. 110
192 Alternative procedure for restoration of dissolved companies ........................... 111
CHAPTER 4 - PROPERTY OF DISSOLVED COMPANIES 112
193 Property of dissolved company to be bona vacantia ............................................. 112
194 Power to disclaim title to property vesting under section 193 ............................. 112
195 Disposal of property vesting under section 193 ..................................................... 112
PART XIV – INVESTIGATION OF COMPANIES 113

196 Definition of “inspector” ........................................................................................... 113
197 Investigation order ..................................................................................................... 113
198 Court’s powers ............................................................................................................ 114
199 Inspector’s powers ...................................................................................................... 114
200 Hearing in camera ...................................................................................................... 115
201 Incriminating evidence .............................................................................................. 115
202 Absolute privilege ...................................................................................................... 115
PART XV – ADMINISTRATION AND GENERAL 115

203 Optional registration of register of members ......................................................... 115
204 Optional registration of register of directors .......................................................... 115
205 Registrar of Companies .............................................................................................. 116
205A Duty of Registrar to co-operate with certain supervisory bodies ........................ 116
205B Sharing information with the Authority ................................................................. 117
206 Register of companies ................................................................................................ 117
207 Filing of documents .................................................................................................... 118
208 Power of Registrar to refuse to register documents............................................... 118
208A Appeals from decisions of Registrar ........................................................................ 118
209 Inspection and evidence of registers ........................................................................ 118
Index Companies Act 2006


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210 Form of certificate....................................................................................................... 119
211 Certificate of good standing...................................................................................... 119
212 Fees and penalties ...................................................................................................... 119
213 Company struck off liable for fees, etc. ................................................................... 120
214 Fees payable to Registrar ........................................................................................... 120
215 Companies regulations .............................................................................................. 120
216 Approval of forms by Registrar ............................................................................... 120
PART XVI – MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 120

217 Declaration by Court .................................................................................................. 120
218 Interpretation .............................................................................................................. 121
219 Meaning of “company” and “foreign company” .................................................. 124
220 Meaning of “subsidiary” and “holding company” ............................................... 125
221 Meaning of “director” ................................................................................................ 125
222 Application of Companies Acts 1931 to 2004 ......................................................... 126
223 Offences ....................................................................................................................... 126
224 Repeals and amendments ......................................................................................... 126
225 Short title and commencement ................................................................................. 126
SCHEDULE 1 129

AMENDMENT OF ENACTMENTS 129
SCHEDULE 2 129

ENACTMENTS REPEALED 129
ENDNOTES 131

TABLE OF ENDNOTE REFERENCES 131

Companies Act 2006 Section 1


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c i e
COMPANIES ACT 2006

Received Royal Assent: 16 October 2006
Passed: 16 October 2006
Commenced: See legislative history
AN ACT
to provide for the incorporation, management and operation of
different types of companies, for the relationships between companies and their
directors and members and to provide for connected and consequential matters.
PART I – INCORPORATION AND STATUS OF COMPANIES

CHAPTER 1 - INCORPORATION
1 Types of company

A company may be incorporated or continued under this Act as —
(a) a company limited by shares;
(b) a company limited by guarantee;
(c) a company limited by shares and by guarantee;
(d) an unlimited company with shares; or
(e) an unlimited company without shares.
2 Application to incorporate a company

(1) Subject to subsection (2), application may be made to the Registrar for
the incorporation of a company by filing —
(a) a memorandum complying with section 5; and
(b) if the articles of the company are to differ from the relevant model
articles or if the company is a protected cell company or an
unlimited company without shares, articles.
(2) An application for the incorporation of a company may be filed only by
the person named in the memorandum as the first registered agent of the
proposed company and the Registrar shall not accept an application for
the incorporation of a company filed by any other person.
Section 3 Companies Act 2006


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3 Incorporation of a company

(1) Upon receipt of the documents filed under section 2(1), the Registrar
shall —
(a) register the documents;
(b) allot a unique number to the company; and
(c) issue a certificate of incorporation to the company in the
prescribed form.
(2) A certificate of incorporation issued under subsection (1) is conclusive
evidence that —
(a) all the requirements of this Act as to incorporation have been
complied with; and
(b) the company is incorporated on the date specified in the
certificate of incorporation.
4 Subscribers become members of the company on incorporation

On the incorporation of a company —
(a) each subscriber becomes a member of the company with effect
from the date of its incorporation; and
(b) each subscriber who agreed, in the memorandum, to take one or
more shares in the company —
(i) is deemed to have been issued with the number of shares
that such subscriber is specified in the memorandum as
having agreed to take; and
(ii) becomes liable to the company to pay the amount that such
subscriber is specified in the memorandum as having
agreed to pay for those shares.
CHAPTER 2 - MEMORANDUM AND ARTICLES
5 Memorandum

(1) The memorandum of a company shall state —
(a) the name of the company;
(b) whether the company is —
(i) a company limited by shares;
(ii) a company limited by guarantee;
(iii) a company limited by shares and by guarantee;
(iv) an unlimited company with shares; or
(v) an unlimited company without shares;
(c) the address of the first registered office of the company;
Companies Act 2006 Section 6


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(d) the name of the first registered agent of the company;
(e) the full name and residential or business address of each
subscriber;
(f) in the case of a company limited by shares and an unlimited
company with shares, the agreement of each subscriber to take
one or more shares on the incorporation of the company;
(g) in the case of a company limited by guarantee, a company limited
by shares and by guarantee and an unlimited company without
shares, the agreement of each subscriber to become a member on
the incorporation of the company;
(h) in the case of a company limited by shares and by guarantee
where a subscriber intends to take shares, the agreement of each
such subscriber to take one or more shares on the incorporation of
the company;
(i) in the case of a company limited by guarantee and a company
limited by shares and by guarantee, the amount which every
member of the company is liable to contribute to the company’s
assets in the event that the company is wound up while such
person is a member or within 1 year (or such longer period as
may be specified for the purpose in the memorandum) after such
person ceased to be a member; and
(j) in the case of a company limited by shares that is a protected cell
company, that the company is a protected cell company.
(2) The memorandum shall state, in respect of each subscriber agreeing to
take one or more shares on the incorporation of a company —
(a) the number of shares that the subscriber agrees to take; and
(b) the amount that the subscriber agrees to pay for each share that
the subscriber is specified as having agreed to take.
(3) Without prejudice to section 21, the memorandum may contain a
statement specifying the purposes for which the company is established
or the business, activities or transactions which the company is permitted
to undertake or the restrictions (if any) upon such purposes, business,
activities or transactions for which the company is established.
6 Power to prescribe model articles

(1) Regulations may prescribe model articles for each of —
(a) a company limited by shares;
(b) a company limited by guarantee;
(c) a company limited by shares and by guarantee;
(d) an unlimited company with shares; and
(e) an unlimited company without shares.
Section 7 Companies Act 2006


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(2) Subject to subsection (4), subsection (3) applies with effect from the date
of a company’s incorporation in any case where articles (“the proposed
articles”) were delivered under section 2(1)(b).
(3) If the proposed articles —
(a) make no provision for a matter for which provision is made by
the relevant model articles; and
(b) do not expressly or by necessary implication exclude that
provision of those model articles,
that provision is deemed to be included in the proposed articles, and
“the relevant model articles” here means the relevant model articles as in
force at the date of the company’s incorporation.
(4) Subsection (3) does not apply where the company is a protected cell
company (in respect which there are no relevant model articles).
(5) If any model articles prescribed under subsection (1) are altered by
regulations under that subsection, the alteration does not affect the
articles of a company incorporated, continued or re-registered (as the
case may be) before the alteration takes effect.
7 Effect of memorandum and articles

(1) The memorandum and articles of a company are binding as between —
(a) the company and each member of the company; and
(b) each member of the company.
(2) The memorandum and articles of a company have no effect to the extent
that they contravene or are inconsistent with this Act.
8 Amendment of memorandum and articles

(1) Subject to subsection (2), the members of a company may, by resolution,
amend the memorandum and articles of the company.
(2) The memorandum of a company may include one or more of the
following provisions —
(a) that the memorandum or articles, or specified provisions of the
memorandum or articles, may only be amended by a resolution
passed by a member or members holding a specified majority of
the voting rights exercised in relation thereto; and/or
(b) that the memorandum or articles, or specified provisions of the
memorandum or articles, may be amended only if certain
specified conditions are met.
(3) Subject to subsections (2) and (4), the memorandum of a company may
authorise the directors, by resolution, to amend the memorandum or
articles of the company.
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(4) Notwithstanding any provision in the memorandum or articles to the
contrary, the directors of a company shall not have the power to amend
the memorandum or articles —
(a) to restrict the rights or powers of the members to amend the
memorandum or articles;
(b) to change the majority of the voting rights of members required to
be exercised in order to pass a resolution to amend the
memorandum or articles; or
(c) in circumstances where the memorandum or articles cannot be
amended by the members,
and any resolution of the directors of a company is void and of no effect
to the extent that it contravenes this subsection.
9 Filing of notice of amendment of memorandum or articles

Where the memorandum or articles of a company have been amended, the
company shall within one month of the resolution effecting the amendment file
for registration —
(a) a notice of amendment in the prescribed form; and
(b) a restated memorandum or articles (as the case may be)
incorporating the amendment(s) made.
10 Provision of copies of memorandum and articles to members

(1) A copy of the memorandum and articles shall be sent to any member
who requests a copy thereof on payment by the member of such amount
as the directors may determine to be reasonably necessary to defray the
costs of preparing and furnishing them.
(2) A company that fails to comply with such a request commits an offence.
CHAPTER 3 - COMPANY NAMES
11 Required part of company name

(1) Subject to subsections (2) to (5), the name of a company specified in
section 1, paragraphs (a) to (c), shall end with —
(a) the word “Limited”, “Corporation” or “Incorporated”; or
(b) the words “Public Limited Company” or “public limited
company”; or
(c) the abbreviation “Ltd”, “Corp”, “Inc”, “PLC” or “plc”.
(2) The name of an unlimited company may (but need not) end with the
word “Unlimited” or the abbreviation “Unltd”.
(3) The name of a protected cell company shall include one of the following
phrases —
Section 12 Companies Act 2006


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(a) “Protected Cell Company” or “protected cell company”; or
(b) “PCC” or “pcc”.
(4) Where the abbreviation “Ltd”, “Corp”, “Inc” or “Unltd” is used, a full
stop may be inserted at the end of the abbreviation.
(5) Where the abbreviation “PLC”, “plc”, “PCC” or “pcc” is used, full stops
may be inserted immediately after each and every character thereof.
12 Requirement for name approval
1

(1) The Company and Business Names etc Act 2012 has effect in respect of the
names of companies registered under this Act.
(2) The requirements of that Act are additional to the requirements of this
Act.2

13 Foreign character name

(1) A company may have an additional foreign character name approved by
the Registrar.
(2) Regulations may provide for the approval, use and change of foreign
character names.3

14 Company may change name

(1) Subject to its articles and subject also to compliance with the
requirements of the Company and Business Names etc Act 2012, a company
may make application to the Registrar in the prescribed form to change
its name (including the required part of its name (if any) pursuant to
section 11) or its foreign character name.4

(2) An application under subsection (1) shall be authorised —
(a) by a resolution of the company’s members; or
(b) unless the articles provide otherwise, by the directors.
(3) If the Registrar is satisfied that the proposed new name or foreign
character name of the company complies with section 11 and, if
appropriate, section 13 and is a name under which the company could be
registered in accordance with the Company and Business Names etc Act
2012, the Registrar shall, on receipt of an application under subsection
(1) —
(a) register the company’s change of name; and
(b) issue a certificate of change of name to the company.5

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15 [Repealed]
6

16 [Repealed]
7

17 [Repealed]
8

18 [Repealed]
9

19 Use of company name

(1) A company shall ensure that its full name and, if it has one, its foreign
character name, is clearly stated in every document issued or signed by,
or on behalf of, the company that evidences or creates a legal obligation
of the company.
(2) A company shall ensure that —
(a) its full name and, if it has one, its foreign character name;
(b) its company number in figures;
(c) its place of incorporation; and
(d) its registered office,
are clearly stated in every written communication by, or on behalf of, the
company.
(3) A company that contravenes subsection (1) or subsection (2) commits an
offence.
CHAPTER 4 - CAPACITY AND POWERS
20 Separate legal entity

A company is a legal entity in its own right separate from its members and
continues in existence until it is dissolved.
21 Capacity

(1) Notwithstanding any provision to the contrary included in its
memorandum or articles, a company has (irrespective of corporate
benefit and irrespective of whether or not it is in the best interests of the
company to do so), unlimited capacity to carry on or undertake any
business or activity, to do, or to be subject to, any act or to enter into any
transaction.
(2) No act of a company and no transfer of an asset by or to a company is
beyond its capacity by reason only of the fact that a company has
purported to restrict its capacity in any way, whether pursuant to its
memorandum or articles or otherwise.
Section 22 Companies Act 2006


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(3) Without limiting subsection (1), the capacity of a company includes the
capacity to do any of the following —
(a) unless it is a company limited by guarantee or an unlimited
company without shares —
(i) to issue and cancel shares;
(ii) to grant options over unissued shares in the company, and
(iii) to issue securities that are convertible into shares;
(b) to issue debentures; and
(c) to guarantee a liability or obligation of any person and secure any
of such person’s obligations by mortgage, pledge, charge or other
encumbrance, of any of its assets for that purpose.
22 Power of directors to bind the company

(1) In favour of a person who deals with a company in good faith, the power
of the directors to bind the company or to authorise others to do so, shall
be deemed to be free of any limitations.
(2) For this purpose —
(a) a person “deals with” a company if that person is a party to any
transaction or other act to which the company is a party; and
(b) a person shall be presumed to have acted in good faith unless the
contrary is proved.
(3) The reference in subsection (1) to limitations on the directors’ power
include limitations deriving from —
(a) any statement contained in the memorandum under section 5(3)
or any other provision of the memorandum or articles; or
(b) a resolution of members or any class thereof; or
(c) any agreement between members or any class thereof.
(4) Subsection (1) does not affect any liability incurred by the directors, or
any other person, by reason of the directors exceeding their powers.
23 Personal liability

Subject to section 60(5), no director, officer, agent or liquidator of a company is
liable for any liability or default of the company, unless specifically provided in
this Act or in any other enactment, and except in so far as that person may be
liable for that person’s own conduct or acts.
24 Constructive notice

(1) A person is not deemed to have notice or knowledge of any document
relating to a company, including the memorandum and articles, or of the
Companies Act 2006 Section 25


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provisions or contents of any such document, by reason only of the fact
that a document —
(a) is available to the public from the Registrar; or
(b) is available for inspection at the registered office of the company
or at the office of its registered agent.
(2) Subsection (1) does not apply in relation to a document filed under
Part VIII.
PART II – SHARES

CHAPTER 1 - GENERAL
25 Application of this Part

This Part applies to any company incorporated, continued or re-registered as a
company limited by shares, a company limited by shares and by guarantee or
an unlimited company with shares.
26 Legal nature of shares

A share in a company is personal property.
27 Rights attaching to shares

(1) Subject to subsection (2), a share in a company confers on the holder —
(a) the right to one vote at a meeting of the company or on any
resolution of the members of the company;
(b) the right to an equal share in any dividend paid in accordance
with this Act; and
(c) the right to an equal share in the distribution of the surplus assets
of the company.
(2) Subject to contrary provision in its memorandum or articles, a
company —
(a) may issue more than one class of shares; and
(b) may issue shares subject to terms that negate, modify or add to
the rights specified in subsection (1).
28 Types of shares

(1) Without limiting section 27(2) but subject to section 30, shares in a
company may —
(a) be convertible, common or ordinary;
Section 29 Companies Act 2006


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(b) be redeemable at the option of the shareholder or the company or
either of them;
(c) confer preferential rights to distributions;
(d) confer special, limited or conditional rights, including voting
rights;
(e) entitle participation only in certain assets; or
(f) confer no voting rights,
or any combination thereof.
(2) Subject to contrary provision in its memorandum or articles, a company
may issue bonus shares and nil or partly paid shares.
29 Par value and no par value shares

(1) Subject to contrary provision in the memorandum or articles of a
company —
(a) a share may be issued with or without a par value;
(b) a share with a par value may be issued in any currency; and
(c) shares may be numbered or unnumbered.
(2) The par value of a par value share may be a fraction of the smallest
denomination of the currency in which it is issued.
30 Prohibition on bearer shares

(1) A company has no power to, and shall not —
(a) issue a bearer share;
(b) convert a share to a bearer share; or
(c) exchange a share for a bearer share,
and, accordingly, any such purported issue, conversion or exchange shall
be void and of no effect.
(2) A company that attempts or purports to contravene subsection (1)
commits an offence.
31 Fractional shares

(1) Subject to contrary provision in its memorandum or articles, a company
may issue fractional shares.
(2) Subject to its memorandum and articles a fractional share in a company
has the corresponding fractional rights, obligations and liabilities of a
whole share of the same class.
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32 Alteration of share capital

Subject to contrary provision in its memorandum or articles, the directors of a
company may, by resolution, alter its share capital comprising shares with par
value in any way and, in particular but without prejudice to the generality of
the foregoing, may —
(a) consolidate and divide all or any of such shares into shares of a
larger amount;
(b) redenominate all or any of such shares as shares with a par value
denominated in another currency on such basis as the directors
see fit; or
(c) sub-divide such shares, or any of them, into shares of smaller
amount.
33 Share certificates

(1) Unless contrary provision is made in its memorandum or articles, a
company shall issue share certificates in accordance with this section.
(2) Unless contrary provision is made in its memorandum or articles, every
member upon becoming the holder of any shares shall be entitled —
(a) without payment, to one certificate for all the shares of such class
held by that member and (upon transferring some of such shares)
to a certificate for the balance thereof; or
(b) to several certificates each for one or more of that member’s
shares upon payment, for every certificate after the first, of such
reasonable sum as the directors may determine,
provided that the company shall not be bound to issue more than one
certificate for shares held jointly by several persons and delivery of a
certificate to one joint holder shall be delivery to all of them.
(3) Any share certificate issued by a company —
(a) shall be signed by a person acting under the express or implied
authority of the company; or
(b) shall be under the common seal of the company,
and the articles may provide for the signatures or common seal to be
facsimiles.
(4) A share certificate issued in accordance with subsection (2) specifying a
share or shares held by a member of a company is prima facie evidence
of the entry of that member as the holder of the relevant share or shares
in the register of members.
(5) If a share certificate is defaced, worn-out, lost or destroyed, it may be
renewed on such terms (if any) as to evidence and indemnity and
payment of the expenses reasonably incurred by the company in
investigating evidence as the directors may determine but otherwise free
Section 34 Companies Act 2006


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of charge, and (in the case of defacement or wearing out) on delivery up
of the old certificate.
CHAPTER 2 - ISSUE OF SHARES
34 Issue of shares

Subject to this Act and to the memorandum and articles, shares in a company
may be issued, and options to acquire shares in a company may be granted, at
such times, to such persons, for such consideration and on such terms as the
directors may determine.

35 Power to pay commissions

(1) Subject to contrary provision in its memorandum or articles, a company
may pay commissions at such rates or in such amounts as the directors
may determine to any person in consideration of such person
subscribing, or agreeing to subscribe, whether absolutely or
conditionally, for any shares in the company, or procuring or agreeing to
procure subscriptions, whether absolute or conditional, for any shares in
the company.
(2) Any commissions referred to in subsection (1) may be satisfied by
payment in cash or by the allotment of fully or partly paid shares or
partly in one way and partly in the other.
36 Pre-emptive rights

(1) Subsections (2) to (4) apply to a company where the memorandum or
articles of the company expressly provide that this section shall apply to
the company, but not otherwise.
(2) Before issuing shares that rank or would rank as to voting or distribution
rights, or both, equally with or in priority to shares already issued by the
company, the directors shall offer the shares to existing shareholders in
such a manner that, if the offer was accepted by those shareholders, the
existing voting or distribution rights, or both, of those shareholders
would be maintained.
(3) Shares offered to existing shareholders under subsection (2) shall be
offered at such price and on such terms as the shares are to be offered to
other persons.
(4) An offer made under subsection (2) must remain open for acceptance for
not less than 14 days from the date that the offer is made.
(5) Nothing in this section prevents the memorandum or articles of a
company from modifying the provisions of this section.
Companies Act 2006 Section 37


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37 Consideration for shares

Subject to section 38, a share may be issued for consideration in any form,
including money, a promissory note or other written obligation to contribute
money or property, real property, personal property (including goodwill and
know-how), services rendered, or a contract for future services.
38 Shares issued for consideration other than money

(1) Before issuing shares for a consideration other than money, the directors
shall pass a resolution stating —
(a) the amount to be credited for the issue of the shares;
(b) their determination of the reasonable present cash value of the
non-money consideration for the issue; and
(c) that, in their opinion, the present cash value of the nonmoney
consideration for the issue is not less than the amount to be
credited for the issue of the shares.
(2) Subsection (1) shall not apply to the issue of any bonus shares.
39 Consent to issue of shares

The issue by a company of a share that —
(a) increases a liability of a person to the company; or
(b) imposes a new liability on a person to the company;
is void if that person, or an authorised agent of that person, does not consent in
writing to becoming or remaining the holder of the share.
40 Time of issue

Without prejudice to section 4(b)(i) and section 147(3)(c)(i), a share is deemed to
be issued when the name of the shareholder is entered on the register of
members.
41 Lien on shares

(1) Subject to contrary provision in its memorandum or articles, a company
shall (unless the directors resolve to the contrary in respect of any share)
have a first and paramount lien on every share (not being a fully paid
share) for all moneys (whether presently payable or not) payable at a
fixed time or called in respect of that share and the following provision
of this section shall apply.
(2) A company may sell in such manner as the directors determine any
shares on which the company has a lien if a sum in respect of which the
lien exists is presently payable and is not paid within 14 days after notice
has been given to the holder of the share or to the person entitled to it in
consequence of the death or bankruptcy of the holder, demanding
Section 42 Companies Act 2006


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payment and stating that if the notice is not complied with the shares
may be sold.
(3) In order to give effect to a sale under subsection (2) the directors may
authorise some person to execute an instrument of transfer of the shares
sold to, or in accordance with the directions of, the purchaser.
(4) The title of the transferee to any shares sold under subsection (2) shall
not be affected by any irregularity in or invalidity of the proceedings in
reference to the sale.
(5) The net proceeds of any sale under subsection (2), after payment of the
costs of sale, shall be applied in payment of so much of the sum for
which the lien exists as is presently payable, and any residue shall (upon
surrender to the company for cancellation of any certificate(s) for the
shares sold and subject to a like lien for any moneys not presently
payable as existed upon the shares before the sale) be paid to the person
entitled to the shares at the date of the sale.
42 Calls on shares

(1) Subject to contrary provision in the memorandum or articles of a
company and to the terms of issue of any shares in such company, the
directors may make calls upon the members in respect of any moneys
unpaid on their shares (whether in respect of par value, premium or
otherwise) and each member shall (subject to receiving at least 14 days’
notice specifying when and where payment is to be made) pay to the
company as required by the notice the amount called on such member’s
shares and the following provisions of this section shall apply.
(2) Where a call is made under subsection (1) —
(a) such call may be required to be paid by instalments;
(b) such call may, before receipt by the company of any sum due
thereunder, be revoked in whole or part;
(c) payment of such call may be postponed in whole or part by the
company;
(d) a person upon whom such a call is made shall remain liable for
calls made upon such person notwithstanding the subsequent
transfer of the shares in respect of which the call was made;
(e) such call shall be deemed to have been made at the time when the
resolution of the directors authorising the call was passed; and
(f) the joint holders of a share shall be jointly and severally liable to
pay all such calls in respect thereof.
(3) If a call under subsection (1) remains unpaid after it has become due and
payable, the person from whom it is due and payable shall pay interest
on the amount unpaid from the day it became due and payable until it is
paid at the rate fixed by the terms of allotment of the share or in the
Companies Act 2006 Section 43


c AT 13 of 2006 Page 25

notice of the call or, if no rate is fixed, at the rate of 5 per cent per annum,
but the directors may waive payment of the interest wholly or in part.
(4) An amount payable in respect of a share on allotment or at any fixed
date, whether in respect of par value, premium or otherwise or as an
instalment of a call, shall be deemed to be a call and, if it is not paid, the
provisions of this Act shall apply as if that amount had become due and
payable by virtue of a call.
(5) The directors may make arrangements on the issue of shares for a
difference between the holders in the amounts and times of payment of
calls on their shares.
43 Forfeiture of shares

(1) Subject to contrary provision in the memorandum or articles of a
company and to the terms of issue of any shares in such company, a
share in respect of which a call remains unpaid after it has become due
and payable may be forfeited in accordance with this section.
(2) Notwithstanding any provision to the contrary in the memorandum or
articles of a company or the terms of issue of any shares in such
company, a share may only be forfeited if a written notice of forfeiture
has been served on the member who defaults in making payment in
respect of the share.
(3) The written notice of forfeiture referred to in subsection (2) shall name a
date not earlier than the expiration of 14 days from the date of service of
the notice on or before which the payment required by the notice is to be
made and shall contain a statement that, in the event of non-payment at
or before the time named in the notice the shares, or any of them, in
respect of which payment is not made will be liable to be forfeited.
(4) Where a written notice of forfeiture has been issued under this section
and the requirements of the notice have not been complied with, the
directors may, at any time before tender of payment, forfeit and cancel
the shares to which the notice relates.
(5) A company is under no obligation to refund any moneys to the member
whose shares have been cancelled pursuant to subsection (4) and that
member shall be discharged from any further obligation to the company.
44 Variation of class rights

