Criminal Justice (Terrorist Offences) (Amendment) Act 2015

Link to law: http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/2015/en/act/pub/0017/print.html

Criminal Justice (Terrorist Offences) (Amendment) Act 2015
Number 17 of 2015
CRIMINAL JUSTICE (TERRORIST OFFENCES) (AMENDMENT) ACT 2015
PART 1
Preliminary and General
Section
1. Definition
2. Regulations
3. Amendment of section 4 of Principal Act
4. Public provocation to commit terrorist offence
5. Recruitment for terrorism
6. Training for terrorism
7. Amendment of section 6(1) (a) (ii) of Principal Act
8. Amendment of section 7(1) of Principal Act
9. Amendment of section 44(2) of Principal Act
10. Insertion of Schedules to Principal Act
11. Amendment of Part 1 of Schedule 2 to Principal Act
12. Short title, collective citation and commencement
SCHEDULE 1
Council Framework Decision 2008/919/JHA of 28 November 2008 amending Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA on Combating Terrorism
SCHEDULE 2
Council of Europe Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism
Acts Referred to
Biological Weapons Act 2011 (No. 13)
Chemical Weapons Act 1997 (No. 28)
Criminal Justice (Terrorist Offences) Act 2005 (No. 2)
Criminal Law Act 1976 (No. 32)
Explosive Substances Act 1883 (46 & 47 Vic., c. 3)
Explosives Act 1875 (38 & 39 Vic., c.17)
Firearms Act 1925 (No. 17)
Maritime Security Act 2004 (No. 29)
Radiological Protection Act 1991 (No. 9)
Number 17 of 2015
CRIMINAL JUSTICE (TERRORIST OFFENCES) (AMENDMENT) ACT 2015
An Act to give effect to Council Framework Decision 2008/919/JHA of 28 November 2008 amending Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA on combating terrorism 1 ; to give effect to the Council of Europe Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism, done at Warsaw on 16 May 2005; for those purposes, to amend the Criminal Justice (Terrorist Offences) Act 2005 ; and to provide for related matters.
[1 st June, 2015]
Be it enacted by the Oireachtas as follows:

Definition
1. In this Act “Principal Act” means the Criminal Justice (Terrorist Offences) Act 2005 .

Regulations
2. The Principal Act is amended by the insertion of the following section after section 3:
“3A. (1) The Minister may by regulations provide for any matter referred to in this Act as prescribed or to be prescribed.
(2) Regulations under this Act may contain such incidental, supplementary and consequential provisions as appear to the Minister to be necessary or expedient for the purposes of the regulations.
(3) Every regulation under this Act shall be laid before each House of the Oireachtas as soon as may be after it is made and, if a resolution annulling the regulation is passed by either such House within the next 21 days on which that House has sat after the regulation is laid before it, the regulation shall be annulled accordingly, but without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done thereunder.”.

Amendment of section 4 of Principal Act
3. Section 4 of the Principal Act is amended by—
(a) the substitution of the following definition for the definition of “Framework Decision”:
“‘Framework Decision’ means Council Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA of 13 June 2002 on combating terrorism 2 , the text of which is set out for convenience of reference in—
(a) Part 1 of Schedule 1, in the case of the Irish language text, and
(b) Part 2 of Schedule 1, in the case of the English language text,
as amended by Council Framework Decision 2008/919/JHA of 28 November 2008 amending Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA on combating terrorism 3 , the English language text of which is set out for convenience of reference in Schedule 1A;”,
(b) the substitution of the following definition for the definition of “terrorist-linked activity”:
“ ‘terrorist-linked activity’, subject to subsections (2) and (3), means—
(a) an act that is committed in or outside the State and that—
(i) if committed in the State, would constitute an offence specified in Part 2 of Schedule 2, and
(ii) is committed with a view to engaging in a terrorist activity,
(b) an act that is committed in or outside the State and that—
(i) if committed in the State, would constitute an offence specified in Part 3 of Schedule 2, and
(ii) is committed with a view to engaging in a terrorist activity or with a view to committing an act that, if committed in the State, would constitute an offence under section 21 or 21A of the Act of 1939,
(c) public provocation to commit a terrorist offence,
(d) recruitment for terrorism, or
(e) training for terrorism;”,
(c) the insertion of the following definitions:
“ ‘Prevention of Terrorism Convention’ means the Council of Europe Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism, done at Warsaw on 16 May 2005, the English language text of which is set out for convenience of reference in Schedule 1B;
‘public provocation to commit a terrorist offence’ shall be construed in accordance with section 4A;
‘recruitment for terrorism’ shall be construed in accordance with section 4B;
‘training for terrorism’ shall be construed in accordance with section 4C.”,
(d) the designation of that section (as amended by paragraphs (a), (b) and (c)) as subsection (1), and
(e) the addition of the following subsections:
“(2) A terrorist-linked activity