(1) Subject to any contrary provision in the memorandum or articles of a
company whose share capital is divided into shares of different classes,
the rights attaching to such a class of shares may not be varied without
the sanction of a resolution of the members of such class passed by a
member or members holding at least 75 per cent of the voting rights
exercised in relation thereto.
Section 45 Companies Act 2006


Page 26 AT 13 of 2006 c

(2) For the purposes of this section, any alteration of a provision contained
in a company’s memorandum or articles for the variation of the rights
attached to a class of shares, or the insertion of such provision into the
articles, is itself to be treated as a variation of those rights.
(3) In this section and (except where the context otherwise requires) in any
provision for the variation of the rights attached to a class of shares
contained in a company’s memorandum or articles, references to the
variation of those rights are to be treated as including references to their
abrogation or extinguishment.
45 Offering documents

(1) The directors of a company or (in the case of a company yet to be
incorporated) the proposed directors shall ensure that any offering
document issued in relation to such company shall —
(a) contain all material information relating to the offer or invitation
contained therein —
(i) that the intended recipients would reasonably expect to be
included therein in order to enable them to make an
informed decision as to whether or not to accept the offer
or make the application referred to therein; and
(ii) of which the directors or proposed directors (as the case
may be) were aware at the time of issue of the offering
document, or of which they would have been aware had
they made such enquiries as would have been reasonable
in all the circumstances; and
(b) set out such information fairly and accurately.
(2) Subject to subsection (3), the company and each of the directors or
proposed directors (as the case may be) shall be jointly and severally
liable to compensate any intended recipient of an offering document who
accepts the offer of securities contained therein, or applies to acquire
securities pursuant thereto, in reliance upon a misstatement set out in
that offering document against any losses incurred by such person as a
result thereof.
(3) A director may be relieved from liability under subsection (2) if it is
established that —
(a) the director did not consent to the issue of the offering document
containing the misstatement in question; or
(b) could not reasonably have been expected to know that the
misstatement breached subsection (1).
(4) In this section, the following words and expressions shall have the
following meanings respectively —
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c AT 13 of 2006 Page 27

(a) “intended recipients” means, in relation to an offering document,
those persons who, taking into account the terms of the offering
document and all the circumstances in which the offering
document was issued, might reasonably be expected to accept the
offer contained therein or to apply to acquire securities pursuant
thereto;
(b) “misstatement” means any statement included in an offering
document which breaches subsection (1) or any statement omitted
from an offering document in breach of subsection (1); and
(c) “offering document” means, in relation to a company (including a
company proposed to be incorporated), any document issued on
behalf of that company containing an offer to subscribe for or
purchase any securities of that company or an invitation to apply
for any such securities.
(5) An offering document may be (but is not required to be) filed on behalf
of the company to which it relates by the company’s registered agent.
CHAPTER 3 - TRANSFER OF SHARES
46 Transferability of shares

(1) Subject to any limitations or restrictions on the transfer of shares in the
memorandum or articles, a share in a company is transferable.
(2) If a shareholder dies, the survivor or survivors (where such shareholder
was a joint holder) or such shareholder’s personal representatives (when
such shareholder was a sole holder or the last surviving joint holder)
shall be the only persons recognised by the company as having any title
to that shareholder’s interest.
(3) Subsection (2) is without prejudice to any liability of the estate of a
deceased shareholder in respect of any share which had been jointly held
by such shareholder.
(4) Subject to contrary provision in a company’s memorandum and articles,
a person becoming entitled to a share in consequence of the death or
bankruptcy of a member may, upon such evidence being produced as
the directors may reasonably require, elect either —
(a) to become the registered holder of the share by giving notice to
the company to that effect; or
(b) to have some other person registered as the transferee by
executing an instrument of transfer in accordance with section 47
even though that person is not a shareholder at the time of the
transfer.
(5) A person becoming entitled to a share in consequence of the death or
bankruptcy of a member shall have the rights to which such person
would be entitled if that person were the registered holder of the share,
Section 47 Companies Act 2006


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except that such person shall not, before being registered as the holder of
the share, be entitled to receive notice of, to attend or to vote at any
meeting of the members, or any class of members, of the company.
47 Method of transfer of shares

(1) Subject to section 48 shares are transferred by a written instrument of
transfer signed by or on behalf of the transferor and containing the name
and business or residential address of the transferee.
(2) The instrument of transfer shall also be signed by or on behalf of the
transferee if registration as a holder of the share imposes a liability to the
company on the transferee or if the articles of the company so require.
(3) The instrument of transfer of a share shall be sent for registration on
behalf of the company to the registered agent of the company or such
other person as the directors may from time to time appoint.
(4) Subject to the memorandum or articles and to subsection (5), upon
receipt of a transfer under subsection (3), the company shall cause the
name of the transferee of the share to be entered in the register of
members unless the directors refuse or delay the registration of the
transfer.
(5) The directors shall not refuse or delay the registration of a transfer unless
this Act or the company’s memorandum or articles permit them to do so.
(6) Where the directors refuse or delay the registration of a transfer under
subsection (4), the company shall, as soon as practicable, send the
transferor and the transferee notice of the refusal or delay.
(7) Subject to the memorandum or articles of a company, the directors may
refuse or delay the registration of a transfer of shares if the transferor has
failed to pay an amount due in respect of those shares.
(8) The transfer of a share is effective when the name of the transferee is
entered in the register of members.
(9) If the directors of a company are satisfied that an instrument of transfer
has been signed but that the instrument has been lost or destroyed,
they may —
(a) accept such evidence of the transfer of the shares as they consider
appropriate; and
(b) determine that the transferee’s name should be entered in the
register of members, notwithstanding the absence of the
instrument of transfer.
48 Transfer of securities without a written instrument

(1) Regulations may make provisions enabling title to securities to be
evidenced and transferred without a written instrument.
Companies Act 2006 Section 48


c AT 13 of 2006 Page 29

(2) In this section —
(a) “securities” means shares, stock, debentures, debenture stock,
loan stock, bonds, units of a collective investment scheme within
the meaning of the Collective Investment Schemes Act 2008 and
other securities of any description;10

(b) “procedures” means the procedures referred to in subsection (3);
(c) references to title to securities include any legal or equitable
interest in securities; and
(d) references to a transfer of title include a transfer by way of
security.
(3) Regulations may make provision —
(a) for procedures for recording and transferring title to securities,
and
(b) for the regulation of those procedures and the persons responsible
for or involved in their operation.
(4) Regulations may contain such safeguards as appear to the Treasury
appropriate for the protection of investors and for ensuring that
competition is not restricted, distorted or prevented.
(5) Regulations may for the purpose of enabling or facilitating the operation
of the procedures make provision with respect to the rights and
obligations of persons in relation to securities dealt with under the
procedures.
(6) Regulations may include provision for the purpose of giving effect to —
(a) the transmission of title to securities by operation of law;
(b) any restriction on the transfer of title to securities arising by virtue
of the provisions of any enactment or instrument, court order or
agreement;
(c) any power conferred by any such provision on a person to deal
with securities on behalf of the person entitled.
(7) Regulations may make provision with respect to the persons responsible
for the operation of the procedures —
(a) as to the consequences of their insolvency or incapacity, or
(b) as to the transfer from them to other persons of their functions in
relation to the procedures.
(8) Regulations may for the purposes mentioned above —
(a) modify or exclude any provision of any enactment or instrument,
or any rule of law;
(b) apply, with such modifications as may be appropriate, the
provisions of any enactment or instrument (including provisions
creating criminal offences);
Section 49 Companies Act 2006


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(c) require the payment of fees, or enable persons to require the
payment of fees, of such amounts as may be specified in the
regulations or determined in accordance with them.
PART III – DISTRIBUTIONS

49 Meaning of “solvency test” and “distribution”

In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires —
(a) a company satisfies the solvency test if —
(i) the company is able to pay its debts as they become due in
the normal course of the company’s business; and
(ii) the value of the company’s assets exceeds the value of its
liabilities; and
(b) “distribution
” in relation to a distribution by a company to a
member, means —
(i) the direct or indirect transfer of any assets, other than the
company’s own shares, to or for the benefit of the member;
or
(ii) the incurring of a debt to or for the benefit of the member,
in relation to shares held by a shareholder, or the entitlements to
distributions of a member who is not a shareholder, and whether
by means of the purchase of an asset, the purchase, redemption or
other acquisition of shares, a transfer or assignment of
indebtedness or otherwise, and includes a dividend.
50 Distributions

Subject to this Act and to the memorandum and articles of the company, the
directors of a company (other than a protected cell company) may authorise a
distribution by the company to members at such time and of such amount as
they think fit if they are satisfied, on reasonable grounds, that the company will,
immediately after the distribution, satisfy the solvency test.
51 Recovery of distributions made when company did not satisfy

solvency test

(1) Where a distribution has been made to a member by a company and the
company did not, immediately after the distribution, satisfy the solvency
test, then the distribution (or the value thereof) may be recovered by the
company from the member but only if —
(a) the member received the distribution or the benefit of the
distribution (as the case may be) other than in good faith and
Companies Act 2006 Section 52


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without knowledge of the company’s failure to satisfy the
solvency test; and
(b) the member’s position has not been altered by the member relying
on the validity of the distribution; and
(c) it would not be unfair to require repayment in full or at all.
(2) Where a distribution has been made to a member or members by a
company and the company did not, immediately after the distribution,
satisfy the solvency test, then, a director who failed to take reasonable
steps to ensure that the distribution was made in accordance with section
50 (or, in the case of a protected cell company, section 120) shall be
personally liable to the company to repay to the company so much of the
distribution as is not able to be recovered from members.
(3) If, in an action brought against a director or member under this section,
the Court is satisfied that the company could, by making a distribution of
a lesser amount, have satisfied the solvency test, the Court may —
(a) permit the member to retain; or
(b) relieve the director from liability in respect of;
an amount equal to the value of any distribution that could properly
have been made.
52 Company may purchase, redeem or otherwise acquire its own shares

(1) Subject to this Part and to its memorandum and articles, a company may
purchase, redeem or otherwise acquire its own shares for any
consideration provided that such transaction does not result in the
company contravening section 60.
(2) Any shares acquired by a company are deemed to be cancelled
immediately on acquisition.
(3) Subject only to subsection (4), but notwithstanding any other provision
of this section, a company may purchase and hold its shares in treasury
in accordance with regulations under section 58A (power to permit the
holding of treasury shares).11

(4) A company may not purchase any of its shares under this section if as a
result of the purchase of the shares in question there would no longer be
any member of the company holding shares other than treasury shares.12

53 Process for purchase redemption or other acquisition of own shares

(1) Subject to subsection (3), a company may only purchase, redeem or
otherwise acquire shares issued by the company, pursuant to —
(a) an offer to all shareholders to purchase, redeem or otherwise
acquire shares issued by the company that —
Section 54 Companies Act 2006


Page 32 AT 13 of 2006 c

(i) would, if accepted, leave the relative rights of the
shareholders unaffected; and
(ii) affords each shareholder a period of not less than fourteen
days within which to accept the offer; or
(b) an offer to one or more shareholders to purchase, redeem or
otherwise acquire shares —
(i) to which all shareholders have consented in writing; or
(ii) that is permitted by the memorandum or articles and is
made in accordance with section 54.
(2) Where an offer is made in accordance with subsection (1)(a) —
(a) the offer may also permit the company to purchase, redeem or
otherwise acquire additional shares from a shareholder to the
extent that another shareholder does not accept the offer or
accepts the offer only in part; and
(b) if the number of additional shares exceeds the number of shares
that the company is entitled to purchase, redeem or otherwise
acquire, the number of additional shares shall be reduced
rateably.
(3) This section shall not apply to the redemption of any redeemable shares.
(4) Where a company acquires a share under the provisions of section 161 —
(a) the acquisition is deemed not to be a distribution for the purposes
of section 50 or section 120 (as the case may be); and
(b) this section and section 54 do not apply.
54 Offer to one or more shareholders

(1) A company shall not make an offer to one or more shareholders under
section 53(1)(b) unless the directors have passed a resolution stating that,
in their opinion —
(a) the purchase, redemption or other acquisition is to the benefit of
the remaining shareholders; and
(b) the terms of the offer and the consideration offered for the shares
are fair and reasonable to the company and to the remaining
shareholders.
(2) A resolution passed under subsection (1) shall set out the reasons for the
directors’ opinion.
(3) The directors shall not make an offer to one or more shareholders under
section 53(1)(b) if, after the passing of a resolution under subsection (1)
and before the making of the offer, they cease to hold the opinions
specified in subsection (1).
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(4) A shareholder may apply to the Court for an order restraining the
proposed purchase, redemption or other acquisition of shares under
section 53(1)(b) on the grounds that —
(a) the purchase, redemption or other acquisition is not in the best
interests of the remaining shareholders; or
(b) the terms of the offer and the consideration offered for the shares
are not fair and reasonable to the company or the remaining
shareholders.
55 Redemption of shares

(1) If a share is redeemable, then —
(a) the share is deemed to be cancelled upon redemption; and
(b) from the date of redemption, the former shareholder ranks as an
unsecured creditor of the company for the sum payable on
redemption.
(2) Notwithstanding any right of a holder of any share to have such share
redeemed in accordance with the company’s memorandum or articles or
otherwise, no share shall be redeemed if, following implementation of
such redemption, section 60 would be offended.
56 Effect of company’s failure to purchase, redeem or acquire own shares

(1) Where a company —
(a) issues shares on terms that they are or are liable to be redeemed;
or
(b) agrees to purchase, redeem or otherwise acquire any of its own
shares;
the following provisions of this section shall apply in relation thereto.
(2) A company shall not be liable in damages in respect of any failure on its
part to purchase, redeem or otherwise acquire any of the shares.
(3) Subsection (2) is without prejudice to any right of the holder of any of the
shares other than such holder’s right to sue the company for damages in
respect of its failure; but the Court shall not grant an order for specific
performance of the terms of purchase, redemption or acquisition if the
company shows that it would, immediately after the purchase,
redemption or acquisition, be unable to satisfy the solvency test.
(4) Where the company is wound up and at the commencement of the
winding up any of the shares have not been purchased, redeemed or
acquired then, subject to the following provisions of this section, the
terms of purchase, redemption or acquisition may be enforced against
the company and when shares are purchased, redeemed or acquired
under this subsection they shall be treated as cancelled.
Section 57 Companies Act 2006


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(5) Subsection (4) shall not apply if —
(a) the terms of purchase, redemption or acquisition provided for the
purchase, redemption or acquisition to take place at a date later
than the date of the commencement of the winding up; or
(b) during the period beginning with the date on which the purchase,
redemption or acquisition was to have taken place and ending
with the commencement of the winding up the company could
not at any time have lawfully made the purchase, redemption or
acquisition.
(6) There shall be paid in priority to any amount which the company is
liable by virtue of subsection (4) to pay in respect of any shares —
(a) all other debts and liabilities of the company (other than any due
to members in their character as such);
(b) if other shares carry rights whether as to capital or as to income
which are preferred to the rights as to capital attaching to the first
mentioned shares, any amount due in satisfaction of those
preferred rights;
but, subject to that, any such amount shall be paid in priority to any
amounts due to members in satisfaction of their rights (whether as to
capital or income) as members.
(7) Where, by virtue of section 23(3) of the Bankruptcy Code 1892 (payment of
interest on debts) as applied by section 248 of the Companies Act 1931
(application of bankruptcy rules to insolvent companies), a creditor of a
company is entitled to payment of any interest only after payment of all
other debts of the company, the company’s debts and liabilities shall for
the purposes of subsection (6) include the liability to pay that interest.
57 Dividends

Subject to any provision to the contrary in its memorandum or articles, a
company may, by a resolution of directors, declare and pay dividends in
money, shares or other property, provided the directors are satisfied, on
reasonable grounds, that the company will, immediately after the payment of a
dividend, satisfy the solvency test.
58 Reduction of share capital

Subject to any provision to the contrary in its memorandum or articles, a
company limited by shares or limited by shares and by guarantee may, by a
resolution of directors, reduce its share capital in any way and, in particular but
without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, may —
(a) extinguish or reduce the liability on any of its shares in respect of
capital not paid up; or
Companies Act 2006 Section 59


c AT 13 of 2006 Page 35

(b) with or without extinguishing or reducing liability on any of its
shares, cancel any paid up share capital which is lost or
unrepresented by available assets; or
(c) whether with or without extinguishing or reducing liability on
any of its shares, cancel any paid up share capital which is in
excess of the wants of the company,
provided that they are satisfied, on reasonable grounds, that the
company will, immediately after such reduction, satisfy the solvency test.
Treasury shares
58A Power to permit the holding of treasury shares

(1) The Department of Economic Development may by regulations make
such provision (including provision by way of modification to the
provisions of this Act) as it considers appropriate to permit a
company —
(a) to hold its own shares as treasury shares; and
(b) to deal with those treasury shares in accordance with the
provisions of the regulations.13

(2) In subsection (1), a reference to a company holding its own shares as
treasury shares is to the company holding such shares which —
(a) were (or are to be treated as having been) purchased by it in
circumstances prescribed in the regulations referred to in
subsection (1); and
(b) have been held by the company continuously since they were so
purchased (or treated as so purchased).
(3) Regulations under subsection (1) may make such further modification to
the provisions of this Act as appear to the Department of Economic
Development to be reasonably necessary in consequence of any
provision made by the regulations.14

(4) Regulations under subsection (1) shall not come into operation unless
they are approved by Tynwald.15

PART IV – MEMBERS

59 Meaning of “shareholder”, “guarantee member” and “unlimited

member”

In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires —
Section 60 Companies Act 2006


Page 36 AT 13 of 2006 c

“guarantee member
”, in relation to a company limited by guarantee, a
company limited by shares and by guarantee, or an unlimited company
without shares means —
(a) a person whose name is entered in the register of members; and
(b) on the incorporation of a company, a subscriber whose name
appears in the memorandum in accordance with section 5(1)(h),
until that person’s name is entered in the register of members; and
“shareholder
”, in relation to a company, means —
(a) a person whose name is entered in the register of members as the
holder of one or more shares in the company, and
(b) on the incorporation of a company, a subscriber who is specified
in the memorandum as a person who has agreed to take one or
more shares of the company in accordance with section 5(1)(e),
until that person’s name is entered in the register of members;
“unlimited member
”, in relation to an unlimited company with shares or an
unlimited company without shares, means a person whose name is
entered in the register of members as a member who has unlimited
liability for the liabilities of the company.
60 Company to have one or more members

(1) A company shall at all times have at least one member.
(2) A company limited by shares and by guarantee shall at all times have at
least one shareholder.
(3) Notwithstanding any provision to the contrary in the articles, every
shareholder of a company limited by shares and by guarantee shall be a
guarantee member, but a guarantee member of a company limited by
shares and by guarantee need not, but may be, a shareholder.
(4) In the case of an unlimited company at least one of the members of the
company shall be an unlimited member.
(5) If at any time a company fails to comply with this section, any person
doing business in the name of, or on behalf of, the company is personally
liable for the payment or discharge of all debts and other liabilities of the
company arising during that time.
61 Liability of members

(1) A member of a limited company has no liability, as a member, for the
liabilities of the company.
(2) The liability of a shareholder to the company, as shareholder, is limited
to —
(a) any amount unpaid on a share held by the shareholder;
Companies Act 2006 Section 62


c AT 13 of 2006 Page 37

(b) any liability expressly provided for in the memorandum or
articles of the company;
(c) any liability to repay a distribution under section 51(1); and
(d) any liability for calls made on the shareholder.
(3) The liability of a guarantee member to the company, as guarantee
member, is limited to —
(a) the amount that the guarantee member is liable to contribute as
specified in the memorandum in accordance with section 5(1)(i);
and
(b) any other liability expressly provided for in the memorandum or
articles of the company, and
(c) any liability to repay a distribution under section 51(1).
(4) An unlimited member has unlimited liability for the liabilities of the
company.
62 Register of members

(1) A company shall cause to be kept a register of members containing —
(a) in the case of a company limited by shares, a company limited by
shares and by guarantee and an unlimited company with shares,
the names and business or residential addresses of the persons
who hold shares in the company;
(b) in the case of a company limited by shares, a company limited by
shares and by guarantee and an unlimited company with shares,
the number of each class of shares held by each shareholder;
(c) in the case of a company limited by guarantee and a company
limited by shares and by guarantee, the names and business or
residential addresses of the persons who are guarantee members
of the company;
(d) in the case of an unlimited company, the names and business or
residential addresses of the persons who are unlimited members;
(e) the date on which the name of each member was entered in the
register of members; and
(f) the date on which any person ceased to be a member.
(2) The register of members may be in such form as the directors may
approve but if it is in magnetic, electronic or other data storage form, the
company must be able to produce legible evidence of its contents.
(3) The register of members is prima facie evidence of any matters required
or permitted by this Act to be contained in the register.
(4) A company that contravenes subsection (1) commits an offence.
Section 63 Companies Act 2006


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63 Register of members as evidence of legal title

(1) The entry of the name of a person in the register of members as a holder
of a share in a company is prima facie evidence that legal title in the
share vests in that person.
(2) A company may treat the holder of a share as the only person entitled —
(a) to exercise any voting rights attaching to the share;
(b) to receive notices;
(c) to receive distributions in respect of the share; and
(d) to exercise other rights and powers attaching to the share.
(3) No notice of any trust, whether express, implied or constructive, shall be
entered on the register of members.
(4) Where two or more persons hold one or more shares in a company
jointly they shall be treated as a single member.
64 Rectification of register of members

(1) If the directors are satisfied that any information that ought to be entered
in the register of members has been omitted therefrom or has been
inaccurately entered therein, they may, by resolution, amend the register
of members accordingly, provided that any person thereby affected or to
whom such amendment relates consents to such amendment being
made.
(2) If in the opinion of any person —
(a) information that ought to be entered in the register of members
under section 62 is omitted from the register or inaccurately
entered in the register; or
(b) there is unreasonable delay in entering the information in the
register,
such person may apply to the Court for an order that the register be
rectified, and the Court may either refuse the application, with or
without costs to be paid by the applicant, or order the rectification of the
register, and may direct the company to pay all costs of the application
and any damages the applicant may have sustained.
(3) The Court may, in any proceedings under subsection (2), determine any
question relating to the right of a person who is a party to the
proceedings to have that person’s name entered in or omitted from the
register of members, whether the question arises between —
(a) two or more members or alleged members; or
(b) between a member or members or an alleged member or
members, and the company;
Companies Act 2006 Section 65


c AT 13 of 2006 Page 39

and generally the Court may, in the proceedings, determine any question
that may be necessary or expedient to be determined for the rectification
of the register of members.
65 Members’ resolutions

Unless otherwise specified in this Act or in the memorandum or articles of a
company, the exercise by the members of a company of a power which is given
to them under this Act or the memorandum or articles shall be by a
resolution —
(a) passed at a meeting of members held pursuant to section 67; or
(b) passed as a written resolution in accordance with section 71.
66 Votes of members

For the purposes of this Act, unless the memorandum or articles make contrary
provision —
(a) votes of shareholders shall be counted according to the votes
attached to the shares held by the shareholder voting;
(b) a guarantee member is entitled to one vote on any resolution on
which such member is entitled to vote.
67 Meetings of members

(1) The following persons may convene a meeting of the members of the
company at any time —
(a) the directors of the company; or
(b) such person or persons as may be authorised by the
memorandum or articles to call the meeting.
(2) The directors of a company shall call a meeting of the company to
consider a resolution if requested in writing to do so by a member or
members holding at least 10 per cent (or such smaller percentage as may
be specified in the memorandum or articles) of the voting rights in
relation thereto.
(3) Subject to a company’s memorandum and articles, a meeting of the
members of the company may be held at such time and in such place,
within or outside the Isle of Man, as the convener of the meeting
considers appropriate.
(4) Subject to contrary provision in the memorandum or articles of a
company, a member of the company shall be deemed to be present at a
meeting of members if —
(a) such member participates by telephone or other electronic means;
and
Section 68 Companies Act 2006


Page 40 AT 13 of 2006 c

(b) all members participating in the meeting are able to communicate
with each other.
(5) Subject to contrary provision in its memorandum or articles, a member of
a company may be represented at a meeting of members by a proxy who
may speak and vote on behalf of the member.
(6) Subject to the memorandum and articles, the following apply where
shares are jointly owned —
(a) if two or more persons hold shares jointly each of them may be
present in person or by proxy at a meeting of members and may
speak as a member;
(b) if only one of them is present in person or by proxy, that person
may vote on behalf of all of them; and
(c) if two or more are present in person or by proxy, they may only
vote as one.
(7) Subject to any requirement for a higher majority specified in this Act or
in the memorandum or articles, a resolution of the members of a
company, or a class of the members of a company, is passed at a meeting
of such members if it is approved by a member or members holding a
majority of in excess of 50% of the voting rights exercised in relation
thereto.
68 Notice of meetings of members

(1) Subject to a requirement in the memorandum or articles to give longer
notice of meetings, a person or persons convening a meeting of members
shall give not less than 14 days’ notice of the meeting to those persons
whose names, on the date the notice is given, appear as members in the
register of members and are entitled to vote at the meeting.
(2) Notwithstanding that a meeting is called by shorter notice than that
specified in subsection (1) or in the articles, a meeting of members to
consider a resolution is deemed to have been duly called if a member or
members holding at least 90 per cent, or such smaller percentage as may
be specified in the articles, of the voting rights in relation thereto have
waived notice of the meeting and, for this purpose, the presence of a
member at the meeting shall be deemed to constitute waiver on the part
of such member.
(3) The inadvertent failure of the convener or conveners of a meeting of
members to give notice of the meeting to a member, or the fact that a
member has not received the notice, does not invalidate the meeting.
(4) The convener or conveners of a meeting of members may fix the date
notice is given of a meeting as the record date for determining those
members that are entitled to vote at the meeting.
Companies Act 2006 Section 69


c AT 13 of 2006 Page 41

69 Quorum for meetings of members

The quorum for meetings of members for the purposes of a resolution of
members is that fixed by the articles but, where no quorum is so fixed, a
meeting of members to consider a resolution is properly constituted for all
purposes if at the commencement of the meeting there are present in person (in
the case of a member who is an individual) or by a duly appointed
representative (in the case of a member who is a body corporate) or by proxy (in
either case), a member or members holding at least 10 per cent of the voting
rights in relation thereto.
70 Court may call meeting of members

(1) The Court may order a meeting of members to be held and to be
conducted in such manner as the Court orders if it is of the opinion
that —
(a) it is impracticable to call or conduct a meeting of the members of a
company in the manner specified in this Act or in the
memorandum and articles of the company; or
(b) it is in the interests of the members of the company that a meeting
of members is held.
(2) An application for an order under subsection (1) may be made by a
member or director of the company.
(3) The Court may make an order under subsection (1) on such terms,
including as to costs of conducting the meeting and as to the provision of
security for those costs, as it considers appropriate.
71 Written resolutions

(1) Any action that may be taken by members of the company at a meeting
of members may also be taken by a resolution consented to in writing or
by email, telex, fax, or other electronic communication, without the need
for any notice —
(a) by all the members entitled to vote thereon; or
(b) subject to any requirement specified in this Act for a resolution to
be passed by a particular majority, by a member or members
holding such percentage of the voting rights in relation thereto as
may be specified in the memorandum or articles.
(2) A resolution under subsection (1) may consist of several documents,
including electronic communications, in like form each signed or
assented to by one or more members and shall be deemed to have been
passed on the date on which the resolution is signed or assented to by
the last member to sign or assent (as the case may be).
Section 72 Companies Act 2006


Page 42 AT 13 of 2006 c

72 Service of notices on members

(1) Any notice, information or written statement required under this Act to
be given by a company to members shall be served —
(a) in the manner specified in the articles, or
(b) in the absence of a provision in the articles, by personal service or
by mail addressed to each member at the address shown in the
register of members.
(2) For the purposes of subsection (1)(b), proof that an envelope containing
such notice, information or written statement was properly addressed,
pre-paid and posted shall be conclusive evidence that it was given by
mail and such notice, information or written statement shall be deemed
to be given at the expiration of 48 hours after the envelope containing it
was posted.
PART V – COMPANY ADMINISTRATION

CHAPTER 1 - REGISTERED OFFICE AND REGISTERED AGENT
73 Registered office

(1) A company shall, at all times, have a registered office in the Isle of Man.
(2) The registered office of a company is —
(a) the place specified as the company’s first registered office in the
memorandum filed under section 5(1), section 144(1), section
149(1), section 154(2), section 157(3) or section 162(3), as the case
may be; or
(b) if one or more notices of change of registered office have been
filed under section 75, the place specified in the last such notice to
be registered by the Registrar.
(3) The registered office of a company, whether as specified in the
memorandum or in any notice filed under section 75 shall be a physical
address in the Isle of Man.
74 Registered agent

(1) A company shall at all times have a registered agent in the Isle of Man.
(2) Unless the last registered agent of the company has resigned in
accordance with section 76 or ceased to be the company’s registered
agent in accordance with section 77, the registered agent of a
company is —
(a) the person specified as the company’s first registered agent in the
memorandum filed under section 5(1), section 144(1) section
Companies Act 2006 Section 75


c AT 13 of 2006 Page 43

149(1), section 154(2), section 157(3) or section 162(3), as the case
may be; or
(b) if one or more notices of change of registered agent have been
filed under section 75, the person specified as the company’s
registered agent in the last such notice to be registered by the
Registrar.
(3) No person shall be, or agree to be, the registered agent of a company
unless that person holds a licence granted under the Financial Services Act
2008 which permits that person to undertake the regulated activity of
acting as a registered agent.16

(4) Subject to section 77(6), a person who contravenes subsection (3)
commits an offence.
(5) A company that does not have a registered agent commits an offence.
75 Change of registered office or registered agent

(1) A resolution to change the location of a company’s registered office or to
change a company’s registered agent may be passed either by the
members of the company or, unless the memorandum or articles provide
otherwise, by the directors of the company.
(2) A company wishing to change its registered office or registered agent
shall file a notice in the prescribed form.
(3) A notice of change of registered agent shall be endorsed by the new
registered agent with the new registered agent’s agreement to act as
registered agent.
(4) A notice of change of registered office or registered agent may be filed
only by such persons as are prescribed by regulations.
(5) A change of registered office or registered agent takes effect on the
registration by the Registrar of the notice filed under subsection (2).
(6) A change of registered office or registered agent is deemed not to
constitute an amendment of the company’s memorandum or articles.
76 Resignation of registered agent

(1) A person may resign as the registered agent of a company only in
accordance with this section.
(2) A person wishing to resign as the registered agent of a company shall —
(a) give not less than 8 weeks’ written notice of that person’s
intention to resign as registered agent of the company on the date
specified in the notice to a person specified in subsection (3); and
(b) file a copy of the notice provided under paragraph (a) within one
week of giving notice to the company.
Section 77 Companies Act 2006


Page 44 AT 13 of 2006 c

(3) A notice under subsection (2) shall be sent to the company at its
registered office and to a director of the company at the director’s last
known address.
(4) If a company does not change its registered agent in accordance with
section 75 on or before the date specified in the notice given under
subsection (2), the registered agent may file a notice of resignation as the
company’s registered agent.
77 Registered agent ceasing to be eligible to act

(1) For the purposes of this section, a person ceases to be eligible to act as a
registered agent if the person ceases to hold a licence which permits the
person to act as registered agent under the Financial Services Act 2008.17

(2) Where a person ceases to be eligible to act as a registered agent, the
Authority shall direct the Registrar to send to each company of which the
person is the registered agent —
(a) a notice —
(i) advising the company that the person concerned is not
eligible to be its registered agent;
(ii) advising the company that the company must appoint a
new registered agent within 12 weeks of the date of the
notice; and
(iii) specifying the date on which the person shall cease to be
the registered agent of the company, if the company has
not previously changed its registered agent; and
(b) a list of persons who are licensed under the Financial Services Act
2008 to act as registered agent.18
19

(3) The date specified by the Registrar under subsection (2)(a)(iii) shall be a
date not later than 12 weeks after the date of the notice and, unless the
company has previously changed its registered agent, the person
concerned shall cease to be the company’s registered agent with effect
from the date specified by the Registrar.
(4) A company that receives a notice under subsection (2) shall, within 12
weeks of the date of the notice, appoint a new registered agent.
(5) A company that contravenes subsection (4) commits an offence.
(6) A person does not commit an offence under section 74(4) by reason only
of the fact that —
(a) such person ceases to be eligible to act as a registered agent; and
(b) after ceasing to be eligible to act, such person continues to be the
registered agent of a company during the period from the date
such person ceases to be eligible to act to the date that the
company appoints a new registered agent.
Companies Act 2006 Section 78


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CHAPTER 2 - COMPANY RECORDS
78 Documents to be kept at office of registered agent

(1) A company shall keep the following documents at the office of its
registered agent —
(a) copies of the memorandum and articles of the company signed by
each of the subscribers;
(b) the register of members maintained under section 62 or a copy of
the register of members;
(c) the register of directors maintained under section 101 or a copy of
the register of directors;
(d) the register of charges maintained under section 137(1) or a copy
of such register of charges;
(e) copies of all notices and other documents filed by the company
pursuant to this Act in the previous 6 years;
(f) either —
(i) originals; or
(ii) copies provided in accordance with section 80(4B),
of the accounting records that it is required to keep under this
Act; and20

(g) originals of any financial statements prepared.21

(2) A company that contravenes subsection (1) commits an offence.
(3) To the extent that a company’s register of members and register of
directors do not contain a record of the residential address of any
member, former member, director or former director, its registered agent
shall maintain a separate record of the residential addresses of such
persons.
79 Other records to be maintained by company

(1) A company shall keep the following records at the office of its registered
agent or at such other place or places, within or outside the Isle of Man,
as the directors may determine —
(a) minutes of meetings and resolutions of members and of classes of
members maintained in accordance with section 84; and
(b) minutes of meetings and resolutions of directors and committees
of directors maintained in accordance with section 84.
(2) Where any records specified under section (1) are kept at a place other
than at the office of the company’s registered agent, the company shall
provide the registered agent with a written record of the physical
address of the place or places at which the records are kept.
Section 80 Companies Act 2006


Page 46 AT 13 of 2006 c

(3) Where the place at which any records specified under subsection (1) is
changed, the company shall provide the registered agent with the
physical address of the new location of the records within 14 days of the
change of location.
(4) A company that contravenes this section commits an offence.
80 Companies to keep accounting records

(1) A company shall keep reliable accounting records which —
(a) correctly explain the transactions of the company; and
(b) enable the financial position of the company to be determined
with reasonable accuracy at any time; and
(c) allow financial statements to be prepared.
(2) [Repealed]22

(3) In this section “financial statements” means written accounts of the
company which have been approved by the directors as financial
statements for the purposes of this Act and which include —
(a) a written statement recording the assets and liabilities of the
company on a specific date;
(b) a written statement recording the receipts, payments and other
financial transactions undertaken by the company in respect of
the period ending on the date of the statement referred to in
paragraph (a); and
(c) such notes as are necessary for a reasonable understanding of the
statements referred to in paragraphs (a) and (b).23

(4) Without prejudice to the requirements of any other enactment, the
accounting records of a company shall be maintained by or on behalf of
that company for not less than six years from the end of the financial
period of the company to which they relate.
(4A) The accounting records shall be kept at the office of the registered agent
of the company or at such other place as the directors of the company
think fit.24

(4B) Where accounting records are kept at a place other than the office of the
company’s registered agent, the company shall provide to the registered
agent —
(a) a written record of the physical address of the place or places at
which the records are kept; and
(b) at intervals not exceeding 12 months, copies of the records.25

(4C) The copies provided under subsection (4B)(b) must themselves be
sufficient so as to satisfy the requirements specified in subsection (1),
without requiring sight of the original records.26

Companies Act 2006 Section 80


c AT 13 of 2006 Page 47

(4D) Where the place at which the accounting records are kept is changed, the
company shall provide the registered agent with the physical address of
the new location of the records within 14 days of the change of location.27

(4E) The registered agent of the company may —
(a) at any reasonable time specified by the registered agent inspect
the accounting records of the company without charge and make
copies of or take extracts from the records;
(b) require the company to provide originals or copies of the
accounting records to the registered agent within 14 days.28

(4F) The company shall comply with a request under subsection (4E).29

(5) A company that contravenes this section commits an offence.
80A Right to require financial statements to be prepared

(1) If a company has not prepared financial statements for a continuous
period of 18 months or more, any member or director of the company
may at any time demand that financial statements be prepared for the
period since the end of the financial period to which the preceding
financial statements relate or, if none, since the incorporation of the
company and made up to such date as is specified in the demand, not
being later than the date of demand.
(2) A demand under subsection (1) shall be made in writing and deposited
at the registered office of the company.
(3) The financial statements must be prepared by the company within 6
months of the date of deposit of the demand.
(4) A company that contravenes subsection (1) commits an offence.30

80B Additional provisions concerning presentation of financial statements

(1) Whenever financial statements are prepared —
(a) the statement referred to in section 80(3)(a) must give a true and
fair view of the state of affairs of the company at the end of the
financial period to which it relates; and
(b) the statement referred to in section 80(3)(b) must give a true and
fair view of the receipts, payments and other financial
transactions undertaken by the company for the financial period
to which it relates.
(2) Subsection (1) is subject to subsections (3) and (4).
(3) Unless regulations made under subsection (4) require compliance with
standards or the adoption of practices which are not consistent with
generally accepted accounting principles or practice, in determining how
amounts are presented within items within the statements referred to in
Section 80 Companies Act 2006


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section 80(3)(a) and (b) the directors of a company must have regard to
the substance of the reported transaction or arrangement in accordance
with generally accepted accounting principles or practice.
(4) The Authority may make regulations which, in such circumstances and
for such purposes as are prescribed, require compliance with standards
or the adoption of practices recommended by a body specified in the
regulations, and which may in particular require compliance with
standards or the adoption of practices recommended by that body from
time to time (that is, after as well as before the making of the
regulations).31

(5) Regulations under subsection (4) shall not come into operation unless
they are approved by Tynwald.
(6) In this section, “generally accepted accounting principles or practice”
means accounting standards and practices recommended by —
(a) the International Accounting Standards Board (International
Financial Reporting Standards);
(b) the Accounting Standards Board (United Kingdom Accounting
Standards) (UK GAAP); or
(c) the Financial Accounting Standards Board, the Government
Accounting Standards Board or the Federal Accounting Standards
Advisory Board (US GAAP).32

80C Auditor to be qualified

(1) This section applies where an auditor is to be appointed by a company
(whether or not under compulsion of law or other obligation).
(2) Without prejudice to the generality of subsection (1), a company must
appoint an auditor where the company’s securities are listed or admitted
to trade on a securities market or exchange.
(3) Where this section applies, the company must appoint an auditor who is
qualified for appointment under this section to audit its financial
statements.
(4) Subject to subsection (6), a person or body shall not be qualified for
appointment as auditor of a company (within the meaning of this Act)
unless that person or body is qualified for appointment as auditor under
sections 14 to 14H of the Companies Act 1982 of a company (within the
meaning of that Act).
(5) Without prejudice to the generality of subsection (4), an application may
be made under section 14E of the Companies Act 1982 for authorisation
under that section to be appointed as auditor of a company (within the
meaning of this Act) in the same manner and subject to the same
provisions as an application under that section for authorisation to be
appointed as auditor of a company (within the meaning of that Act).
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(6) Regulations under section 80E may modify the application of
subsection (4).33

80D Public oversight

(1) The Authority may make regulations (in this section referred to as
“public oversight regulations”) requiring auditors of companies to
comply with prescribed systems of —
(a) public oversight;
(b) quality assurance; and
(c) investigations and penalties.34

(2) Public oversight regulations apply in such circumstances and for such
purposes as are prescribed.
(3) Public oversight regulations may —
(a) prescribe criteria which systems referred to in subsection (1) must
meet;
(b) require auditors to comply with prescribed systems to deter,
correct and prevent inadequate audits;
(c) appoint one or more bodies (whether or not based in the Island)
to perform prescribed functions in respect of any of the matters
referred to in subsection (1);
(d) make any incidental or consequential provisions which the
Authority considers appropriate.35

(4) Public oversight regulations may require compliance with standards or
the adoption of practices recommended by a body specified in the
regulations, and may in particular require compliance with standards or
the adoption of practices recommended by that body from time to time
(that is, as well after as before the making of the regulations).
(5) Public oversight regulations may require auditors to comply with
prescribed conditions requiring auditors —
(a) to be registered in a register kept by the Authority in accordance
with regulations made under section 14G of the Companies Act
1982;36

(b) to enter into contracts with bodies appointed to perform
prescribed functions in respect of any of the matters referred to in
subsection (1);
(c) to pay for the services of a body referred to in paragraph (b)
insofar as those services relate to the performance of prescribed
functions;
(d) to agree to be bound by the rules and disciplinary procedures of a
body referred to in paragraph (b), including rules and disciplinary
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procedures imposed by that body from time to time (that is, as
well after as before the making of the regulations).
(6) Public oversight regulations may require bodies carrying out prescribed
functions to provide reports to the Authority in such circumstances and
on such occasions as are prescribed and in respect of such matters as are
prescribed.37

(7) The Authority may pay for the services of a body appointed to perform
prescribed functions in respect of any of the matters referred to in
subsection (1) insofar as —
(a) those services relate to the performance of prescribed functions;
and
(b) those services have not been paid for by the auditor concerned.38

(8) Subsections (3) to (6) are without prejudice to the generality of
subsection (1).
(9) Regulations under subsection (1) shall not come into operation unless
they are approved by Tynwald.39

80E Regulations concerning accounts and audit

(1) The Authority may by regulations (in this section referred to as
“accounting regulations”) make such provisions as appear to it to be
appropriate in connection with the accounting records and financial
statements of companies to which this Act applies and their audit.40

(2) Accounting regulations may make provision as to —
(a) the keeping of accounting records and financial statements;
(b) the form, preparation, publication and certification of financial
statements;
(c) the accounting standards to be complied with when preparing
financial statements;
(d) the form, preparation and publication of statements of, and
information relating to, the financial statements;
(e) the time at which, and the manner and form in which, the
financial statements and information relating to them shall be
provided to the auditor;
(f) the qualifications of auditors;
(g) the jurisdictions in which auditors must or may be based or
resident;
(h) the duties of auditors;
(i) the practices to be adopted by auditors; and
(j) the time within which the financial statements must be prepared.
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(3) Accounting regulations may appoint one or more bodies (whether or not
based in the Island) to perform prescribed functions in respect of any of
the matters referred to in subsections (1) or (2).
(4) Accounting regulations may require compliance with standards or the
adoption of practices recommended by a body specified in the
regulations, and may in particular require compliance with standards or
the adoption of practices recommended by that body from time to time
(that is, as well after as before the making of the regulations).
(5) Accounting regulations may add to, modify or repeal provisions of this
Act and may provide for any such provision to have effect subject to
such adaptations and modifications as appear to the Authority to be
appropriate.41

(6) Accounting regulations may contain such supplementary, incidental and
transitional provisions as appear to the Authority to be appropriate.42

(7) Subsections (2) to (6) are without prejudice to the generality of
subsection (1).
(8) Regulations under subsection (1) shall not come into operation unless
they are approved by Tynwald.43

81 Form of records

The records required to be kept by a company under this Act shall be kept —
(a) in written form; or
(b) either wholly or partly as electronic records complying with the
requirements of the Electronic Transactions Act 2000.
82 Inspection of records

(1) A director of a company is entitled, on giving reasonable notice, to
inspect the documents and records of the company in written or
electronic form without charge and at any reasonable time specified by
such director and to make copies of or take extracts from the documents
and records.
(2) A member is entitled, on giving written notice to the company, to
inspect —
(a) copies of the memorandum and articles;
(b) the register of members or a copy thereof;
(c) the register of directors or a copy thereof;
(d) the register of charges maintained under section 137 or a copy
thereof;
(e) [Repealed]44

and to make copies of or take extracts from the documents and records.
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(2A) In any of the circumstances specified in subsection (2B), a member is
entitled, on giving written notice to the company —
(a) to inspect the accounting records maintained under section 80, or
a copy thereof; and
(b) to make copies of or take extracts from the documents and
records.45

(2B) These are the circumstances referred to in subsection (2A) —
(a) the articles of the company expressly provide for the inspection
by the member of the accounting records and for the making of
copies of or the taking of extracts from such documents and
records;
(b) a demand has been made under section 80A(1) and the company
has failed to prepare financial statements within the period
specified in section 80A(3); or
(c) the member has requested the permission of the directors to
inspect the accounting records and the directors have agreed to
allow the member to inspect such records.46

(3) Officers of the Authority and the Attorney General (or any person
authorised in writing by the Attorney General) shall also have the rights
of inspection set out in subsection (1) and in addition shall have the right
to inspect any records maintained by the registered agent under section
78(3).47

83 Service of process etc. on company

(1) A document may be served on a company by leaving it at, or by sending
it by post addressed to the company —
(a) at its registered office; or
(b) at the office of its registered agent.
(2) Service of a document on a company may be proved by showing that —
(a) it was mailed in such time as to admit its being delivered, in the
normal course of delivery, within the period prescribed for
service; and
(b) it was correctly addressed and the postage was prepaid.
84 Records and common seal

(1) A company shall keep —
(a) minutes of all meetings of —
(i) directors;
(ii) members;
(iii) committees of directors; and
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(iv) classes of members; and
(b) copies of all resolutions consented to by —
(i) directors;
(ii) members;
(iii) committees of directors; and
(iv) classes of members.
(2) A company may have a common seal and, if it has a seal, an imprint of
the seal shall be kept at the office of the registered agent of the company.
(3) A company that wilfully contravenes this section commits an offence.
CHAPTER 3 - ANNUAL RETURNS
85 Annual return to be made by a company

(1) An annual return shall be made by a company containing such
particulars as may be prescribed.
(2) The annual return must be made up to the company’s return date and
the registered agent must, within one month after that date, forward a
copy to the Registrar.
(3) The company’s return date means the anniversary of the company’s
incorporation or such other date as may be prescribed.
(4) If a company fails to comply with this section it shall be liable to a default
fine.
CHAPTER 4 - GENERAL PROVISIONS
86 Contracts and execution of documents

(1) A company may, by affixing its common seal thereto, make or execute
any written contract, deed, instrument or other document.
(2) A company need not have a common seal, however, and the following
subsections apply whether it does or not.
(3) An oral contract may be made, and a written contract, deed, instrument
or other document may be made or executed on behalf of a company by
any person acting under its authority, express or implied.
(4) A written contract, deed, instrument or other document made or
executed by a company which makes it clear on its face that it is intended
by the person or persons making it to be a deed has effect, upon delivery,
as a deed; and it shall be presumed, unless a contrary intention is proved,
to be delivered upon it being so executed.
(5) This section applies to contracts, deeds, instruments and other
documents made or executed in the Isle of Man or elsewhere.
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87 Contracts before incorporation

(1) A person who enters into a contract or deed in the name of or on behalf
of a company before the company is incorporated is personally bound by
the contract or deed and is entitled to the benefits of the contract or deed,
except where —
(a) the contract or deed specifically provides otherwise; or
(b) subject to any provisions of the contract to the contrary, the
company adopts the contract or deed under subsection (2).
(2) A company may, by any action or conduct signifying its intention to be
bound by a contract or deed entered into in its name or on its behalf
before it was incorporated, adopt the contract or deed within such period
as may be specified in the contract or deed or, if no period is specified,
within a reasonable period after the company’s incorporation.
(3) When a company adopts a contract or deed under subsection (2) —
(a) the company is bound by, and entitled to the benefits of, the
contract or deed as if the company had been incorporated at the
date of the contract or deed and had been a party to it; and
(b) subject to any provisions of the contract or deed to the contrary,
the person who acted in the name of or on behalf of the company
ceases to be bound by or entitled to the benefits of the contract or
deed.
88 Promissory notes and bills of exchange

A promissory note or bill of exchange shall be deemed to have been made,
accepted or endorsed by a company if it is made, accepted or endorsed in the
name of the company —
(a) by or on behalf or on account of the company; or
(b) by a person acting under the express or implied authority of the
company;
and if so endorsed, the person signing the endorsement is not liable
thereon.
89 Power of attorney

(1) Subject to a contrary provision in its memorandum and articles, a
company may, by an instrument in writing executed in accordance with
section 86(1) or (3), appoint a person as its attorney either generally or in
relation to a specific matter.
(2) An act of an attorney appointed under subsection (1) in accordance with
the instrument under which such attorney was appointed binds the
company.
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90 Authentication or attestation of documents

A document requiring authentication or attestation by a company may be
authenticated or signed by any person acting under the express or implied
authority of the company, and need not be under its common seal.
PART VI – DIRECTORS

CHAPTER 1 - MANAGEMENT BY DIRECTORS
91 Management by directors

(1) The business and affairs of a company shall be managed by, or under the
direction or supervision of, the directors of the company.
(2) The directors of a company have all the powers necessary for managing,
and for directing and supervising, the business and affairs of the
company.
(3) Subsections (1) and (2) are subject to any modifications or limitations in
the memorandum or articles.
(4) Other than during the period between the incorporation of the company
and the appointment of the first director under section 95(1) a company
must have one or more directors.
(5) Subject to subsection (4), the number of directors of a company may be
fixed by, or in the manner provided for in the articles of the company.
(6) Subject to section 93, any individual or any body corporate may be a
director of a company.
(7) No body corporate shall be, or agree to be, the director of a company
unless it, or another body corporate of which it is a subsidiary —
(a) holds a licence granted under the Financial Services Act 2008 which
does not exclude acting as such; or48

(b) is permitted to do so by regulations.
92 Committees of directors

(1) Subject to the memorandum and articles and to subsection (2), the
directors may —
(a) designate one or more committees of directors, each consisting of
one or more directors; and
(b) delegate any one or more of their powers, including the power to
affix the common seal of the company, to the committee.
(2) Subject to the memorandum and articles, any delegation pursuant to
subsection (1) may be made subject to any conditions the directors may
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impose, may be made either collaterally with, or to the exclusion of, their
own powers and may be revoked or altered.
(3) Subject to the memorandum and articles and to any conditions imposed
pursuant to subsection (2), the proceedings of a committee of directors
with two or more members shall be governed by the provisions of this
Act regulating the proceedings of directors, so far as they are capable of
applying.
CHAPTER 2 - APPOINTMENT, RETIREMENT AND RESIGNATION OF
DIRECTORS
93 Persons not permitted to act as directors

(1) The following are not permitted to act as a director of a company —
(a) an individual who is under 18 years of age;
(b) a person who is a disqualified person;
(c) an undischarged bankrupt;
(d) a person who, in respect of a particular company, is disqualified
by the memorandum or articles from being a director of the
company;
(e) in the case of a director which is a body corporate or other legal
person (not being an individual), if the requirements specified in
section 91(7) are not met; or
(f) a person who ceases to exist (by way of dissolution or otherwise).
(2) A person who acts as a director of a company whilst not being permitted
to act as such under subsection (1) is nevertheless deemed to be a
director of the company for the purposes of any provision of this Act that
imposes a duty or obligation on a director.
94 Consent to act as director

A person shall not be appointed as the director of a company unless such
person has consented in writing to be a director.
95 Appointment of directors

(1) The members of a company shall, within one month of the date of
incorporation of the company, by resolution, appoint one or more
persons as the first directors of the company.
(2) Unless the memorandum or articles provide otherwise, a person may be
appointed as a director of a company (either to fill any casual vacancy on
the board or as an additional director) by either —
(a) the directors (notwithstanding any vacancy on the board); or
(b) the members of the company.
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(3) A director may be appointed for an indefinite term or for such lesser
term as may be specified in the terms of appointment.
(4) Without prejudice to section 93(2), a director holds office until the earliest
of the following to occur —
(a) the cessation of such director’s term of office;
(b) such director’s death, resignation or removal;
(c) such director is no longer permitted to act as a director pursuant
to section 93(1).
96 Removal of directors

(1) Notwithstanding anything in its memorandum or articles or in any
agreement between a company and any of its directors, a director of a
company may be removed from office by resolution of the members of
the company.
(2) A resolution under subsection (1) may only be passed —
(a) at a meeting of the members called for the purpose of removing
the director or for purposes including the removal of the director;
or
(b) by a written resolution consented to by a member or members
holding at least 75 per cent of the voting rights in relation thereto.
(3) The notice of a meeting called under subsection (2)(a) shall state that the
purpose of the meeting is, or the purposes of the meeting include, the
removal of a director.
(4) Where expressly permitted by the memorandum or articles of a
company, a director of a company may be removed from office by the
directors of the company.
97 Resignation of directors

A director of a company may resign from office by giving written notice of
resignation to the company and any such resignation has effect from the date
the notice is received by the company or from such later date as may be
specified in the notice.
98 Liability of former directors

A director who vacates office remains liable under any provisions of this Act
that impose liabilities on a director in respect of any acts or omissions or
decisions made whilst that person was a director.
99 Power of court to grant relief in certain cases

(1) If in any proceedings for negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of
trust against a director it appears to the Court hearing the case that the
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director is or may be liable in respect of the negligence, default, breach of
duty or breach of trust, but that such director has acted honestly and
reasonably, and that, having regard to all the circumstances of the case,
including those connected with such director’s appointment, that
director ought fairly to be excused for the negligence, default, breach of
duty or breach of trust, the Court may relieve that director, either wholly
or partly, from such liability on such terms as the Court may think fit.
(2) Where any director has reason to apprehend that any claim will or might
be made against that director in respect of any negligence, default,
breach of duty or breach of trust, such director may apply to the Court
for relief, and the Court on any such application shall have the same
power of relief as if the matter had been brought under subsection (1).
100 Validity of acts of director

The acts of a person as a director are valid notwithstanding that —
(a) the person’s appointment as a director was defective; or
(b) the person is not permitted to act as a director under section 93.
101 Register of directors

(1) A company shall keep a register to be known as a register of directors
containing —
(a) the names and business or residential addresses of the persons
who are directors of the company;
(b) the date on which each person whose name is entered in the
register was appointed as a director of the company; and
(c) the date on which each person named as a director ceased to be a
director of the company.
(2) The register of directors may be in such form as the directors approve,
but if it is in magnetic, electronic or other data storage form, the
company must be able to produce legible evidence of its contents.
(3) The register of directors is prima facie evidence of any matters directed or
authorised by this Act to be contained therein.
102 Emoluments and expenses of directors

(1) Subject to the memorandum or articles of a company, the directors may
fix their emoluments in respect of services to be rendered in any capacity
to the company.
(2) Subject to contrary provision in the memorandum and articles of a
company, the directors may be paid all expenses properly incurred in the
discharge of their duties.
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CHAPTER 3 - DIRECTORS’ INTERESTS
103 Directors’ appointments and interests

Provided that a director has disclosed any interest in accordance with section
104, a director notwithstanding such director’s office —
(a) may be a party to, or otherwise interested in, any transaction or
arrangement with the company or in which the company is
otherwise interested;
(b) may be a director or other officer of, or employed by, or a party to
any transaction or arrangement with, or otherwise interested in,
any body corporate promoted by the company or in which the
company is otherwise interested; and
(c) shall not, by reason of his office, be accountable to the company
for any benefit which such director derives from any such office
or employment or from any such transaction or arrangement or
from any interest in any such body corporate and no such
transaction or arrangement shall be liable to be avoided on the
ground of any such interest or benefit.
104 Disclosure of interests

(1) A director of a company shall, forthwith after becoming aware of the fact
that such director is interested in a transaction entered into or to be
entered into by the company, disclose the interest to the board of the
company.
(2) For the purposes of subsection (1), a disclosure to the board to the effect
that a director of a company is also a shareholder, director, officer or
trustee of another named company or other arrangement and is to be
regarded as interested in any transaction which may, after the date of the
disclosure, be entered into between the company and that other
company or person, is a sufficient disclosure of interest in relation to that
transaction.
(3) A disclosure made pursuant to subsection (1) shall be made or brought to
the attention of every director on the board, provided that a disclosure
shall be deemed to have been so made if it is made at the meeting of the
directors at which the transaction was first considered or, if the director
in question was not at the date of that meeting interested in the
transaction or aware that such director was so interested, at the first
meeting of the directors held after the director became so aware or so
interested (as the case may be).
(4) A director who contravenes subsection (1) commits an offence.
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105 Director disclosing interest may vote and count in quorum

Subject to contrary provision in the memorandum or articles of a company, a
director who has disclosed an interest in a transaction in accordance with
section 104 shall be counted in the quorum, and may vote, in relation to any
resolution of the directors concerning such transaction.
CHAPTER 4 - PROCEEDINGS OF DIRECTORS AND MISCELLANEOUS
PROVISIONS
106 Meetings of directors

(1) Subject to the memorandum or articles of a company, the directors of a
company may meet at such times and in such manner and places within
or outside the Isle of Man as they may determine to be necessary or
desirable and shall regulate their proceedings as they see fit.
(2) A director shall be deemed to be present at a meeting of directors if —
(a) such director participates by telephone or other electronic means;
and
(b) all directors participating in the meeting are able to communicate
with each other.
107 Notice of meetings of directors

(1) Subject to contrary provision in its memorandum and articles, a director
of a company shall be given reasonable notice of meetings of directors.
(2) Notwithstanding subsection (1) but subject to the memorandum and
articles, a meeting of directors held in contravention of that subsection is
valid if all of the directors have waived notice of the meeting and, for this
purpose, the presence of a director at the meeting shall be deemed to
constitute waiver on the part of such director.
(3) The inadvertent failure to give notice of a meeting to a director, or the
fact that a director has not received the notice, does not invalidate the
meeting.
108 Quorum for meetings of directors

The quorum for a meeting of directors is that fixed by the memorandum or
articles but, where no quorum is so fixed, a meeting of directors is properly
constituted for all purposes if at the commencement of the meeting there are
two directors present either in person (in the case of a director who is an
individual) or by a duly appointed representative (in the case of a corporate
director) or by an alternate (in either case) or, in the case of a company having
only one director, if at the commencement of the meeting such director is
present either in person (in the case of a director who is an individual) or by a
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duly appointed representative (in the case of a corporate director) or by an
alternate (in either case).
109 Resolutions of directors

(1) Unless otherwise specified in this Act or in the memorandum or articles,
the exercise by the directors of a company of a power given to them
under this Act or the memorandum or articles shall be by a resolution —
(a) passed at a meeting of directors held under section 106; or
(b) passed as a written resolution under subsection (3).
(2) Subject to contrary provision in the memorandum or articles, a resolution
of directors is passed at a meeting of the directors if it is approved by a
majority of the directors who are present at such meeting and (being
entitled to do so) vote thereon.
(3) Subject to contrary provision in the memorandum or articles, an action
that may be taken by the directors or a committee of directors at a
meeting may also be taken by a resolution of directors or a committee of
directors consented to in writing or by email, telex, fax, or other
electronic communication by all the directors or all the members of a
committee of directors (or such specified majority, greater than 50 per
cent, thereof as the memorandum or articles may provide), without the
need for any notice.
(4) A resolution under subsection (3) may consist of several documents,
including electronic communications, in like form each signed or
assented to by one or more directors.
110 Alternates for directors

(1) Subject to the memorandum or articles of a company, a director of the
company may by a written instrument appoint an alternate who need
not be a director.
(2) An alternate for a director appointed under subsection (1) is entitled to
attend meetings in the absence of the director who appointed such
alternate and to vote or consent in the place of the director.
(3) An alternate director shall be deemed for all purposes to be a director
and shall alone be responsible for such alternate director’s acts and
defaults and shall not be deemed to be the agent of such alternate
director’s appointor.
111 Agents

(1) The directors may appoint any person, including a person who is a
director, to be an agent of the company.
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(2) Subject to the memorandum or articles of a company, an agent of the
company has such powers and authority of the directors, including the
power and authority to affix the common seal of the company and
otherwise to execute documents as are set forth in the articles or in the
resolution of directors appointing the agent.
(3) Where the directors appoint any person to be an agent of the company,
they may authorise the agent to appoint one or more substitutes or
delegates to exercise some or all of the powers conferred on the agent by
the company.
112 Indemnification

(1) Subject to subsection (2) and subject to contrary provision in its articles, a
company may indemnify against all expenses, including legal fees, and
against all judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement and
reasonably incurred in connection with legal, administrative or
investigative proceedings any person who —
(a) is or was a party or is threatened to be made a party to any
threatened, pending or completed proceedings, whether civil,
criminal, administrative or investigative, by reason of the fact that
the person is or was a director of the company; or
(b) is or was, at the request of the company, serving as a director of,
or in any other capacity is or was acting for, another body
corporate or a partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise.
(2) Subsection (1) does not apply to a person referred to in that subsection
unless such person acted honestly and in good faith and in what such
person believed to be in the best interests of the company and, in the case
of criminal proceedings, had no reasonable cause to believe that the
conduct of such person was unlawful.
(3) The termination of any proceedings by any judgment, order, settlement
or conviction does not, by itself, create a presumption that the person did
not act honestly and in good faith and with a view to the best interests of
the company or that the person had reasonable cause to believe that the
conduct of such person was unlawful.
(4) If a person referred to in subsection (1) has been successful in defence of
any proceedings referred to in subsection (1), the person is entitled to be
indemnified against all expenses, including legal fees, and against all
judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement and reasonably
incurred by the person in connection with the proceedings.
(5) A company may not indemnify a person in breach of subsection (2) and
any indemnity given in breach of that section is void and of no effect.
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113 Insurance

A company may purchase and maintain insurance in relation to any person
who is or was a director of the company, or who at the request of the company
is or was serving as a director or officer of, or in any other capacity is or was
acting for, another body corporate or a partnership, joint venture, trust or other
enterprise, against any liability asserted against the person and incurred by the
person in that capacity, whether or not the company has or would have had the
power to indemnify the person against the liability under section 112.
PART VII – PROTECTED CELL COMPANIES

CHAPTER 1 - FORMATION OF PROTECTED CELL COMPANIES
114 Interpretation of this Part

In this Part —
“receiver
” has the meaning given in section 126(1); and
“receivership order
” has the meaning given in section 126(1).
115 Protected cell companies

(1) Subject to subsections (2) and (3), a company limited by shares may be
incorporated as a protected cell company under Chapter 1 of Part I of
this Act.
(2) The name of a PCC must comply with section 11.
(3) The memorandum of a PCC must comply with section 5(1)(j).
(4) Subject to subsections (2) and (3), a company limited by shares that is not
a PCC may apply to the Registrar to be converted into a PCC.
(5) An application pursuant to subsection (4) shall be made in the prescribed
form and shall be accompanied by —
(a) notice pursuant to section 9(a) of an amendment of the company’s
memorandum to comply with subsection (3) and to adopt new
articles;
(b) a restated memorandum and articles under section 9(b)
incorporating the amendments specified in the notice referred to
in paragraph (a); and
(c) an application pursuant to section 14 to amend the name of the
company to comply with subsection (2).
(6) Upon receipt of the documents specified in subsection (5), the Registrar
shall —
(a) register the documents; and
Section 116 Companies Act 2006


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(b) issue a certificate of conversion in the prescribed form to the
company.
(7) A certificate of conversion issued pursuant to subsection (6)(b) is
conclusive evidence that all the requirements of this Act in respect of
conversion have been complied with.
(8) Save insofar as is inconsistent with the provisions of this Part, this Act
shall apply in respect of a company that is a PCC as it applies in respect
of any other company.
116 Fundamental nature of a PCC

(1) A PCC is a single legal person.
(2) The creation by a PCC of a cell does not create, in respect of that cell, a
legal person separate from the company.
CHAPTER 2 - CELLS
117 Creation of cells and cellular and non-cellular assets

(1) A PCC may create one or more cells for the purpose of segregating and
protecting cellular assets in the manner provided by this Part.
(2) Each cell of a PCC must have its own distinct name or designation.
(3) The assets of a PCC are either cellular assets or noncellular assets.
(4) The non-cellular assets of a PCC are the assets of the company which are
not cellular assets.
(5) The cellular assets of a PCC are the assets of the company attributable to
the cells of the company.
118 Cellular and non-cellular assets: directors’ duties

(1) A PCC shall —
(a) keep cellular assets separate and separately identifiable from non-
cellular assets; and
(b) keep cellular assets attributable to each cell separate and
separately identifiable from cellular assets attributable to other
cells.
(2) Subsection (1) does not prevent the directors arranging for cellular assets
and non-cellular assets to be held by or through a trustee, custodian or
nominee.
(3) There is no default in complying with subsection (1) if cellular assets or
non-cellular assets, or a combination of both, are collectively invested, or
collectively managed, on behalf of a company if the assets in question
remain separately identifiable in accordance with that subsection.
Companies Act 2006 Section 119


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(4) A PCC that contravenes subsection (1) commits an offence.
CHAPTER 3 - CELL SHARE CAPITAL AND DISTRIBUTIONS
119 Cell share capital

(1) A PCC may create and issue shares in respect of any of its cells (“cell
shares”).
(2) The proceeds of the issue of cell shares (“cell share capital”) are cellular
assets attributable to the cell in respect of which the cell shares were
issued.
(3) The proceeds of the issue of shares other than cell shares are non-cellular
assets.
120 Cellular and non-cellular distributions

(1) Subject to section 51, the directors of a PCC may authorise a distribution
in respect of a cell (“cellular distribution”) at any time if they are
satisfied, on reasonable grounds, that the PCC will, immediately after the
distribution, satisfy the solvency test as it applies by virtue of
subsection (2).
(2) In determining whether a PCC satisfies the solvency test under
subsection (1) for the purpose of making a cellular distribution in respect
of a cell, no account is to be taken of —
(a) the assets and liabilities, attributable to any other cell of the
company; or
(b) non-cellular assets and liabilities of the company.
(3) Subject to section 51, the directors of a PCC may authorise a distribution
in respect of its non-cellular assets and liabilities (a “non-cellular
distribution”) at any time if they are satisfied, on reasonable grounds,
that the PCC will, immediately after the distribution, satisfy the solvency
test as it applies by virtue of subsection (4).
(4) In determining whether a PCC satisfies the solvency test under
subsection (3) for the purposes of making a non-cellular distribution, no
account need be taken of the assets and liabilities of any cell of the PCC,
save in the respect of any liability arising under section 122(1)(b).
CHAPTER 4 - ASSETS AND LIABILITIES
121 Attribution of non-cellular assets and liabilities

(1) Liabilities of a PCC not otherwise attributable to any of its cells are to be
discharged from the company’s non-cellular assets.
Section 122 Companies Act 2006


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(2) Income, receipts and other property or rights of or acquired by a PCC not
otherwise attributable to any cell are to be applied to and comprised in
the company’s non-cellular assets.
122 Liability of cellular and non-cellular assets

(1) If any liability arises which is attributable to a particular cell of a PCC —
(a) the cellular assets attributable to that cell will be primarily liable;
(b) the company’s non-cellular assets will be secondarily liable,
provided that the cellular assets attributable to the relevant cell
have been exhausted; and
(c) the liability will not be a liability of any cellular assets not
attributable to the relevant cell.
(2) Subsection (1) is subject to subsections (3) to (8).
(3) If the company has agreed with the person in respect of whom the
liability arises that a liability is the liability solely of —
(a) the company’s non-cellular assets; or
(b) the cellular assets attributable to a particular cell of the company,
subsection (1) will have effect subject to that agreement.
(4) In the case of loss or damage which is attributable to a particular cell of a
PCC and which is caused by fraud, the loss or damage shall be the
liability solely of the company’s non-cellular assets.
(5) Subsection (4) is without prejudice to any liability of any person other
than the company.
(6) The fraud referred to in subsection (4) does not include the fraud of any
person making a claim against the company or any of its assets or of that
person’s servants, employees, officers or agents.
(7) The liabilities under subsection (1)(a) of the cellular assets attributable to
a particular cell of a PCC will reduce proportionally until the value of the
aggregate liabilities equals the value of those assets but this subsection
will be disregarded in assessing the existence and extent of any
secondary liability under subsection (1)(b).
(8) The liabilities of the company’s non-cellular assets will reduce
proportionally until the value of the aggregate liabilities equals the value
of those assets but this subsection will not apply in any situation in
which any of the liabilities of the company’s non-cellular assets arises
from fraud or by reason of a special agreement such as is referred to in
subsection (3).
123 Disputes as to liability attributable to cells

(1) In the event of any dispute as to —
Companies Act 2006 Section 124


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(a) whether any right is or is not in respect of a particular cell;
(b) whether any creditor is or is not a creditor in respect of a
particular cell;
(c) whether any liability is or is not attributable to a particular cell;
(d) the amount to which any liability is limited,
the Court, on the application of the PCC, and without affecting any other
right or remedy of any person, may issue a declaration in respect of the
matter in dispute.
(2) The Court, on hearing an application for a declaration under
subsection (1) —
(a) may direct that any person shall be heard on the application;
(b) may make an interim declaration, or adjourn the hearing,
conditionally or unconditionally;
(c) may make the declaration subject to such terms and conditions as
it thinks fit;
(d) may direct that the declaration is binding upon such persons as
are specified.
124 Position of creditors

(1) The rights of creditors of a PCC shall correspond with the liabilities
provided for in section 122.
(2) No such creditor shall have any rights other than the rights referred to in
this section and in sections 122 and 125.
(3) There is implied in every transaction entered into by a PCC (unless
expressly excluded in writing) the following terms —
(a) that no party will seek, whether in any proceedings or by any
other means, to make or attempt to make liable any cellular assets
attributable to any cell of the company in respect of a liability not
attributable to that cell;
(b) that if any party succeeds by any means in making liable any
cellular assets attributable to any cell of the company in respect of
a liability not attributable to that cell, that party is liable to the
company to pay a sum equal to the value of that benefit; and
(c) that if any party succeeds in arresting, seizing or attaching by any
means, or otherwise levying execution against, any cellular assets
attributable to any cell of the company in respect of a liability not
attributable to that cell, that party holds those assets or their
proceeds on trust for the company and must keep those assets or
proceeds separate and identifiable as such trust property.
Section 125 Companies Act 2006


Page 68 AT 13 of 2006 c

(4) All sums recovered by a PCC as a result of a trust under subsection (3)(c)
will be credited against any concurrent liability imposed pursuant to the
implied term set out in subsection (3)(b).
(5) Any asset or sum recovered by a PCC under the implied term set out in
paragraphs (b) or (c) of subsection (3) or by any other means in the
events referred to in those paragraphs must, after the deduction or
payment of any costs of recovery, be applied by the company so as to
compensate the cell affected.
(6) In the event of any cellular assets attributable to a cell of a PCC being
taken in execution in respect of a liability not attributable to that cell, and
in so far as such assets or compensation in respect thereof cannot
otherwise be restored to the cell affected, the company must —
(a) certify the value of the assets lost to the cell affected; and
(b) transfer or pay, from the cellular or non-cellular assets to which
the liability was attributable to the cell affected, assets or sums
sufficient to restore to the cell affected the value of the assets lost.
(7) Where under subsection (6)(b) a PCC is obliged to make a transfer or
payment from cellular assets attributable to a cell of the company, and
those assets are insufficient, the company shall so far as possible make
up the deficiency from its non-cellular assets.
125 Recourse to cellular assets by creditors

Without prejudice to the provisions of sections 122 and 124, cellular assets
attributable to a cell of a PCC —
(a) are available only to the creditors of the company who are
creditors in respect of that cell and who are thereby entitled, in
conformity with the provisions of this Part, to have recourse to the
cellular assets attributable to that cell;
(b) are absolutely protected from the creditors of the company who
are not creditors in respect of that cell and who accordingly will
not be entitled to have recourse to the cellular assets attributable
to that cell.
CHAPTER 5 - RECEIVERSHIP ORDERS
126 Receivership orders in relation to cells

(1) A receivership order is an order directing that the business and cellular
assets of, or attributable to, a cell shall be managed by a person specified
in the order (“the receiver”) for the purposes of —
(a) the orderly winding up of the business of or attributable to the
cell; and
Companies Act 2006 Section 127


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(b) the distribution of the cellular assets attributable to the cell to
those entitled to have recourse thereto.
(2) If the Court is satisfied —
(a) that the cellular assets attributable to a particular cell of the
company (when account is taken of the company’s non-cellular
assets, unless there are no creditors in respect of that cell entitled
to have recourse to the company’s non-cellular assets) are or are
likely to be insufficient to discharge the claims of creditors in
respect of that cell; and
(b) that the making of an order under this section would achieve the
purposes set out in subsection (1),
the Court may make a receivership order under this section in respect of
that cell.
(3) A receivership order —
(a) must not be made if —
(i) a liquidator has been appointed to act in respect of the
PCC; or
(ii) the PCC has passed a resolution for voluntary winding up;
and
(b) shall cease to be of effect upon the appointment of a liquidator to
act in respect of the PCC.
(4) A receivership order may be made in respect of one or more cells.
(5) A receivership order does not affect prior acts.
(6) No resolution for the voluntary winding up of a PCC any cell of which is
subject to a receivership order shall be effective without leave of the
Court.
127 Applications for receivership orders

(1) An application for a receivership order in respect of a cell of a PCC may
be made by —
(a) the company;
(b) the directors of the company;
(c) any creditor of the company in respect of that cell;
(d) any holder of cell shares in respect of that cell; or
(e) such other person as may be prescribed by regulations.
(2) The Court, on hearing an application —
(a) for a receivership order; or
(b) for leave, under section 126(6), for a resolution for voluntary
winding up,
Section 128 Companies Act 2006


Page 70 AT 13 of 2006 c

may make an interim order or adjourn the hearing, conditionally or
unconditionally.
(3) Notice of an application to the Court for a receivership order in respect of
a cell of a PCC shall be served upon —
(a) the company;
(b) such other persons as may be prescribed by regulations; and
(c) such other persons (if any) as the Court may direct,
who shall each be given an opportunity of making representations to the
Court before the order is made.
128 Functions of receiver and effect of receivership order

(1) The receiver of a cell —
(a) shall, within one month from the date of the receivership order,
file a certified copy of the order;
(b) may do anything necessary for the purposes set out in section
126(1); and
(c) has all the functions of the directors in respect of the business and
cellular assets of or attributable to the cell.
(2) The receiver may at any time apply to the Court —
(a) for directions as to the extent or exercise of any function or power;
(b) for the receivership order to be discharged or varied; or
(c) for an order as to any matter arising in the course of the
receivership.
(3) In exercising any functions the receiver is the agent of the PCC, and does
not incur personal liability except to the extent that the receiver is
fraudulent, reckless or grossly negligent, or acts in bad faith.
(4) Any person dealing with the receiver in good faith is not concerned to
enquire whether the receiver is acting within the receiver’s powers.
(5) When an application has been made for, and during the period of
operation of, a receivership order —
(a) no proceedings may be instituted or continued by or against the
PCC in relation to the cell in respect of which the receivership
order was made; and
(b) no steps may be taken to enforce any security or in execution of
legal process in respect of the business or cellular assets of or
attributable to the cell in respect of which the receivership order
was made,
except by leave of the Court, which may be conditional or unconditional.
(6) During the period of operation of a receivership order —
Companies Act 2006 Section 129


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(a) the functions of the directors shall cease in respect of the business
and cellular assets of or attributable to the cell in respect of which
the order was made; and
(b) the receiver of the cell is deemed to be a director of the PCC in
respect of the non-cellular assets of the company, unless there are
no creditors in respect of that cell entitled to have recourse to the
company’s non-cellular assets.
(7) A person who contravenes subsection 1(a) commits an offence.
129 Discharge and variation of receivership orders

(1) The Court cannot discharge a receivership order unless the Court is
satisfied that the purpose for which the order was made —
(a) has been achieved or substantially achieved; or
(b) is incapable of achievement.
(2) The Court, on hearing an application for the discharge or variation of a
receivership order, may make any interim order or adjourn the hearing,
conditionally or unconditionally.
(3) Upon the Court discharging a receivership order in respect of a cell of a
PCC on the ground that the purpose for which the order was made has
been achieved or substantially achieved, the Court may direct that any
payment made by the receiver to any creditor of the company in respect
of that cell shall be deemed full satisfaction of the liabilities of the
company to that creditor in respect of that cell; and the creditor’s claims
against the company in respect of that cell shall be thereby deemed
extinguished.
(4) Subsection (3) shall not affect or extinguish any right or remedy of a
creditor against any other person, including any surety of the PCC.
(5) Subject to the provisions of —
(a) this Part and any rule of law as to preferential payments; and
(b) any agreement between the PCC and any creditor thereof as to the
subordination of the debts due to that creditor to the debts due to
the company’s other creditors,
the company’s cellular assets attributable to any cell of the company in
relation to which a receivership order has been made must, in the
winding up of the business of or attributable to that cell pursuant to the
provisions of this Part, be realised and applied proportionately in
satisfaction of the company’s liabilities attributable to that cell.
(6) Any surplus must thereafter be distributed (unless the memorandum or
articles provide otherwise) —
(a) among the holders of the cell shares or the persons otherwise
entitled to the surplus; or
Section 130 Companies Act 2006


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(b) where there are no cell shares and no such persons, among the
holders of the non-cellular shares or the persons otherwise
entitled to any surplus non-cellular assets,
in each case according to their respective rights and interests in or
against the company.
(7) The Court may, upon discharging a receivership order in respect of a cell
of a PCC, direct that the cell shall be dissolved on such date as the Court
may specify.
(8) On the dissolution of a cell of a PCC, the company may not undertake
business or incur liabilities in respect of that cell.
130 Remuneration of receiver

The remuneration of a receiver and any expenses properly incurred by such
receiver shall be payable, in priority to all other claims, from —
(a) the cellular assets attributable to the cell in respect of which the
receiver was appointed; and
(b) to the extent that these may be insufficient, the noncellular assets
of the PCC.
CHAPTER 6 - LIQUIDATION
131 Provisions in relation to liquidation of PCC

(1) Notwithstanding any statutory provision or rule of law to the contrary,
in the liquidation of a PCC, the liquidator —
(a) must deal with the company’s assets in accordance with the
requirements of section 118(1);
(b) in discharge of the claims of creditors of the PCC, shall apply the
company’s assets to those entitled to have recourse thereto in
conformity with the provisions of this Part.
(2) Section 235 of the Companies Act 1931 (distribution of property of
company) applies, with the necessary modifications, in relation to
protected cell companies but subject to this Act.
CHAPTER 7 - GENERAL PROVISIONS
132 Company to inform persons that they are dealing with PCC

(1) A PCC shall —
(a) inform any person with whom it enters into any transaction in
respect of a particular cell that the company is a PCC; and
(b) for the purposes of that transaction, identify or specify the cell in
respect of which that person is transacting.
Companies Act 2006 Section 133


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(2) A PCC that contravenes subsection (1) commits an offence.
133 Security interests in respect of cell assets

(1) A company may create any security interest in respect of assets
attributable to a particular cell in relation to —
(a) any liability attributable to that cell;
(b) any liability that is not attributable to that cell.
(2) Without affecting the generality of section 116 —
(a) Part VIII; and
(b) Part VI of the Companies Act 1931 as it applies to companies
pursuant to section 182,
apply in respect of each cell of a PCC as if each cell were a separate
company.
134 Savings for directors’ functions

(1) This Part does not affect the functions of the directors of a PCC in respect
of the affairs of the company including the due administration of the
affairs of each cell except as expressly provided.
(2) Subsection (1) does not affect the powers of delegation by directors.
135 Saving for internal arrangements

(1) This Part does not prevent, in the ordinary course of business of a PCC,
arrangements —
(a) as between cells; or
(b) as between cells and the PCC,
in relation to the PCC’s business or to the PCC’s business attributable to
the cells concerned.
(2) In respect of any arrangements of a kind mentioned in subsection (1), the
PCC shall make the necessary adjustments to the accounting records of
the PCC and those attributable to its cells.
(3) This section does not affect the generality of section 116.
PART VIII - REGISTRATION OF CHARGES

136 Interpretation of this Part

(1) In this Part —
Section 137 Companies Act 2006


Page 74 AT 13 of 2006 c

“charge
” means any form of security interest, whether fixed or floating, over
property, wherever situated, other than an interest arising by operation
of law; and
“company property
” means property of any nature which is beneficially owned
by the company and includes future property.
(2) A reference in this Part to the creation of a charge includes a reference to
the acquisition of property, wherever situated, which is the subject of a
charge and for this purpose, the date of creation of the charge is deemed
to be the date of acquisition of the property.
137 Company to keep register of charges

(1) A company shall keep a register of all charges created by the company
over any company property showing —
(a) if the charge is a charge created by the company, the date of its
creation or, if the charge is a charge existing on property acquired
by the company, the date on which the property was acquired;
(b) a short description of the liability secured by the charge;
(c) a short description of the property charged;
(d) the name and address of the chargee; and
(e) as to whether or not there exists any prohibition or restriction
contained in the instrument creating the charge on the company
creating any future charge ranking in priority to or equally with
the charge.
(2) A copy of the register of charges shall be kept at the office of the
company’s registered agent.
(3) Where —
(a) there is a variation in the terms of a charge registered in a
company’s register of charges under this section; or
(b) a charge registered in a company’s register of charges under this
section ceases to affect the property of a company,
the company shall amend its register of charges accordingly.
(4) A company that contravenes this section commits an offence.
138 Registration of charges

(1) Where a company creates a charge over any company property an
application to the Registrar to register the charge may be made within
one month after the date of its creation by such persons as are prescribed
by regulations.
Companies Act 2006 Section 139


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(2) An application under subsection (1) is made by filing an application in
the prescribed form containing the details specified in paragraphs (a) to
(e) of section 137(1).
(3) The Registrar shall keep, with respect to each company, a record of
registered charges containing such information as may be prescribed by
regulations.
(4) Upon receipt of an application under subsection (1), the Registrar shall
forthwith —
(a) register the details contained in the application form;
(b) issue a certificate of registration of the charge and send a copy to
the applicant; and
(c) record and state on the certificate of registration the date on which
the charge was registered and that it was registered pursuant to
this section.
(5) A certificate issued under subsection (4) is conclusive proof that the
requirements of this Part as to registration have been complied with and
that the charge referred to in the certificate was registered on the date
stated in the certificate.
(6) Subject to section 140, any charge created by a company over any
company property shall be void against the liquidator and any creditor
of the company unless it is registered pursuant to this section.
139 Variation of registered charge

(1) Where there is a variation in the terms of a charge registered under
section 138 or 140, an application for the variation to be registered may
be made by such persons as are prescribed by regulations.
(2) An application under subsection (1) is made by filing an application in
the prescribed form.
(3) Upon receipt of an application under subsection (2), the Registrar shall
forthwith —
(a) register the variation of the charge; and
(b) issue a certificate of variation and send a copy of the certificate to
the applicant.
(4) The Registrar shall record and state on the certificate of variation the date
on which a variation of charge was registered.
(5) A certificate issued under subsection (3) is conclusive proof that the
variation referred to in the certificate of variation was registered on the
date stated in the certificate.
Section 140 Companies Act 2006


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140 Late registration of charges

(1) Where a company creates a charge over any company property and such
charge is not registered pursuant to section 138, an application to the
Registrar may be made at any time prior to the commencement of the
winding up of the company by such persons as are prescribed by
regulations.
(2) An application under subsection (1) is made by filing an application in
the prescribed form containing the details specified in paragraphs (a) to
(e) of section 137(1).
(3) Upon receipt of an application under subsection (2) the Registrar shall
forthwith —
(a) register the details contained in the application form;
(b) issue a certificate of registration of the charge and send a copy to
the applicant; and
(c) record and state on the certificate of registration the date on which
the charge was registered and that it was registered pursuant to
this section.
(4) The rights of the chargee under a charge registered pursuant to this
section are without prejudice to the rights of any party acquired during
the period between the date of creation of the charge and the date of its
registration.
(5) Subject to subsection (4), a certificate issued under subsection (3)(b) is
conclusive proof that the requirements of this Part as to registration have
been complied with and that the charge referred to in the certificate was
registered on the date stated in the certificate.
141 Charge ceasing to affect company’s property

(1) Where a charge registered under section 138 or 140 ceases to affect any
company property a notice in the prescribed form specifying the
company property that has ceased to be affected by the charge shall be
filed.
(2) A notice filed under subsection (1) shall be filed by the registered agent
and shall be accompanied by written consent on the part of the chargee
as to the release of the charge to which it relates or by such other
evidence of the release satisfactory to the Registrar.
(3) Upon receipt of the documents specified in subsections (1) and (2), the
Registrar —
(a) shall forthwith —
(i) register the notice; and
(ii) issue a certificate and send a copy of the certificate to the
company; and
Companies Act 2006 Section 142


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(b) shall retain a copy of the notice.
(4) The Registrar shall record and state on the certificate issued under
subsection (3) the date on which the notice filed under subsection (1) was
registered.
(5) From the date stated in the certificate issued under subsection (3), the
charge is deemed not to be registered in respect of the company property
specified in the notice filed under subsection (1).
142 Registration of enforcement of security

(1) If any person obtains an order for the appointment of a receiver of the
property of a company, or appoints such a receiver under any powers
contained in any instrument, such person shall within 7 days from the
date of the order or of the appointment under the said powers give
notice in the prescribed form to the Registrar and the Registrar shall
register the notice.
(2) Any person appointed to act as receiver of the property of a company
under the powers contained in any instrument who ceases to act as such
shall, on so ceasing, give notice in the prescribed form to the Registrar
and the Registrar shall register the notice.
(3) Any person who contravenes this section commits an offence.
PART IX – RE-REGISTRATION

CHAPTER 1 - RE-REGISTRATION OF A COMPANY INCORPORATED
UNDER THIS ACT
143 Power of company to re-register

(1) Subject to this Chapter, a company of any type specified in section 1 may
make application to the Registrar in the prescribed form to re-register as
a company of another type specified in section 1.
(2) This Chapter shall not apply to a company limited by shares that is a
protected cell company.
144 Application to re-register

(1) An application pursuant to section 143 shall be accompanied by —
(a) a statutory declaration in the prescribed form made by all the
directors of the company stating that the company satisfies the
solvency test;
(b) a new memorandum; and
Section 144 Companies Act 2006


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(c) if the articles of the company upon re-registration are to differ
from the relevant model articles, new articles.
(2) The memorandum of a company re-registering under this section shall
state —
(a) the name of the company as at the date of the application;
(b) the name under which the company proposes to be reregistered
(if different from that specified in paragraph (a));
(c) whether the company will be re-registered as —
(i) a company limited by shares;
(ii) a company limited by guarantee;
(iii) a company limited by shares and by guarantee;
(iv) an unlimited company with shares; or
(v) an unlimited company without shares;
(d) the address of the registered office of the company in the Isle of
Man upon re-registration;
(e) the name of the registered agent of the company in the Isle of Man
upon re-registration;
(f) in the case of a company that will be re-registered as a company
limited by guarantee or a company limited by shares and by
guarantee, the amount which each member of the company upon
re-registration is liable to contribute to the company’s assets in the
event that the company is wound up while such person is a
member or within 1 year (or such longer period as may be
specified for the purpose in the memorandum) after such person
ceased to be a member; and
(g) in the case of a company limited by guarantee or an unlimited
company without shares that, upon reregistration, will be a
company limited by shares, a company limited by shares and by
guarantee or an unlimited company with shares, the agreement of
at least one member to take one or more shares on the
reregistration of the company.
(3) The memorandum shall state, in respect of each person agreeing to take
one or more shares on the re-registration of the company pursuant to
subsection (2)(g) —
(a) the number of shares that such person agrees to take; and
(b) the amount that such person agrees to pay for each share that
such person is specified as having agreed to take.
(4) Without prejudice to section 21, the memorandum may contain a
statement specifying the purposes for which the company is established
or the business, activities or transactions which the company is permitted
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to undertake or the restrictions (if any) upon such purposes, business,
activities or transactions for which the company is established.
(5) Where —
(a) a limited company applies to re-register as an unlimited company
pursuant to section 143; or
(b) an unlimited company applies to re-register as a limited company
pursuant to section 143,
the company making the application must change its name upon re-
registration to comply with the requirements of section 11.
(6) Subsection (7) applies with effect from the date of a company’s re-
registration in any case where articles (“the proposed articles”) were
delivered under subsection (1)(c).
(7) If the proposed articles —
(a) make no provision for a matter for which provision is made by
the relevant model articles; and
(b) do not expressly or by necessary implication exclude that
provision of those relevant model articles,
the provision is deemed to be included in the proposed articles, and “the
relevant model articles” here means the relevant model articles as in
force at the date of the company’s re-registration.
145 Restrictions on re-registration of company with shares

A company limited by shares, a company limited by shares and by guarantee or
an unlimited company with shares may only re-register pursuant to section 144
as a company limited by guarantee or an unlimited company without shares if
upon reregistration it shall have no shares in issue.
146 Re-registration

(1) Upon receipt of the documents specified in section 144(1), the
Registrar shall —
(a) register the new memorandum and articles (if any) delivered
pursuant to section 144(1); and
(b) issue a certificate of re-registration in the prescribed form.
(2) A certificate of re-registration issued by the Registrar is conclusive
evidence of compliance with all requirements of this Act in respect of re-
registration.
147 Consequences of re-registration

(1) The re-registration of an unlimited company as a limited company shall
not affect the rights or liabilities of the company in respect of any liability
Section 148 Companies Act 2006


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incurred, or any contract entered into, by, to, with or on behalf of the
company before re-registration.
(2) The re-registration of a company under this Chapter shall not be deemed
to operate —
(a) to create a new legal entity; or
(b) to prejudice or affect the continuity of the company.
(3) Upon re-registration of a company under this Chapter —
(a) the new memorandum filed pursuant to section 144(1)(b) shall be
the memorandum of the company to the exclusion of the
memorandum in force immediately prior to its re-registration;
(b) the articles of the company in force immediately prior to its re-
registration shall cease to be the articles of the company and the
proposed articles (if any) or the relevant model articles (if no
proposed articles have been delivered pursuant to section
144(1)(c)) shall be the articles of the company; and
(c) each person who agreed in the new memorandum to take one or
more shares in the company —
(i) is deemed to have been issued with the number of shares
that such person is specified in the new memorandum as
having agreed to take; and
(ii) becomes liable to pay the amount that such person is
specified in the new memorandum as having agreed to pay
for those shares.
CHAPTER 2 - RE-REGISTRATION OF A 1931 ACT COMPANY
148 Power of 1931 Act company to re-register

Subject to this Chapter, a 1931 Act company may make application to the
Registrar in the prescribed form to re-register as a company incorporated under
this Act of such type specified in section 1 as corresponds to its type under the
Companies Acts 1931 to 2004.
149 Application to re-register a 1931 Act company

(1) An application pursuant to section 148 shall be filed by the person
named in the new memorandum referred to in paragraph (b) as the first
registered agent of the company and shall be accompanied by —
(a) certified copies of —
(i) a resolution passed by a member or members holding at
least 75 per cent of the voting rights exercised in relation
thereto; and
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(ii) a resolution of each class of members (if any) passed by a
member or members holding at least 75 per cent of the
voting rights exercised in relation thereto,
in each case authorising the re-registration of the 1931 Act
company as a company incorporated under this Act, adopting a
new memorandum of association complying with subsection (2)
and (if applicable) adopting new articles;
(b) a new memorandum complying with subsection (2);
(c) if the articles of the company upon re-registration are to differ
from the relevant model articles or if the company is to be re-
registered as a protected cell company, new articles.
(2) The memorandum of a company re-registering under this section shall
state —
(a) the name of the company as at the date of the application;
(b) the name under which the company proposes to be reregistered
(if different from that specified in paragraph (a));
(c) whether the company will be re-registered as —
(i) a company limited by shares;
(ii) a company limited by guarantee;
(iii) a company limited by shares and by guarantee;
(iv) an unlimited company with shares; or
(v) an unlimited company without shares;
(d) the address of the registered office of the company in the Isle of
Man upon re-registration;
(e) the name of the registered agent of the company in the Isle of Man
upon re-registration;
(f) in the case of a company that will be re-registered as a company
limited by guarantee or a company limited by shares and by
guarantee, the amount which each member of the company upon
re-registration is liable to contribute to the company’s assets in the
event that the company is wound up while such person is a
member or within 1 year (or such longer period as may be
specified for the purpose in the memorandum) after such person
ceased to be a member; and
(g) in the case of a 1931 Act company that is a protected cell company
for the purposes of the Companies Acts 1931 to 2004, that the
company is a protected cell company.
(3) Without prejudice to section 21, the memorandum may contain a
statement specifying the purposes for which the company is established
or the business, activities or transactions which the company is permitted
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to undertake or the restrictions (if any) upon such purposes, business,
activities or transactions for which the company is established.
(4) Subject to subsection (6), subsection (5) applies with effect from the date
of a company’s re-registration in any case where articles (“the proposed
articles”) were delivered under subsection (1)(d).
(5) If the proposed articles —
(a) make no provision for a matter for which provision is made by
the relevant model articles; and
(b) do not expressly or by necessary implication exclude that
provision of those relevant model articles,
the provision is deemed to be included in the proposed articles, and “the
relevant model articles” here means the relevant model articles as in
force at the date of the company’s re-registration.
(6) Subsection (5) does not apply where the company is to be re-registered as
a protected cell company (in respect of which there are no relevant
model articles).
150 Re-registration of a 1931 Act company

(1) Upon receipt of the documents specified in section 149(1), the
Registrar shall —
(a) register the new memorandum and articles (if any) delivered
pursuant to section 149(1); and
(b) allot a unique number to the company; and
(c) issue a certificate of re-registration in the prescribed form.
(2) A certificate of re-registration issued by the Registrar is conclusive
evidence of compliance with all requirements of this Act in respect of re-
registration.
151 Consequences of re-registration of a 1931 Act company

(1) The re-registration of a 1931 Act company under this Chapter shall not
be deemed to operate —
(a) to create a new legal entity; or
(b) to prejudice or affect the continuity of the company.
(2) Upon re-registration of a 1931 Act company under this Chapter —
(a) the new memorandum filed pursuant to section 149(1)(c) shall be
the memorandum of the company to the exclusion of the
memorandum in force immediately prior to its re-registration;
and
(b) the articles of the company in force immediately prior to its re-
registration shall cease to be the articles of the company and the
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proposed articles (if any) or the relevant model articles (if no
proposed articles have been delivered pursuant to section
149(1)(d)) shall be the articles of the company.
(3) On the date of the certificate of re-registration of a 1931 Act company
under this Chapter —
(a) the company shall cease to be a company incorporated under the
Companies Acts 1931 to 2004; and
(b) the Companies Acts 1931 to 2004 shall cease to apply to the
company.
PART X – SCHEMES OF MERGER, CONSOLIDATION AND

ARRANGEMENTS AND RIGHTS OF DISSENTERS

CHAPTER 1 - MERGERS AND CONSOLIDATIONS
152 Interpretation of this Part

In this Part —
“consolidated company
” means the new company incorporated under this Act
that results from the consolidation of two or more constituent companies;
“consolidation
” means the consolidation of two or more constituent companies
into a new company;
“constituent company
” means a company that is participating in a merger or
consolidation with one or more other companies;
“merger
” means the merging of two or more constituent companies into one of
the constituent companies;
“surviving company
” means the constituent company incorporated under this
Act into which one or more other constituent companies are merged.
153 Approval of merger or consolidation

(1) Subject to subsection (2), two or more companies may merge or
consolidate in accordance with this section.
(2) A constituent company may not participate in a merger or consolidation
under this section if —
(a) it is in liquidation or is subject to insolvency or analogous
proceedings in any jurisdiction;
(b) a receiver or manager has been appointed in relation to any of its
assets;
(c) it has entered into an arrangement with its creditors that has not
been concluded;
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(d) an application made to a court in any jurisdiction for the
liquidation of the constituent company or for the constituent
company to be subject to insolvency or analogous proceedings has
not yet been determined; or
(e) it fails to satisfy the solvency test.
(3) The directors of each constituent company that proposes to participate in
a merger or consolidation shall approve a written scheme of merger or
consolidation containing, as the case requires —
(a) the name of each constituent company and the name of the
surviving company or the consolidated company;
(b) the terms and conditions of the proposed merger or consolidation,
including the manner and basis of converting shares in each
constituent company into shares, debt obligations or other
securities in the surviving company or consolidated company, or
money or other assets, or a combination thereof; and
(c) in respect of a merger, a statement of any amendment to the
memorandum or articles of the surviving company to be brought
about by the merger.
(4) In the case of a consolidation, the scheme of consolidation shall have
annexed to it a form of memorandum for the consolidated company
complying with section 155 and (if desired) articles to be adopted by the
consolidated company.
(5) For the avoidance of doubt, the terms and conditions of any proposed
merger or consolidation may provide that the manner and basis of
converting shares in any constituent company may vary as between
holders of shares of different classes and between holders of shares of the
same class.
(6) The following apply in respect of a merger or consolidation under this
section —
(a) the scheme of merger or consolidation shall be authorised by a
resolution passed by a member or members holding at least 75 per
cent of the voting rights exercised in relation thereto;
(b) the scheme of merger or consolidation shall also be authorised by
a resolution passed by a member or members holding at least 75
per cent of the voting rights exercised in relation thereto by
each class —
(i) that is entitled pursuant to the memorandum or articles to
vote thereon as a class; and
(ii) that if the scheme contains any provisions that, if contained
in a proposed amendment to the memorandum or articles,
would entitle the class to vote thereon as a class;
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(c) if a meeting of members is to be held, notice of the meeting,
accompanied by a copy of the scheme of merger or consolidation,
shall be given to each member, whether or not entitled to vote on
the merger or consolidation; and
(d) if it is proposed to obtain the written consent of members, a copy
of the scheme of merger or consolidation shall be given to each
member, whether or not entitled to consent to the scheme of
merger or consolidation.
154 Registration of merger or consolidation

(1) On approval of the scheme of merger or consolidation by the directors
and members of each constituent company, the scheme of merger or
consolidation shall be executed by each constituent company.
(2) The scheme of merger or consolidation executed pursuant to subsection
(1) shall be filed by the registered agent with the Registrar together
with —
(a) certified copies of all resolutions of members specified by section
153(6)(a) and (b);
(b) statutory declarations by all the directors of each constituent
company that such constituent company complies with the
requirements of section 153(2);
(c) a copy of a notice sent to each member of the company and
published in such manner as may be prescribed by regulations at
least 21 days prior to the filing to the effect that the company
intends to participate in the proposed merger or consolidation
stating that the scheme of merger or consolidation may be
inspected at such office of the registered agent of each constituent
company at such reasonable times as may be specified;
(d) the written consent to the making of the filing by the holders of all
charges for the time being registered in respect of each constituent
company; and
(e) in the case of a consolidation, the memorandum for the
consolidated company complying with section 155 and the articles
(if any) to be adopted by the consolidated company.
(3) If the Registrar is satisfied that the proposed name of the surviving
company or consolidated company complies with section 11 and, if
appropriate, section 13 and is a name under which the company could be
registered under section 12, upon receipt of the documents specified in
subsection (2) the Registrar shall —
(a) register the scheme of merger or consolidation on the file of each
constituent company;
(b) issue a certificate of merger or consolidation in the prescribed
form;
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(c) in the case of a merger, register any amendment to the
memorandum or articles of the surviving company;
(d) in the case of a consolidation —
(i) register the memorandum and articles (if any) of the
consolidated company;
(ii) allot a unique number to the consolidated company; and
(iii) issue a certificate of incorporation of the consolidated
company.
(4) A certificate of merger or consolidation issued by the Registrar is
conclusive evidence of compliance with all requirements of this Act in
respect of the merger or consolidation.
155 Memorandum of consolidated company

(1) The memorandum of a consolidated company under this Act
shall state —
(a) the name of the consolidated company;
(b) whether the consolidated company is —
(i) a company limited by shares;
(ii) a company limited by guarantee;
(iii) a company limited by shares and by guarantee;
(iv) an unlimited company with shares; or
(v) an unlimited company without shares;
(c) the address of the first registered office of the consolidated
company in the Isle of Man;
(d) the name of the first registered agent of the consolidated company
in the Isle of Man;
(e) in the case of a consolidated company limited by guarantee and a
consolidated company limited by shares and by guarantee, the
amount which each member of the consolidated company is liable
to contribute to the company’s assets in the event that the
consolidated company is wound up while such person is a
member or within 1 year (or such longer period as may be
specified for the purpose in the memorandum) after such person
ceased to be a member; and
(f) in the case of a protected cell company, that the consolidated
company is a protected cell company.
(2) Without prejudice to section 21, the memorandum of a consolidated
company may contain a statement specifying the purposes for which the
consolidated company is established or the business, activities or
transactions which the consolidated company is permitted to undertake
Companies Act 2006 Section 156


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or the restrictions (if any) upon such purposes, business, activities or
transactions for which the consolidated company is established.
156 Effect of merger or consolidation

(1) A merger or consolidation is effective on the date of the certificate of
merger or consolidation issued by the Registrar pursuant to section
154(3)(b).
(2) As soon as a merger or consolidation becomes effective —
(a) in the case of a merger, the memorandum and articles of the
surviving company are automatically amended to the extent, if
any, that changes in its memorandum and articles are contained
in the scheme of merger;
(b) in the case of a consolidation, the memorandum and articles (if
any) delivered pursuant to section 154(2)(e), are the memorandum
and articles of the consolidated company;
(c) assets of every description, including choses in action and the
business of each of the constituent companies, immediately vest in
the surviving company or the consolidated company (as the case
may be); and
(d) the surviving company or the consolidated company (as the case
may be) is liable for all claims, debts, liabilities and obligations of
each of the constituent companies.
(3) Where a merger or consolidation occurs —
(a) no conviction, judgment, ruling, order, claim, debt, liability or
obligation due or to become due, and no cause of action existing,
against a constituent company or against any member, director,
officer or agent thereof, is released or impaired by the merger or
consolidation; and
(b) no proceedings, whether civil or criminal, pending at the time of a
merger or consolidation by or against a constituent company, or
against any member, director, officer or agent thereof, are abated
or discontinued by the merger or consolidation, but —
(i) the proceedings may be enforced, prosecuted, settled or
compromised by or against the surviving company or the
consolidated company or against the member, director,
officer or agent thereof, as the case may be; or
(ii) the surviving company or the consolidated company may
be substituted in the proceedings for a constituent
company.
(4) The Registrar shall strike off the register of companies —
(a) any constituent company that is not the surviving company in a
merger; or
Section 157 Companies Act 2006


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(b) any constituent company that participates in a consolidation.
(5) If a company has been struck off the register of companies under
subsection (4) it shall thereupon be deemed to have been dissolved.
CHAPTER 2 - ARRANGEMENTS
157 Power to enter into arrangements

(1) In this Chapter, the expression “arrangement
” includes, without
limitation, the following —
(a) any compromise;
(b) any reorganisation or reconstruction of a company including,
without limitation any reorganisation of its share capital by the
consolidation of shares of different classes or by the division of
shares into shares of different classes or by both of those methods;
(c) any amalgamation of two or more companies;
(d) any merger or consolidation of two or more companies;
(e) a separation of two or more businesses carried on by a company;
(f) any sale, transfer, exchange or other disposition of any part of the
assets or business of a company to any person in exchange for
shares, debt obligations or other securities of that person, or
money or other assets, or a combination thereof;
(g) a dissolution of a company incorporated under this Act; and
(h) any combination of any of the things specified in paragraphs (a)
to (g).
(2) Where an arrangement is proposed between two or more companies or
between a company and its creditors or any class of them, or between the
company and its members or any class of them, or between any of the
foregoing, the directors of each company that proposes to participate in
the arrangement shall approve a written scheme of arrangement
containing, as the case requires —
(a) the name of each company that proposes to participate in the
arrangement and, where the arrangement involves a merger or
consolidation, the name of the surviving company or the
consolidated company;
(b) the terms and conditions of the proposed arrangement; and
(c) where the arrangement involves a merger, a statement of any
amendment to the memorandum or articles of the surviving
company to be brought about by the merger.
(3) In the case of an arrangement which involves a consolidation, the scheme
of arrangement shall have annexed to it —
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(a) a form of memorandum for the consolidated company complying
with section 155 and (if desired) articles to be adopted by the
consolidated company; and
(b) a document in the prescribed form signed by the person named in
the memorandum referred to in paragraph (a) as the registered
agent signifying such person’s consent to act as registered agent.
(4) The Court may, on the application of any person referred to in subsection
(2), or, in the case of a company that proposes to participate in the
arrangement and which is in the course of being wound up, the
liquidator thereof, order a meeting of the creditors or class of creditors,
or of the members or class of members, as the case may be, of any
company that proposes to participate in the arrangement to be
summoned in such manner as the Court directs.
(5) If a majority in number representing 75 per cent in value of the creditors
or class of creditors, or members or class of members, as the case may be,
present and voting at the meeting, agree to any arrangement, the
arrangement shall, if sanctioned by order of the Court, be binding on all
the creditors or the class of creditors, or on the members or class of
members, as the case may be, and also on the company or companies or,
in the case of a company in the course of being wound up, on the
liquidator and contributories of such company.
158 Provisions for facilitating arrangements

(1) Where an application is made to the Court under section 157 for an order
sanctioning an arrangement proposed between any such persons as are
mentioned in that section, and it is shown to the Court that the
arrangement has been proposed for the purposes of or in connection
with a scheme for the reconstruction of any company or companies or
the amalgamation, merger or consolidation of any two or more
companies, and that under the scheme —
(a) the whole or any part of the undertaking or the property of any
company concerned in the scheme (“a transferor company”) is to
be transferred to another company (“the transferee company”); or
(b) any such companies are to be merged or consolidated
the Court may, either by the order sanctioning the arrangement or by
any subsequent order, make provision for all or any of the matters
specified in subsection (2).
(2) An order made under subsection (1) may provide for all or any of the
following matters —
(a) the transfer to the transferee company of the whole or any part of
the undertaking and of the property or liabilities of any transferor
company;
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(b) the allotting or appropriation by the transferee company of any
shares, debentures, policies, or other like interests in that
company which under the arrangement are to be allotted or
appropriated by that company to or for any person;
(c) the continuation by or against the transferee company of any legal
proceedings pending by or against any transferor company;
(d) the merger of any two or more companies;
(e) the consolidation of any two or more companies;
(f) the dissolution, without winding-up, of any transferor company
or any constituent company that is not the surviving company in
a merger or any constituent company that participates in a
consolidation;
(g) the provision to be made for any persons, who within such time
and in such manner as the court directs, dissent from the
arrangement under section 161;
(h) such incidental, consequential and supplemental matters as are
necessary to secure that the reconstruction, amalgamation, merger
or consolidation shall be fully and effectively carried out.
(3) Where an order under this section provides for the transfer of property
or liabilities, that property shall, by virtue of the order, be transferred to
and vest in, and those liabilities shall, by virtue of the order, be
transferred to and become the liabilities of, the transferee company, and
in the case of any property, if the order so directs, freed from any charge
which is by virtue of the arrangement to cease to have effect.
(4) In this section the expression “property” includes property, rights and
powers of every description, and the expression “liabilities” includes
duties.
159 Registration of Court orders

(1) Where an order is made under section 157 or 158, each company to
which the arrangement relates shall file a certified copy thereof, together
with a copy of the scheme of arrangement and all documents required to
be annexed thereto (if any), with the Registrar within 7 days after the
making of the order.
(2) A company that contravenes subsection (1) commits an offence.
(3) Upon receipt of a certified copy of an order under subsection (1), the
Registrar shall —
(a) register the documents specified in subsection (1) on the file of
each company to which the arrangement relates;
(b) in the case of an arrangement involving a merger or consolidation,
issue a certificate of merger or consolidation in the prescribed
form;
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(c) in the case of an arrangement involving a merger, register any
amendment to the memorandum or articles of the surviving
company;
(d) in the case of an arrangement involving a consolidation —
(i) register the memorandum and articles (if any) of the
consolidated company;
(ii) allot a unique number to the consolidated company; and
(iii) issue a certificate of incorporation of the consolidated
company;
(e) strike off the register of companies —
(i) any transferor company that is ordered to be dissolved
pursuant to the order;
(ii) in the case of an arrangement involving a merger, any
constituent company that is not the surviving company;
and
(iii) in the case of an arrangement involving a consolidation,
any constituent company that participates therein.
(4) If a company has been struck off the register of companies under
subsection (3)(e) it shall thereupon be deemed to have been dissolved.
(5) An order made under section 157 or 158 shall have no effect until the
requirements of this section have been complied with in full.
CHAPTER 3 - DISSENTING SHAREHOLDERS
160 Power to acquire shares of shareholders dissenting from scheme or

contract approved by majority.

(1) This section applies where, under a scheme or contract (which
expression shall include a series of contracts) involving the transfer of
shares or any class of shares in a company (“the transferor company”) to
another person (“the transferee”), the scheme has within 16 weeks after
the making of the offer in respect thereof been approved by the holders
of not less than 90 per cent in value of the shares affected.
(2) Where this section applies, the transferee may, at any time within 8
weeks after the transferee has acquired or contracted to acquire shares
necessary to satisfy the minimum specified in subsection (1), give notice
in the prescribed form to any dissenting shareholder that it desires to
acquire such dissenting shareholders’ shares.
(3) Where a notice is given under subsection (2), the transferee shall, unless
on an application made to the Court by the dissenting shareholder
within one month from the date on which the notice was given the Court
thinks fit to order otherwise, be entitled and bound to acquire those
shares on the terms on which under the scheme or contract the shares of
Section 160 Companies Act 2006


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the approving shareholders are to be transferred to the transferee or such
terms as may be permitted by a variation under subsection (7).
(4) Where a notice has been given by the transferee under subsection (2)
and —
(a) the Court has not, on an application made by the dissenting
shareholder, ordered to the contrary and on the expiration of one
month from the date on which the notice was given, or
(b) any pending application to the Court by the dissenting
shareholder has been disposed of,
the transferee shall send a copy of the notice to the transferor company
and pay or transfer to the transferor company the amount or other
consideration representing the price payable by the transferee for the
shares which by virtue of subsection (3) the transferee is entitled to
acquire. The transferor company shall thereupon register the transferee
as the holder of those shares.
(5) Any sums received by the transferor company under subsection (4) shall
be paid into a separate bank account, and any such sums and any other
consideration so received shall be held by that company on trust for the
person or persons entitled to the shares in respect of which such sums or
other consideration were received.
(6) In this section the expression “dissenting shareholder” includes a
shareholder who has not assented to the scheme or contract and any
shareholder who has failed or refused to transfer such shareholder’s
shares to the transferee in accordance with the scheme or contract.
(7) This section shall not be prevented from applying in relation to a scheme
or contract by reason only of the fact that the terms under which the
shares affected are to be acquired vary as between shareholders,
provided that such variation meets the following requirements,
namely —
(a) the law of a country or territory outside the Isle of Man precludes
an offer of consideration in the form of any of the terms specified
in the terms in question or precludes it except after compliance by
the transferee with conditions under which the transferee is
unable to comply or which the transferee regards as unduly
onerous;
(b) the variation is such that the persons to whom an offer of
consideration in that form is precluded are able to receive
consideration otherwise than in that form but of substantially
equivalent value.
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161 Rights of dissenters

(1) A member of a company is entitled to payment of the fair value of such
member’s shares upon dissenting from —
(a) a merger, if the company is a constituent company, unless the
company is the surviving company and the member continues to
hold the same or similar shares;
(b) a consolidation, if the company is a constituent company; and
(c) an arrangement, if permitted by the Court.
(2) A member who desires to exercise an entitlement under subsection (1)
shall give to the company, before the meeting of members at which the
action is submitted to a vote, or at the meeting but before the vote,
written objection to the action; but an objection is not required from a
member to whom the company did not give notice of the meeting in
accordance with this Act or where the proposed action is authorised by
written consent of members without a meeting.
(3) Within 21 days immediately following the date on which the vote of
members authorising the action is taken, or the date on which written
consent of members without a meeting is obtained, the company shall
give written notice of the authorisation or consent to each member who
gave written objection or from whom written objection was not required,
except those members who voted for, or consented in writing to, the
proposed action.
(4) A member to whom the company was required to give notice under
subsection (3) may, within 21 days immediately following the date on
which the notice referred to in subsection (3) is given, give to the
company a written election to dissent from the action.
(5) A member who dissents under subsection (4) may only do so in respect
of all shares that such member holds in the company.
(6) Within 7 days immediately following the date of the expiration of the
period within which members may give their notice of election to
dissent, or within 7 days immediately following the date on which the
proposed action is put into effect, whichever is later, the company or, in
the case of a merger or consolidation, the surviving company or the
consolidated company shall make a written offer to each dissenting
member to acquire that member’s shares at a specified price that the
company determines to be their fair value.
(7) If, within one month immediately following the date on which an offer is
made under subsection (6), the company making the offer and the
dissenting member agree upon the price to be paid for that member’s
shares, the company shall pay to the member the amount in money upon
the surrender of any certificates representing such shares.
Section 161 Companies Act 2006


Page 94 AT 13 of 2006 c

(8) If the company and a dissenting member fail, within the period of one
month referred to in subsection (7), to agree on the price to be paid for
the shares owned by the member, within 21 days immediately following
the date on which the period of one month expires, the following shall
apply —
(a) the company and the dissenting member shall each designate an
appraiser;
(b) the two designated appraisers together shall designate an
appraiser;
(c) the three appraisers shall fix the fair value of the shares owned by
the dissenting member as of the close of business on the day prior
to the date on which the vote of members authorising the action
was taken or the date on which written consent of members
without a meeting obtained, excluding any appreciation or
depreciation directly or indirectly induced by the action or its
proposal, and that value is binding on the company and the
dissenting member for all purposes; and
(d) the company shall pay to the member the amount in money upon
the surrender by the member of any certificates representing that
member’s shares.
(9) Shares acquired by the company pursuant to subsection (7) or (8) shall be
cancelled.
CHAPTER 4 - TAKEOVERS AND MERGERS49

161A Regulations concerning takeovers and mergers

(1) The Registrar may by regulations make provision —
(a) for or in connection with the regulation of —
(i) takeover bids;
(ii) merger transactions; and
(iii) transactions (not falling within subparagraph (i) or (ii))
that have or may have, directly or indirectly, an effect on
the ownership or control of companies;
(b) for or in connection with the regulation of things done in
consequence of, or otherwise in relation to, any such bid or
transaction;
(c) about cases where —
(i) any such bid or transaction is, or has been, contemplated or
apprehended; or
(ii) an announcement is made denying that any such bid or
transaction is intended.
Companies Act 2006 Section 162


c AT 13 of 2006 Page 95

(2) Regulations under subsection (1) shall not come into operation unless
they are approved by Tynwald.50

PART XI – CONTINUATION

CHAPTER 1 - CONTINUATION OF FOREIGN COMPANIES
162 Application for consent to be continued in the Isle of Man

(1) Subject to subsection (2), a foreign company may apply to the Registrar
under this Chapter of this Part for consent to be continued as a company
incorporated under this Act.
(2) A foreign company may not apply to be continued as a company
incorporated under this Act if —
(a) it is in liquidation or is subject to insolvency or analogous
proceedings in any jurisdiction;
(b) a receiver or manager has been appointed in relation to any of its
assets;
(c) it has entered into an arrangement with its creditors that has not
been concluded;
(d) the laws of the jurisdiction in which it is incorporated for the time
being do not permit it to be continued in the Isle of Man;
(e) an application made to a court in any jurisdiction for the
liquidation of the foreign company or for the foreign company to
be subject to insolvency or analogous proceedings has not yet
been determined; or
(f) the foreign company fails to satisfy the solvency test.
(3) An application for consent to be continued in the Isle of Man shall be in
the prescribed form by the person named in the memorandum referred
to in paragraph (a) as the first registered agent of the company and shall
be accompanied by —
(a) a memorandum complying with subsection (4);
(b) if the articles of the company that are to apply to it upon
continuance in the Isle of Man are to differ from the relevant
model articles or if the company is a protected cell company;
articles;
(c) a statutory declaration in the prescribed form made by the person
making the application stating that, in such person’s opinion, the
foreign company complies with the requirements of subsection
(2);
(d) proof to the satisfaction of the Registrar that the foreign company
has obtained all necessary authorisations required under the laws
Section 162 Companies Act 2006


Page 96 AT 13 of 2006 c

of the country in which it was incorporated to enable it to make
the application;
(e) particulars in the form prescribed by section 138(2) of all charges
(if any) created by the foreign company to which section 137
would apply if the company had been incorporated under this
Act as at the dates of their respective creation;
(f) the written consent to the making of the application by the
holders of all charges referred to in paragraph (e).
(4) The memorandum of a company continuing under this Part shall state —
(a) the name of the company as at the date of the application;
(b) the name under which the company proposes to be continued in
the Isle of Man (if different from that specified in paragraph (a));
(c) the jurisdiction in which the company is incorporated at the date
of its application;
(d) the date on which it was incorporated in the jurisdiction specified
in paragraph (c);
(e) whether the company is —
(i) a company limited by shares;
(ii) a company limited by guarantee;
(iii) a company limited by shares and by guarantee;
(iv) an unlimited company with shares; or
(v) an unlimited company without shares;
(f) the address of the first registered office of the company in the Isle
of Man;
(g) the name of the first registered agent of the company in the Isle of
Man;
(h) in the case of a company limited by guarantee and a company
limited by shares and by guarantee, the amount which each
member of the company is liable to contribute to the company’s
assets in the event that the company is wound up while such
person is a member or within 1 year (or such longer period as
may be specified for the purpose in the memorandum) after such
person ceased to be a member; and
(i) in the case of a protected cell company, that the company is a
protected cell company.
(5) Without prejudice to section 21, the memorandum may contain a
statement specifying the purposes for which the company is established
or the business, activities or transactions which the company is permitted
to undertake or the restrictions (if any) upon such purposes, business,
activities or transactions for which the company is established.
Companies Act 2006 Section 163


c AT 13 of 2006 Page 97

(6) In this Part, a foreign company which is continued in the Isle of Man in
accordance with this Chapter is referred to as “a continued company”.

163 Consent

(1) If the Registrar is satisfied that the proposed name of the company
complies with section 11 and, if appropriate, section 13 and is a name
under which the company could be registered under section 12, upon
receipt of the documents specified in section 162(3), the Registrar shall
grant written consent in the prescribed form.
(2) A consent under subsection (1) shall, subject to there being no material
change in the information contained in the documents submitted with
the application, be valid for a period of 12 weeks from the date of the
consent being granted.
164 Registration

(1) During the period mentioned in section 163(2) and subject to the
provisions of that subsection, a foreign company may deliver to the
Registrar a statutory declaration in the prescribed form (dated not more
than 7 days before such delivery) made by the person making the
application that there has been no material change in the information
contained in the documents submitted with the application.
(2) On delivery of the statutory declaration under subsection (1), the
Registrar shall —
(a) register the memorandum and articles (if any) delivered pursuant
to section 162(3);
(b) allot a unique number to the company;
(c) issue a certificate of continuation in such form as may be
prescribed by regulations; and
(d) record under section 138 the particulars of charges delivered
under section 162(3)(f) and issue a certificate under section 138 in
respect of each such charge.
(3) A continued company shall, within 14 days of the date of the certificate
of continuation issued under subsection (2)(c), forward a copy of it to the
competent authority in the country or territory from which the body
corporate has been continued.
165 Effect of continuance

(1) On the date of the certificate of continuation under section 164(2)(c) the
foreign company will become a company to which this Act and all other
laws of the Isle of Man apply as if it was incorporated under this Act.
Section 166 Companies Act 2006


Page 98 AT 13 of 2006 c

(2) The provisions of this Act relating to a certificate of incorporation shall,
with the necessary modifications, apply to a certificate of continuation
under section 164(2)(c).
(3) Without prejudice to the generality of subsection (1), where particulars of
an existing charge have been delivered to the Registrar under section
162(3)(f), that charge shall be deemed to have been registered in
compliance with section 138.
166 Consequences of continuance of foreign company

(1) Upon continuance of a foreign company as a company under this Act —
(a) the property of the foreign company continues to be the property
of the continued company;
(b) the continued company continues to be liable for the obligations
of the foreign company;
(c) any existing cause of action, claim or liability to prosecution in
respect of the foreign company is unaffected;
(d) any civil, criminal or administrative action or proceeding pending
by or against the foreign company is unaffected; and
(e) any conviction against, or any ruling, order or judgment in favour
of or against the foreign company may be enforced by or against
the continued company.
(2) The continuance of a foreign company under this Part shall not be
deemed to —
(a) create a new legal entity, or
(b) prejudice or affect the continuity of the body corporate which was
formerly a foreign company and becomes a continued company.
(3) The Court shall apply the laws of evidence and the rules of procedure
with the intent that no claimant against the continued company shall be
prejudiced in pursuing in or under the laws of the Isle of Man a claim
that existed prior to the date of continuance and which could have been
pursued under the laws then governing the foreign company.
(4) Notwithstanding section 1 of the Judgments (Reciprocal Enforcement) (Isle
of Man) Act 1968, Part I of that Act applies in respect of judgments of any
court outside the Island if —
(a) the judgment debtor is a foreign company which has become a
continued company; and
(b) the judgment is given (whether before or after the commencement
of this section) in proceedings in respect of a cause of action
arising before the date of the certificate of continuance issued in
respect of the continued company under section 164(2)(c); and
Companies Act 2006 Section 167


c AT 13 of 2006 Page 99

(c) at the time when the cause of action arose, the company was
incorporated in, or had its principal place of business in the
country of the relevant court; and
(d) the judgment is final and conclusive as between the parties to it;
and
(e) there is payable under the judgment a sum of money.
(5) For the purposes of subsection (4)(d), a judgment shall be deemed to be
final and conclusive notwithstanding that an appeal may be pending
against it, or that it may still be subject to appeal, in the courts of the
country of the original court.
(6) Subsection (4) applies in respect of judgments for taxes or other charges
of a like nature or in respect of a fine or other penalty as it applies in
respect of any other judgment under which there is payable a sum of
money.
(7) Except as provided by subsection (8), section 1 of the Judgments
(Reciprocal Enforcement) (Isle of Man) Act 1968 shall not apply in respect of
any judgment to which subsection (4) applies.
(8) Where, apart from this section, Part I of the Judgments (Reciprocal
Enforcement) (Isle of Man) Act 1968 applies to a judgment of any court, this
section shall be treated as additional to and not in derogation of such
application of that Part.
CHAPTER 2 - DISCONTINUATION OF ISLE OF MAN COMPANIES
167 Application for consent to discontinuance

(1) Subject to subsection (2), a company may apply to the Registrar for
consent to be continued in a country or territory outside the Isle of Man
as if it had been incorporated under the laws of that other country or
territory and to be discontinued under this Act.
(2) A company may not apply to discontinue as a company incorporated
under this Act if —
(a) it is in liquidation or is subject to insolvency or analogous
proceedings in any jurisdiction;
(b) a receiver or manager has been appointed in relation to any of its
assets;
(c) it has entered into an arrangement with its creditors that has not
been concluded;
(d) an application made to a court in any jurisdiction for the
liquidation of the company or for the company to be subject to
insolvency or analogous proceedings has not yet been
determined; or
(e) the company fails to satisfy the solvency test.
Section 168 Companies Act 2006


Page 100 AT 13 of 2006 c

(3) An application for consent to discontinue in the Isle of Man shall be
made by the registered agent in the prescribed form and shall be
accompanied by —
(a) certified copies of —
(i) a resolution passed by a member or members holding at
least 75 per cent of the voting rights exercised in relation
thereto; and
(ii) a resolution of each class of members (if any) passed by a
member or members holding at least 75 per cent of the
voting rights exercised in relation thereto,
in each case, authorising the continuance of the company in a
named country or territory outside the Isle of Man;
(b) statutory declarations in the prescribed form made by all the
directors of the company that the company complies with the
requirements of subsection (2);
(c) a copy of a notice sent to each member of the company and
published in such manner as may be prescribed by regulations at
least 21 days prior to the application to the effect that the
company intends to cease to be incorporated in the Isle of Man, to
continue in the named country or territory outside the Isle of Man;
(d) the written consent to the making of the application by the
holders of all charges for the time being registered under section
138.
(4) The company may abandon an application for consent under this section.
168 Grant of consent

(1) Upon receipt of the documents specified in section 167(3) the Registrar
shall grant written consent in the prescribed form.
(2) The consent of the Registrar shall expire 12 weeks after the date of the
grant unless within that period the Isle of Man company is continued
under the laws of the named country or territory outside the Isle of Man.
169 Documents to be filed

(1) The company shall deliver to the Registrar a certified copy of the
instrument of continuance issued to it by the competent authorities in the
country or territory under the laws of which the Isle of Man company is
to be continued not later than 14 days after the date of issue of such
instrument of continuance.
(2) The Registrar shall file the instrument of continuance and issue a
certificate of discontinuance in the prescribed form.
Companies Act 2006 Section 170


c AT 13 of 2006 Page 101

(3) A certificate of discontinuance given by the Registrar in respect of any
company shall be conclusive evidence that all the requirements of this
Chapter in respect of discontinuance and of matters precedent and
incidental thereto have been complied with, and that the company is
duly discontinued under this Chapter.
170 Effect of discontinuance

(1) On the date of the certificate of discontinuance the company shall cease
to be incorporated as a company under this Act.
(2) This Act shall cease to apply to the company on the date upon which it is
continued under the laws of the other country or territory as stated in the
instrument of continuance.
(3) Where a company is continued under the laws of a country or territory
outside the Isle of Man service of legal process may be effected upon the
company and any director of the company holding office immediately
prior to its discontinuance in the Isle of Man in any proceeding arising
out of actions or omissions occurring prior to the discontinuance by
serving the same upon the registered agent of the company who
delivered the application pursuant to section 167(1) at its registered office
for the time being.
171 Restrictions on discontinuance of Isle of Man company

A company shall not be eligible for continuation as a body corporate under the
laws of any other country or territory unless at the time of the application under
section 167(1), the laws of that country or territory provide, in effect, that when
a company is continued as a body corporate in that country or territory —
(a) the property of the company continues to be the property of the
body corporate;
(b) the body corporate continues to be liable for the obligations of the
company;
(c) any existing cause of action, claim or liability to prosecution in
respect of the company is unaffected; and
(d) any conviction against, or any ruling, order or judgment in favour
of or against the company may be enforced by or against such
body corporate.
172 Consequences of discontinuance of company

The discontinuance of a company under this Chapter and its continuation in a
country or territory outside the Isle of Man shall not be deemed to operate —
(a) to create a new legal entity; or
(b) to prejudice or affect the continuity of the body corporate which
was formerly a company subject to this Act.
Section 173 Companies Act 2006


Page 102 AT 13 of 2006 c

PART XII – MEMBERS’ REMEDIES

173 Interpretation of this Part

In this Part “member
”, in relation to a company, means —
(a) a shareholder or a personal representative of a shareholder;
(b) a guarantee member of a company limited by guarantee or
limited by shares and by guarantee; and
(c) an unlimited member of an unlimited company.
174 Restraining compliance order

(1) If a company or a director of a company engages in, or proposes to
engage in, conduct that contravenes this Act or the memorandum or
articles of the company, the Court may, on the application of a member
or a director of the company, make an order —
(a) directing the company or director to comply with; or
(b) restraining the company or director from engaging in conduct
that contravenes,
this Act or the memorandum or articles.
(2) If the Court makes an order under subsection (1), it may also grant such
consequential relief as it thinks fit.
(3) The Court may at any time before the final determination of an
application under subsection (1), make, as an interim order, any order
that it could make as a final order under that subsection.
175 Derivative actions

(1) Subject to subsection (3), the Court may, on the application of a member
of a company, grant leave to that member —
(a) to bring proceedings in the name and on behalf of that
company; or
(b) to intervene in proceedings to which the company is a party for
the purpose of continuing, defending or discontinuing the
proceedings on behalf of the company.
(2) Without limiting subsection (1), in determining whether to grant leave
under that subsection, the Court shall take the following matters into
account —
(a) whether the member is acting in good faith;
(b) whether the derivative action is in the interests of the company
taking into account the view of the company’s directors on
commercial matters;
(c) whether the proceedings are likely to succeed;
Companies Act 2006 Section 176


c AT 13 of 2006 Page 103

(d) the costs of the proceedings in relation to the relief likely to be
obtained; and
(e) whether an alternative remedy to the derivative claim is available.
(3) Leave to bring or intervene in proceedings may be granted under
subsection (1) only if the Court is satisfied that —
(a) the company does not intend to bring, diligently continue or
defend, or discontinue the proceedings, as the case may be; or
(b) it is in the interests of the company that the conduct of the
proceedings should not be left to the directors or to the
determination of the shareholders or members as a whole.
(4) Unless the Court otherwise orders, not less than one month’s notice of an
application for leave under subsection (1) shall be served on the
company and the company is entitled to appear and be heard at the
hearing of the application.
(5) The Court may grant such interim relief as it considers appropriate
pending the determination of an application under subsection (1).
(6) Except as provided in this section, a member is not entitled to bring or
intervene in any proceedings in the name of or on behalf of a company.
176 Costs of derivative action

(1) If the Court grants leave to a member to bring or intervene in
proceedings under section 175, it shall, on the application of the member,
order that the whole of the reasonable costs of bringing or intervening in
the proceedings shall be met by the company unless the Court considers
that it would be unjust or inequitable for the company to bear those
costs.
(2) If the Court on an application made by a member under subsection (1),
considers that it would be unjust or inequitable for the company to bear
the whole of the reasonable costs of bringing or intervening in the
proceedings, it may order —
(a) that the company bear such proportion of the costs as it considers
to be reasonable; or
(b) that the company shall not bear any of the costs.
177 Powers of Court where leave granted under section 175

(1) The Court may, at any time after granting a member leave under section
175, make any order it considers appropriate in relation to proceedings
brought by the member or in which the member intervenes, including —
(a) an order authorising the member or any other person to control
the proceedings;
(b) an order giving directions for the conduct of the proceedings;
Section 178 Companies Act 2006


Page 104 AT 13 of 2006 c

(c) an order that the company or its directors provide information or
assistance in relation to the proceedings; and
(d) an order directing that any amount ordered to be paid by a
defendant in the proceedings shall be paid in whole or in part to
former and present members of the company instead of to the
company.
178 Compromise, settlement or withdrawal of derivative actions

No proceedings brought by a member or in which a member intervenes with
the leave of the Court under section 175 may be settled or compromised or
discontinued without the approval of the Court.
179 Personal actions by members

A member of a company may bring an action against the company for breach of
a duty owed by the company to such member in that capacity.
180 Prejudiced members

(1) A member of a company who considers that the affairs of the company
have been, are being or are likely to be, conducted in a manner that is, or
any act or acts of the company have been, or are, likely to be oppressive
or unfairly prejudicial to such member in that capacity, may apply to the
Court for an order under this section.
(2) If, on an application under this section, the Court considers that it is just
and equitable to do so, it may make such order as it thinks fit, including,
without limiting the generality of this subsection, one or more of the
following orders —
(a) requiring the company or any other person to acquire the
shareholder’s shares;
(b) requiring the company or any other person to pay compensation
to the applicant;
(c) regulating the future conduct of the company’s affairs;
(d) amending the memorandum or articles of the company;
(e) appointing a receiver of the company;
(f) making a winding up order in respect of the company under
section 165 of the Companies Act 1931 on the grounds specified in
section 162(6) of that Act;
(g) directing the rectification of the records of the company;
(h) setting aside any decision made or action taken by the company
or its directors in breach of this Act or the memorandum or
articles of the company.
Companies Act 2006 Section 181


c AT 13 of 2006 Page 105

(3) No order may be made against the company or any other person under
this section unless the company or that person is a party to the
proceedings in which the application is made.
181 Representative actions

Where a member of a company brings proceedings against the company and
other members have the same or substantially the same interest in relation to
the proceedings, the Court may appoint that member to represent all or some of
the members having the same interest and may, for that purpose, make such
order as it thinks fit, including an order —
(a) as to the control and conduct of the proceedings;
(b) as to the costs of the proceedings; and
(c) directing the distribution of any amount ordered to be paid by a
defendant in the proceedings among the members represented.
PART XIII - LIQUIDATION AND RECEIVERSHIP, STRIKING-

OFF, DISSOLUTION AND RESTORATION

CHAPTER 1 - LIQUIDATION AND RECEIVERSHIP
182 Application of the Companies Act 1931

Sections 155 to 272 (inclusive) and 277 to 282 (inclusive) of the Companies Acts
1931 to 2004 shall apply to a company incorporated under this Act as if it were a
company incorporated under the Companies Act 1931 and for such purposes
references therein to the Department of Economic Development shall be
construed as references to the Registrar and as if references therein to a “special
resolution” were references to a resolution.51

CHAPTER 2 - STRIKING-OFF
183 Striking company off register

(1) The Registrar may strike the name of a company off the register of
companies if —
(a) the company —
(i) fails to have a registered agent under section 74(1) or 77(4);
or
(ii) fails to file any return, notice or document required to be
filed under this Act; or
(b) the Registrar is satisfied that the company has ceased to carry on
business; or
Section 184 Companies Act 2006


Page 106 AT 13 of 2006 c

(c) the company fails to pay its annual fee or any late payment
penalty by the due date.
(2) Before striking a company off the register of companies on the grounds
specified in subsection (1)(a) or (1)(b), the Registrar shall —
(a) send the company a notice stating that, unless the company shows
cause to the contrary, it will be struck from the register of
companies on a date specified in the notice which shall be no less
than 12 weeks after the date of the notice; and
(b) publish a notice of the Registrar’s intention to strike the company
off the register in such manner as may be prescribed by
regulations.
(3) After the expiration of the time specified in the notice, unless the
company has shown cause to the contrary, the Registrar may strike the
name of the company off the register of companies.
(4) The Registrar shall publish a notice of the striking-off of a company from
the register of companies in such manner as may be prescribed by
regulations.
(5) The striking of a company off the register of companies is effective from
the date of the notice published under subsection (4).
(6) The striking-off of a company shall not be affected by any failure on the
part of the Registrar to serve a notice on the registered agent or to
publish a notice under subsection (4).
184 Appeal

(1) Any person who is aggrieved by the striking of a company off the
register of companies under section 183 may, within 12 weeks of the date
of the notice published in such manner as may be prescribed by
regulations, appeal to the Court.
(2) Notice of an appeal to the Court under subsection (1) shall be served on
the Registrar who shall be entitled to appear and be heard at the hearing
of the appeal.
(3) The Registrar may, pending an appeal under subsection (1) of any person
aggrieved by the striking of a company off the register of companies,
suspend the operation of the striking-off upon such terms as the
Registrar considers appropriate, pending the determination of the
appeal.
185 Effect of striking-off

(1) Where a company has been struck off the register of companies under
section 183, the company and the directors, members and any liquidator
or receiver thereof, may not, subject to subsections (2) and (3) —
Companies Act 2006 Section 186


c AT 13 of 2006 Page 107

(a) commence legal proceedings, carry on any business or in any way
deal with the assets of the company;
(b) defend any legal proceedings, make any claim or claim any right
for, or in the name of, the company; or
(c) act in any way with respect to the affairs of the company.
(2) Notwithstanding subsection (1), where a company has been struck off
the register of companies under section 183, the company, or a director,
member, liquidator or receiver thereof, may —
(a) make application for restoration of the company to the register of
companies;
(b) continue to defend proceedings that were commenced against the
company prior to the date of the striking-off; and
(c) continue to carry on legal proceedings that were instituted on
behalf of the company prior to the date of striking-off.
(3) The fact that a company is struck off the register of companies does not
prevent —
(a) the company from incurring liabilities; or
(b) any creditor from making a claim against the company and
pursuing the claim through to judgment or execution;
and does not affect the liability of any of its members, directors, officers
or agents.
186 Dissolution of company struck off the register

If a company has been struck off the register of companies under section 183
and remains struck off continuously for a period of 6 years, the company shall
be deemed to have been dissolved.
187 Restoration of name of company to register by Registrar

(1) Where a company has been struck off the register of companies under
section 183, but not dissolved, the Registrar may, upon receipt of an
application in the prescribed form and upon payment of all outstanding
fees, restore the company to the register of companies and issue a
certificate of restoration to the register of companies.
(2) Where the company has been struck off the register of companies under
section 183, the Registrar shall not restore the company to the register of
companies unless —
(a) the Registrar is satisfied that a person meeting the requirements of
section 74(3) has agreed to act as registered agent of the company;
and
Section 188 Companies Act 2006


Page 108 AT 13 of 2006 c

(b) the Registrar is satisfied that it would be fair and reasonable for
the name of the company to be restored to the register of
companies.
(3) An application to restore a company to the register of companies under
subsection (1) may be made by the company, or a creditor, member or
liquidator of the company and shall be made within 6 years of the date of
the notice published under section 183(4).
(4) The company, a creditor, a member or a liquidator thereof may, within
12 weeks, appeal to the Court from a refusal of the Registrar to restore
the company to the register of companies and, if the Court is satisfied
that it would be just for the company to be restored to the register of
companies, the Court may direct the Registrar to do so upon such terms
and conditions as it may consider appropriate.
(5) Notice of an appeal under subsection (4) shall be served on the Registrar
who shall be entitled to appear and be heard at the hearing of the appeal.
(6) Where a company is restored to the register of companies under this
section, the company is deemed never to have been struck off the register
of companies.
188 Restoration of name of company to register by Court

(1) Where a company has been dissolved pursuant to this Chapter,
application may be made to the Court to restore the company to the
register of companies by the company, or any creditor, member or
liquidator of the company, and shall be made within 12 years of the date
of the dissolution under section 186.
(2) On an application under subsection (1), the Court may restore the
company to the register of companies subject to such conditions as it
considers just.
(3) Where a company is restored to the register of companies under this
section, the company is deemed never to have been struck off the register
of companies.
189 Appointment of liquidator of company struck off

(1) Where a company has been struck off the register of companies under
section 183, the Registrar may apply to the Court for an order that the
company be wound up.
(2) Where the Court makes an order under subsection (1) —
(a) the company is restored to the register of companies; and
(b) the liquidator is deemed to have been appointed by the Court
under the Companies Act 1931.
Companies Act 2006 Section 190


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CHAPTER 3 - ALTERNATIVE PROCEDURE FOR DISSOLVING SOLVENT
COMPANIES
190 Alternative procedure for dissolving solvent companies

(1) Where a company has ceased to operate and has discharged all its debts
and liabilities (other than those owed to its members in their capacities as
such) such persons as are prescribed by regulations may apply to the
Registrar for a declaration of dissolution of the company.
(2) An application under this section shall be in the prescribed form and
shall be accompanied by a statutory declaration made by a director
stating that the company has ceased to operate and that to the best of
such director’s knowledge and belief and having made full enquiry into
the affairs of the company, the director is satisfied that the company has
discharged all its debts and liabilities (other than those owed to members
in their capacities as such).
(3) Upon receipt of an application under subsection (1) the Registrar shall
publish a notice in such manner as may be prescribed by regulations to
the effect that the applicant has applied to the Registrar for a declaration
of dissolution of the company and that, unless written objection is made
to the Registrar within one month of the date of publication of the notice,
the Registrar may dissolve the company.
(4) Before making an application to the Registrar under this section, the
applicant shall ensure that there has been sent by pre-paid post to each
director, to the registered agent and to each member of the company at
the last business or residential address of which the company has notice,
a notice to the effect that the applicant proposes to apply to the Registrar
for a declaration of dissolution of the company and that, unless written
objection is made to the Registrar within one month of the date the notice
was posted, the Registrar shall dissolve the company.
(5) The Registrar shall not make a declaration of dissolution of a company
earlier than one month after the date of the publication of the notice
required by subsection (3).
(6) On receipt of any written objection to the dissolution of the company, the
Registrar shall notify the applicant for the declaration of dissolution of
the receipt of the objection and of the identity of the objector.
(7) Where a person has objected to the dissolution of the company, the
Registrar shall not declare the dissolution of the company unless —
(a) the objection is withdrawn; or
(b) the Registrar decides that the objection is without
justification and —
Section 191 Companies Act 2006


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(i) the objector has not appealed against the Registrar’s
decision to the Court within 21 days after the date of the
decision; or
(ii) the Court has upheld the Registrar’s decision.
(8) If the Registrar is not prevented from declaring the dissolution of a
company pursuant to this section, the Registrar shall notify the company
that, subject to the company’s memorandum and articles, it is entitled to
distribute its surplus assets among its members according to their
respective rights and, notwithstanding any other provision of this Act or
any rule of law, the company may distribute its surplus assets
accordingly.
(9) Subject to subsection (10), on receipt of notification from a company —
(a) that its surplus assets have been distributed in accordance with
subsection (8); or
(b) that the company, having carried out full inquiry, is unable to
distribute its surplus assets,
the Registrar shall publish a notice in such manner as may be prescribed
by regulations which declares that the company is dissolved and, on the
publication of the notice, the company shall be dissolved and any
surplus assets which have not been distributed shall be deemed to be
bona vacantia in accordance with section 193.
(10) Notwithstanding the dissolution of the company —
(a) the liability, if any, of every director and member of the company
shall continue and may be enforced as if the company had not
been dissolved; and
(b) notwithstanding that a company has been dissolved, or that its
surplus assets have been distributed in accordance with this
section, the Court may wind up the company as if it had not been
dissolved, or its surplus assets had not been distributed, as the
case may be.
191 Restoration of dissolved companies by the Court

(1) Where a company has been dissolved pursuant to section 190, section
156(5) or section 159(4), the Court, on an application made by the
Registrar or any director, member or creditor of the company before the
expiration of 12 years from the publication of the notice of dissolution,
may, if satisfied that at the time of dissolution of the company it was in
operation or had not discharged all its debts and liabilities or otherwise
that it is fair and reasonable that the dissolution of the company be
revoked, order that the dissolution of the company be revoked, and upon
a certified copy of the order being delivered to the Registrar for
registration, the company shall be deemed to have continued in existence
as if it had not been dissolved, and the Court may by the order give such
Companies Act 2006 Section 192


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directions and make such provisions as seem just for placing the
company and all other persons in the same position as nearly as may be
as if the company had not been dissolved.
(2) An order under subsection (1) may be made on such terms and
conditions as the Court thinks fit.
192 Alternative procedure for restoration of dissolved companies

(1) A company or, any director, member or creditor thereof who feels
aggrieved by the company having been dissolved under section 186 or
190 may, before the expiration of 12 years from the date of dissolution
pursuant to section 186 or the publication of a notice under section 190(9)
(as the case may be), make application to the Registrar for a direction
under this section.
(2) An application under subsection (1) shall be in the prescribed form and
shall be accompanied by a copy of the notice given under subsection (3).
(3) Before making an application to the Registrar under subsection (1), the
applicant shall ensure that there has been sent by pre-paid post to each
director, to the registered agent and to each member of the company as
at the date of dissolution at the last business or residential address of
which the company has notice, a notice to the effect that the applicant
proposes to apply to the Registrar for a direction restoring the company
to the register of companies and that unless written objection is made to
the Registrar within one month of the date of publishing or posting, as
the case may be, the Registrar shall make such direction.
(4) Upon receipt of an application under subsection (1) the Registrar shall,
within a reasonable time, publish notice of the application in such
manner as may be prescribed by regulations and shall maintain a current
list of applications.
(5) The Registrar shall not make a direction under this section earlier than
one month after the date of posting of the last notice posted for the
purposes of subsection (3).
(6) On receipt of any written objection to the restoration of the company, the
Registrar shall forthwith notify the applicant of the receipt of the
objection and of the identity of the objector.
(7) The Registrar shall not make a direction under this section unless —
(a) there are no objections to the restoration of the company under
this section; or
(b) all objections are withdrawn; or
(c) the Registrar decides that the objections are without justification
and —
(i) the objector has not appealed against the Registrar’s
decision within 21 days after the date of the decision; or
Section 193 Companies Act 2006


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(ii) the Court has upheld the Registrar’s decision,
(8) Subject to subsection (7), on receipt of an application under this section
the Registrar shall direct the name of the company to be restored to the
register of companies.
(9) Upon the Registrar making a direction for registration pursuant to
subsection (8), the company shall be deemed to have continued in
existence as if it had not been dissolved.
(10) This section is without prejudice to the powers of the court under
sections 188 and 191.
CHAPTER 4 - PROPERTY OF DISSOLVED COMPANIES
193 Property of dissolved company to be bona vacantia

(1) Where a company is dissolved, all property and rights whatsoever
vested in or held on trust for the company immediately before its
dissolution (but not including property held by the company on trust for
any other person) shall be deemed to be bona vacantia and shall
accordingly vest in the Treasury in trust for the Crown and may be dealt
with in the same manner as other bona vacantia accruing to the Crown.
(2) Except as provided by section 195 below, this section shall have effect
subject and without prejudice to any order made by the Court under
section 191.
194 Power to disclaim title to property vesting under section 193

(1) Where any property vests in the Treasury under section 193, the
Treasury’s title thereto under that section may be disclaimed by a notice
by the Treasury.
(2) Where a notice of disclaimer under this section is executed as respects
any property, that property shall be deemed not to have vested in the
Treasury under section 193, and subsections (2) and (6) of section 252 of
the Companies Act 1931 shall apply in relation to the property as if it had
been disclaimed under subsection (1) of the said section 252 immediately
before the dissolution of the company.
(3) The right to execute a notice of disclaimer under this section may be
waived by the Treasury either expressly or by taking possession or other
act evincing that intention.
195 Disposal of property vesting under section 193

(1) Where a company is dissolved and any property or right vested in or
held on trust for that company immediately before its dissolution vests
as bona vacantia accruing to the Treasury by virtue of section 193, the
Treasury may dispose of, or of an interest in, that property or right
Companies Act 2006 Section 196


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notwithstanding that an order may be made under section 272(1) of the
Companies Act 1931, section 191 or section 192 in relation to that
company; and where any such order is made —
(a) it shall not affect that disposition (but without prejudice to that
order so far as it relates to any other property or right previously
vested in or held on trust for the company); and
(b) the Treasury shall pay to the company an amount equal to the
amount of any consideration received for the property or right, or
interest therein, or to the value of any such consideration at the
time of the disposition, or, if no consideration was received, an
amount equal to the value of the property, right or interest
disposed of, as at the date of the disposition.
PART XIV – INVESTIGATION OF COMPANIES

196 Definition of “inspector”

In sections 197 to 202, “inspector
” means an inspector appointed by an order
made under section 197(2).
197 Investigation order

(1) A member may apply to the Court ex parte or upon such notice as the
Court may require, for an order directing that an investigation be made
of a company and any of its associated companies.
(2) If, upon an application under subsection (1), it appears to the Court
that —
(a) the business of a company or any of its associated companies is or
has been carried on with intent to defraud any person;
(b) a company or any of its associated companies was formed for a
fraudulent or unlawful purpose or is to be dissolved for a
fraudulent or unlawful purpose; or
(c) persons concerned with the incorporation, business or affairs of a
company or any of its associated companies have in connection
therewith acted fraudulently or dishonestly,
the Court may make any order it thinks fit with respect to an
investigation of that company and any of its associated companies by an
inspector, who may be the Authority.52

(3) If a member makes an application under subsection (1), such member
shall give the Registrar reasonable notice of it, and the Registrar is
entitled to appear and be heard at the hearing of the application.
Section 198 Companies Act 2006


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198 Court’s powers

(1) An order made under section 197(2) shall include an order appointing an
inspector to investigate the company and an order fixing the inspector’s
remuneration.
(2) An order made under section 197(2) may —
(a) replace the inspector;
(b) determine the notice to be given to any interested person, or
dispensing with notice to any person;
(c) authorise the inspector to enter any premises in which the Court
is satisfied there might be relevant information, and to examine
anything, and to make copies of any documents or records, found
on the premises;
(d) require any person to produce documents or records to the
inspector;
(e) authorise the inspector to conduct a hearing, administer oaths or
affirmations and examine any person upon oath or affirmation,
and prescribe rules for the conduct of the hearing;
(f) require any person to attend a hearing conducted by the inspector
and to give evidence upon oath or affirmation;
(g) give directions to the inspector or any interested person on any
matter arising in the investigation;
(h) require the inspector to make an interim or final report to the
Court;
(i) determine whether a report of the inspector should be published,
and, if so, ordering the inspector to publish the report in whole or
in part, or to send copies to any person the Court designates; and
(j) require an inspector to discontinue an investigation; and
(k) require the company to pay the costs of the investigation in part
or in full.
(3) The inspector shall deliver a copy of every report made by such inspector
under this section to the Registrar and the Authority.53

(4) A report received by the Registrar and the Authority under subsection
(3) shall not be disclosed to any person other than in accordance with an
order of the Court made under subsection (2)(i).54

199 Inspector’s powers

An inspector —
(a) has the powers set out in the order appointing such inspector; and
(b) shall upon request produce to any interested person a copy of the
order.
Companies Act 2006 Section 200


c AT 13 of 2006 Page 115

200 Hearing in camera

(1) An application under this Part and any subsequent proceedings,
including applications for directions in respect of any matter arising in
the investigation, shall be heard in camera unless the Court orders
otherwise.
(2) No person shall publish anything relating to any proceedings under this
Part except with the authorisation of the Court.
201 Incriminating evidence

No person is excused from attending and giving evidence and producing
documents and records to an inspector appointed by the Court under this Part
by reason only that the evidence tends to incriminate that person or subject that
person to any proceeding or penalty, but the evidence may not be used or
received against that person in any proceeding thereafter instituted against that
person, other than a prosecution for perjury in giving the evidence.
202 Absolute privilege

An oral or written statement or report made by an inspector or any other person
in an investigation under this Part has absolute privilege.
PART XV – ADMINISTRATION AND GENERAL

203 Optional registration of register of members

(1) A company may elect to file a copy of its register of members for
registration by the Registrar.
(2) A company that has elected to file a copy of its register of members for
registration shall register any changes therein with the Registrar within
one month of such changes being made unless and until an election to
cease such filing has been made under subsection (3).
(3) A company that has elected to file a copy of its register of members for
registration by the Registrar may elect to cease registration by so filing a
notice in the prescribed form.
204 Optional registration of register of directors

(1) A company may elect to file a copy of its register of directors for
registration by the Registrar.
(2) A company that has elected to file a copy of its register of directors for
registration shall register any changes therein with the Registrar within
one month of such changes being made unless and until an election to
cease such filing has been made under subsection (3).
Section 205 Companies Act 2006


Page 116 AT 13 of 2006 c

(3) A company that has elected to file a copy of its register of directors for
registration by the Registrar may elect to cease registration by so filing a
notice in the prescribed form.
205 Registrar of Companies

(1) The Treasury shall appoint a suitably experienced person to be Registrar
of Companies.
(2) Subject to the control of the Treasury, the Registrar is responsible for the
administration of this Act.
205A Duty of Registrar to co-operate with certain supervisory bodies

(1) The Registrar must take such steps as it considers appropriate to co-
operate with the bodies specified in subsection (2).
(2) The bodies are —
(a) the Panel on Takeovers and Mergers;
(b) an authority designated as a supervisory authority for the
purposes of article 4.1 of the Takeovers Directive [OJ L 142,
30.4.2004, p 21]; and
(c) any other person or body exercising public functions under
legislation in any country or territory outside the British Islands
that appears to the Registrar to be similar to those of the Panel on
Takeovers and Mergers.
(3) No obligation of confidentiality (whether imposed by statute or
otherwise) precludes —
(a) the disclosure by a recipient to whom subsection (4) applies of
confidential information disclosed to it by the Registrar if the
Registrar’s disclosure was made for the purpose of facilitating the
carrying out of a public function;
(b) the disclosure of such information by a person obtaining it
directly or indirectly from a recipient to whom subsection (4)
applies.
(4) This subsection applies to —
(a) the Panel on Takeovers and Mergers;
(b) an authority designated as a supervisory authority for the
purposes of article 4.1 of the Takeovers Directive; and
(c) any other person or body exercising public functions under
legislation in an EEA State other than the United Kingdom that
are similar to the Registrar’s functions or those of the Panel on
Takeovers and Mergers.
(5) In this section —
Companies Act 2006 Section 206


c AT 13 of 2006 Page 117

“the Panel on Takeovers and Mergers” means the body referred to in section
942(1) of the Companies Act 2006 (an Act of Parliament);
“public functions” includes —
(a) functions conferred by or in accordance with any provision
contained in any enactment or subordinate legislation;
(b) functions conferred by or in accordance with any provisions
contained in the EU Treaties within the meaning of the European
Communities (Isle of Man) Act 1973;55

(c) similar functions conferred on persons by or under provisions
having effect as part of the law of —
(i) a part of the British Islands outside the Island; or
(ii) a country or territory outside the British Islands;
(d) functions in relation to disciplinary proceedings prescribed by
regulations made by the Department of Economic Development;
“the Takeovers Directive” means Directive 2004/25/EC of the European
Parliament and the Council of the European Communities1.56

205B Sharing information with the Authority
57

No obligation of confidentiality, whether imposed by statute or otherwise, shall
preclude the disclosure by the Department of Economic Development to the Authority
of information held by the Department (whether in its capacity as Registrar or
otherwise) if reasonably required for the purposes of the Authority’s functions.58

206 Register of companies

(1) The Registrar shall maintain a register of companies incorporated, re-
registered or continued under this Act.
(2) The registers maintained by the Registrar and the information contained
in any document filed may be kept in such manner as the Registrar
considers fit including, either wholly or partly, by means of a device or
facility —
(a) that records or stores information magnetically, electronically or
by other means; and
(b) that permits the information recorded or stored to be inspected
and reproduced in legible and usable form.
(3) Regulations may provide for the keeping of registers by the Registrar in
electronic form, the filing of documents in both paper and electronic
form, including the approval by the Registrar of systems and the
inspection of registers kept in electronic form.
1 OJ L 142, 30.4.2004, p. 12
Section 207 Companies Act 2006


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207 Filing of documents

(1) Where a document is required to be filed under this Act, it shall be filed
by such persons as are prescribed by regulations.
(2) Regulations may provide for the electronic filing of any document under
this Act.
208 Power of Registrar to refuse to register documents

(1) The Registrar may refuse to accept for registration any document filed
under this Act or any regulations if —
(a) it does not comply with this Act or any regulations;
(b) it has not been duly completed;
(c) it contains any material error;
(d) it is not legible; or
(e) it is not accompanied by any applicable fee, duty or penalty.
(2) If the Registrar refuses to accept a document under subsection (1), the
Registrar shall return the document to the person who submitted it
together with a notice in the prescribed form specifying the grounds
upon which such document has been rejected.
(3) A document validly rejected by the Registrar under subsection (1) shall
be deemed not have been filed for the purposes of this Act and any
regulations.
(4) Any person who is aggrieved by the rejection of a document by the
Registrar under subsection (1) may appeal to the Court within one
month after the date of the rejection or such further time as the Court
may allow.
(5) On hearing an appeal under subsection (4), the Court may confirm the
rejection or make such determination in the matter as the Court sees fit.
208A Appeals from decisions of Registrar

(1) Any person who is aggrieved by a decision of the Registrar under this
Act may appeal to the Court within one month after the date of the
decision or such further time as the Court may allow.
(2) On hearing an appeal under subsection (1), the Court may confirm the
decision or make such determination in the matter as the Court sees fit.59

209 Inspection and evidence of registers

(1) A person may —
(a) inspect the documents kept by the Registrar pursuant to this Act;
and
Companies Act 2006 Section 210


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(b) require a certificate of incorporation, merger, consolidation,
continuation, discontinuance, dissolution, re-registration,
restoration or good standing of a company incorporated under
this Act, or a copy or an extract of any document or any part of a
document of which the Registrar has custody, to be certified by
the Registrar; and a certificate of incorporation, merger,
consolidation, continuation, discontinuance, dissolution, re-
registration or good standing or a certified copy or extract is
conclusive evidence of the matters contained therein.
(2) A document or a copy or an extract of any document or any part of a
document certified by the Registrar under subsection (1) is admissible in
evidence in any proceedings as if it were the original document.
210 Form of certificate

Any certificate or other document required to be issued by the Registrar under
this Act shall be in the prescribed form.
211 Certificate of good standing

(1) The Registrar shall, upon request by any person, issue a certificate of
good standing certifying that a company is of good standing if the
Registrar is satisfied that —
(a) the company is on the register of companies; and
(b) the company has paid all fees, annual fees and penalties due and
payable.
(2) The certificate of good standing issued under subsection (1) shall contain
a statement as to whether —
(a) there are documents on the company file relating to winding up
or dissolution of the company or the appointment of a receiver in
respect of any of its assets; or
(b) any proceedings to strike the name of the company off the register
of companies have been instituted.
212 Fees and penalties

(1) Regulations may prescribe the fees, duties and penalties which are to be
paid under this Act or in relation to any function undertaken by the
Registrar under this Act or any regulations.
(2) Fees, duties and penalties payable under this Act and any regulations
shall form part of the General Revenue of the Isle of Man.
Section 213 Companies Act 2006


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213 Company struck off liable for fees, etc.

A company continues to be liable for all fees, duties and penalties payable
under this Act notwithstanding that the name of the company has been struck
off the register of companies.
214 Fees payable to Registrar

The Registrar may refuse to take any action required of the Registrar under this
Act for which a fee, duty or penalty is prescribed by regulations until all fees,
duties and penalties have been paid.
215 Companies regulations

(1) The Registrar may, after consulting with the Treasury, make regulations
generally for giving effect to this Act and specifically in respect of
anything required or permitted to be prescribed or provided for by this
Act.
(2) Regulations may make different provisions in relation to different
persons, circumstances or cases.
(3) Regulations under this section shall be laid before Tynwald as soon as is
practicable after they are made, and if Tynwald at the sitting at which the
regulations are laid or at the next following sitting resolves that they
shall be annulled, they shall cease to have effect.
216 Approval of forms by Registrar

(1) The Registrar may prescribe by regulations forms and templates in
written or electronic form which shall be used when submitting
information required to be submitted under this Act.
(2) Where a form or template is required to be in a “prescribed form”,
it shall —
(a) contain the information required to be specified in it; and
(b) have attached to it such documents as may be required by it.
PART XVI – MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

217 Declaration by Court

(1) A company may, without the necessity of joining any other party, apply
to the Court, by petition supported by an affidavit, for a declaration on
any question of interpretation of this Act or of the memorandum or
articles of the company.
(2) A person acting on a declaration made by the Court as a result of an
application under subsection (1) shall be deemed, in so far as regards the
Companies Act 2006 Section 218


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discharge of any fiduciary or professional duty by such person, to have
properly discharged such duties in the subject matter of the application.
218 Interpretation

In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires —
“1931 Act company
” means a company incorporated under the Companies Acts
1931 to 2004;
“articles
” means the original, amended or restated articles of association of a
company;
“asset
” includes money, goods, things in action, land and every description of
property wherever situated and obligations and every description of
interest, whether present or future or vested or contingent, arising out of,
or incidental to, property;
“associated company
” means, in relation to any company —
(a) any company of which that company is a director;
(b) any company which is a director of that company;
(c) any subsidiary of that company;
(d) any holding company of that company; and
(e) any subsidiary of any such holding company;
“Authority
” means the Isle of Man Financial Services Authority (as established
by article 4 of the Transfer of Functions (Isle of Man Financial Services
Authority) Order 2015);60

“bearer share
” means a share represented by a certificate which states that the
bearer of the certificate is the owner of the share and includes a share
warrant to bearer;
“board
”, in relation to a company, means —
(a) the board of directors, committee of management, council or other
governing authority of the company acting together; or
(b) if the company has only one director, that director;
“cell
” means a cell created by a PCC for the purpose of segregating and
protecting cellular assets in the manner provided by Part VII;
“cell share capital
” has the meaning given in section 119;
“cell shares
” has the meaning given in section 119;
“cellular assets
” has the meaning given in section 117(5);
“cellular distribution
” has the meaning given in section 120(1);
“class
”, in relation to shares, means a class of shares each of which has identical
rights, privileges, limitations and conditions attached to it;
“Commission
” [Repealed]61

Section 218 Companies Act 2006


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“company
” has the meaning specified in section 219(1);
“company number
” means the number allotted to the company by the
Registrar —
(a) on its incorporation under section 3(1);
(b) on its continuation under section 162;
(c) on its re-registration under Chapter 2 of Part IX; or
(d) on its consolidation under section 154 or 159;
“continued
” means continued under section 162;
“continued company
” has the same meaning specified in section 162(6);
“corporate director
” means a director or a person who is proposed to be a
director (as the case may be) who is not an individual;
“Court
” means the High Court of Justice of the Isle of Man;
“creditor
” includes present, future and contingent creditors;
“director
” has the meaning specified in section 221;
“disqualified person
” means a person who for the time being is subject to an
order disqualifying that person from acting as a director or liquidator or
a receiver or manager of a company’s property or from being concerned
in the promotion, formation or management of a company.
“distribution
” has the meaning specified in section 49;
“document
” means a document in any form and includes —
(a) any writing or printing on any material;
(b) any record of information or data, however compiled, and
whether stored in paper, electronic, magnetic or any non-paper
based form and any storage medium or device, including discs
and tapes;
(c) books and drawings; and
(d) a photograph, film, tape, negative, facsimile or other medium in
which one or more visual images are embodied so as to be
capable (with or without the aid of equipment) of being
reproduced,
and, without limiting the generality of the foregoing, includes any court
application, order and other legal process and any notice;
“to file
” shall have the meaning prescribed by regulations. Where the document
to be filed records a resolution, it shall be treated for the purposes of any
time limit for filing, as having been created on the date of the resolution;
“foreign company
” has the meaning specified in section 219(3);
“guarantee member
” has the meaning specified in section 59;
Companies Act 2006 Section 218


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“liability
” includes any debt or obligation, whether actual, prospective or
contingent;
“limited company
” means a company of a type specified in section 1
paragraphs (a), (b) and (c);
“member
”, in relation to a company, means a person who is —
(a) a shareholder;
(b) a guarantee member; or
(c) an unlimited member;
“memorandum
” means the original, amended or restated memorandum of
association of a company;
“non-cellular assets
” has the meaning give in section 117(4);
“non-cellular distribution
” has the meaning given in section 120(3);
“one month
” from any particular date means the period ending on the close of
business on the same date of the subsequent month, save that where
such date in the subsequent month does not exist the period shall end on
the close of business on the last day of that subsequent month;
“prescribed
” means prescribed by regulations;
“prescribed form
” means a form prescribed by the Registrar in accordance with
section 216;
“protected cell company
” or “PCC
” means a company that has been
incorporated or continued as, or has been converted into, a protected cell
company for the purposes of Part VII;
“register
”, in relation to an act done by the Registrar, means to retain (where
appropriate) and to register in the register of companies;
“register of companies
” means the register of companies maintained by the
Registrar in accordance with section 206(1);
“registered agent
” means the person who is the company’s registered agent in
accordance with section 74;
“registered office
” has the meaning specified in section 73(2);
“Registrar
” means the Registrar of Companies appointed under section 205;
“regulations
” means regulations made under section 215;
“relevant model articles
” has the meaning specified in section 6(1);
“resolution
” —
(a) in relation to the members of a company, has the meaning
specified in section 65; and
(b) in relation to the directors of a company, has the meaning
specified in section 109;
Section 219 Companies Act 2006


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“restated articles
” means a single document that incorporates the articles
together with all amendments made thereto;
“restated memorandum
” means a single document that incorporates the
memorandum together with all amendments made thereto;
“securities
” means shares and debt obligations of every kind, and includes
options, warrants and rights to acquire shares or debt obligations;
“shareholder
” has the meaning specified in section 59;
“solvency test
” has the meaning specified in section 49;
“statutory declaration
” means —
(a) if made in the Isle of Man, a declaration made under the Evidence
Act 1871; and
(b) if made in a country or territory outside the Isle of Man, a
declaration made before a justice of the peace, notary public or
other person having authority therein under any law for the time
being in force to take or receive a declaration;
“subscriber
” means a person who signs the original memorandum and articles
(if any) of a company under section 2(1);
“transaction
” means anything (including, without limitation, any agreement,
arrangement, dealing, disposition, circumstance, event or relationship)
whereby any liability arises or is imposed;
“unlimited company
” means a company of a type specified in section 1(d) or
(e);
“unlimited member
” has the meaning specified in section 59; and
“voting rights
” means, in relation to a resolution of the members of a company,
or a class of members of a company, all the rights to vote on such
resolution conferred on the members of the company.
219 Meaning of “company” and “foreign company”

(1) Unless this Act expressly provides otherwise,
“company
” means —
(a) a company incorporated under section 3,
(b) a company re-registered under Part IX;
(c) a company continued under section 165; or
(d) a 1931 Act company that has re-registered under Part IX,
but excludes a company that has been dissolved and a company that has
continued as a company incorporated under the laws of a jurisdiction
outside the Isle of Man in accordance with section 170.
Companies Act 2006 Section 220


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(2) In Part X, of this Act “company
” may include a 1931 Act company
provided that any merger, consolidation or arrangement includes at least
one company incorporated under this Act.
(3) In this Act, “foreign company
” means a body corporate incorporated,
registered or formed outside the Isle of Man but excludes a company
within the meaning of subsection (1).
(4) Regulations may prescribe types of bodies, associations and entities that,
although not a body corporate, are to be treated as a bodies corporate for
the purposes of subsection (2).
220 Meaning of “subsidiary” and “holding company”

(1) A company (the first company) is a subsidiary of another company (the
second company), if —
(a) the second company —
(i) holds a majority of the voting rights in the first company;
(ii) is a member of the first company and has the right to
appoint or remove a majority of its board; or
(iii) is a member of the first company and controls alone, or
pursuant to an agreement with other members, a majority
of the voting rights of the first company; or
(b) the first company is a subsidiary of a company which is itself a
subsidiary of the second company.
(2) A company is the holding company of another company if that other
company is its subsidiary.
(3) For the purposes of subsections (1) and (2), “company” includes a
foreign company and any other body corporate.
221 Meaning of “director”

(1) Under this Act, “director
” in relation to a company, a foreign company
and any other body corporate means a person occupying or acting in the
position of director by whatever name called.
(2) For the purposes of section 104 a person is deemed to be a director of a
company if that person is —
(a) a person in accordance with whose directions or instructions a
director or the board of the company may be required or is
accustomed to act; or
(b) a person who exercises, or is entitled to exercise, or who controls,
or is entitled to control, the exercise of powers which, apart from
the memorandum or articles, would fall to be exercised by the
board.
Section 222 Companies Act 2006


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(3) Notwithstanding subsection (2), a person is not to be regarded as a
director of a company for the purposes of section 104 —
(a) by reason only that a director or the board act on advice given by
that person in a professional capacity; or
(b) by virtue of that person acting —
(i) as a receiver of the company;
(ii) as the liquidator of the company.
222 Application of Companies Acts 1931 to 2004

Save as expressly provided in this Act, the provisions of the Companies Acts
1931 to 2004 shall not apply to a company incorporated or contained under
this Act.
223 Offences

(1) Any person guilty of an offence under any provision of this Act shall be
liable —
(a) on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding £5,000;
(b) on conviction on information, to a fine.
(2) Where an offence under this Act committed by a body corporate is
proved to have been committed with the consent or connivance of, or to
be attributable to neglect on the part of, a director, manager or other
officer of the body corporate, or its registered agent, or a person who was
purporting to act in any such capacity, such person, as well as the body
corporate, is guilty of the offence and is liable to be proceeded against
and punished accordingly.
224 Repeals and amendments

(1) The enactments specified in Schedule 1 are amended in accordance with
that Schedule.
(2) The enactments specified in Schedule 2 are repealed to the extent set out
in column 3 of that Schedule.
225 Short title and commencement

(1) This Act may be cited as the Companies Act 2006.
(2) The provisions of this Act shall come into operation on such a day or
days as the Treasury may by order appoint and different days may be so
appointed for different provisions and for different purposes.
(3) An order under subsection (2) may —
(a) make such transitional adaptations to or modifications of the
provisions brought into force by the order as the Treasury
Companies Act 2006 Section 225


c AT 13 of 2006 Page 127

considers expedient, including different adaptations or
modifications for different provisions and for different purposes;
(b) include such transitional provisions and saving provisions
modifying the application of any provision of any enactment
pending the commencement of, or pending the doing of anything
under, a provision of this Act as the Treasury considers expedient;
(c) repeal or amend any provision of any enactment passed before
this Act that appears to the Treasury to be inconsistent with, or to
have become unnecessary or to require modification in
consequence of, this Act.
(4) An order under subsection (2) shall be laid before Tynwald as soon as
practicable after it is made.62

Companies Act 2006 Schedule 1



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Schedule 1

AMENDMENT OF ENACTMENTS

Section 224(1)63

Sch 1 amended by Collective Investment Schemes Act 2008 Sch 7 and by Company
Officers (Disqualification) Act 2009 Sch 5, and amends the following Acts —
Companies Act 1931 q.v.
Corporate Service Providers Act 2000 q.v
Schedule 2

ENACTMENTS REPEALED

Section 224(2)
Sch 2 repeals the following Act wholly —
Prevention of Fraud (Investments) Act 1968
and part of the Companies Act 1931
Companies Act 2006 Endnotes


c AT 13 of 2006 Page 131

ENDNOTES

Table of Endnote References

1
S 12 heading substituted by Company and Business Names etc Act 2012 Sch. 2
S 12 substituted by Company and Business Names etc Act 2012 Sch. 3
S 13 not in force. 4
Subs (1) amended by Company and Business Names etc Act 2012 Sch. 5
Subs (3) amended by Company and Business Names etc Act 2012 Sch. 6
S 15 repealed by Company and Business Names etc Act 2012 Sch. 7
S 16 repealed by Company and Business Names etc Act 2012 Sch. 8
S 17 repealed by Company and Business Names etc Act 2012 Sch. 9
S 18 repealed by Company and Business Names etc Act 2012 Sch. 10
Para (a) amended by Collective Investment Schemes Act 2008 Sch 6. 11
Subs (3) inserted by SD2014/0185. Editorial Note: Modification of s. 52 under Article
13 of SD2014/0185 to be treated as an amendment. 12
Subs (4) inserted by SD2014/0185. Editorial Note: Modification of s. 52 under Article
13 of SD2014/0185 to be treated as an amendment. 13
Subs (1) amended by SD155/10 Sch 2. 14
Subs (3) amended by SD155/10 Sch 2. 15
S 58A inserted by Companies (Amendment) Act 2009 s 26. 16
Subs (3) amended by Financial Services Act 2008 Sch 6. 17
Subs (1) amended by Financial Services Act 2008 Sch 6. 18
Para (b) amended by Financial Services Act 2008 Sch 6. 19
Subs (2) amended by SD2015/0090 as amended by SD2015/0276. 20
Para (f) substituted by Companies (Amendment) Act 2009 s 27. 21
Para (g) added by Companies (Amendment) Act 2009 s 27. 22
Subs (2) repealed by Companies (Amendment) Act 2009 s 28(1). 23
Subs (3) substituted by Companies (Amendment) Act 2009 s 28(2). 24
Subs (4A) inserted by Companies (Amendment) Act 2009 s 28(3). 25
Subs (4B) inserted by Companies (Amendment) Act 2009 s 28(3). 26
Subs (4C) inserted by Companies (Amendment) Act 2009 s 28(3). 27
Subs (4D) inserted by Companies (Amendment) Act 2009 s 28(3). 28
Subs (4E) inserted by Companies (Amendment) Act 2009 s 28(3). 29
Subs (4F) inserted by Companies (Amendment) Act 2009 s 28(3). 30
S 80A inserted by Companies (Amendment) Act 2009 s 29. 31
Subs (4) amended by SD2015/0090 as amended by SD2015/0276. 32
S 80B inserted by Companies (Amendment) Act 2009 s 29. 33
S 80C inserted by Companies (Amendment) Act 2009 s 29. 34
Subs (1) amended by SD2015/0090 as amended by SD2015/0276. 35
Para (d) amended by SD2015/0090 as amended by SD2015/0276. 36
Para (a) amended by SD2015/0090 as amended by SD2015/0276.
Endnotes Companies Act 2006


Page 132 AT 13 of 2006 c

37
Subs (6) amended by SD2015/0090 as amended by SD2015/0276. 38
Subs (7) amended by SD2015/0090 as amended by SD2015/0276. 39
S 80D inserted by Companies (Amendment) Act 2009 s 29. 40
Subs (1) amended by SD2015/0090 as amended by SD2015/0276. 41
Subs (5) amended by SD2015/0090 as amended by SD2015/0276. 42
Subs (6) amended by SD2015/0090 as amended by SD2015/0276. 43
S 80E inserted by Companies (Amendment) Act 2009 s 29. 44
Para (e) repealed by Companies (Amendment) Act 2009 s 30(a). 45
Subs (2A) inserted by Companies (Amendment) Act 2009 s 30(b). 46
Subs (2B) inserted by Companies (Amendment) Act 2009 s 30(b). 47
Subs (3) amended by SD2015/0090 as amended by SD2015/0276. 48
Para (a) amended by Financial Services Act 2008 Sch 6. 49
Heading inserted by Companies (Amendment) Act 2009 s 31. 50
S 161A inserted by Companies (Amendment) Act 2009 s 31. 51
S 182 amended by SD155/10 Sch 2. 52
Subs (2) amended by SD2015/0090 as amended by SD2015/0276. 53
Subs (3) amended by Company Officers (Disqualification) Act 2009 Sch 4 and by
SD2015/0090 as amended by SD2015/0276. 54
Subs (4) amended by Company Officers (Disqualification) Act 2009 Sch 4 and by
SD2015/0090 as amended by SD2015/0276. 55
Para (b) amended by SD0606/12. 56
S 205A inserted by SD155/10 Sch 2. 57
S 205B heading amended by SD2015/0090 as amended by SD2015/0276. 58
S 205B inserted by SD155/10 Sch 2 and amended by SD2015/0090 as amended by
SD2015/0276. 59
S 208A inserted by Companies (Amendment) Act 2009 s 32. 60
Definition of “Authority” inserted by SD2015/0090 as amended by SD2015/0276. 61
Definition of “Commission” repealed by SD2015/0090 as amended by SD2015/0276. 62
ADO (whole Act except ss 13 and 17 and the repeal of the Prevention of Fraud
(Investments) Act 1968 in Sch 2) 17/10/2006 (SD745/06); (repeal of the Prevention of
Fraud (Investments) Act 1968 in Sch 2) 29/8/2007 (SD713/07). 63

.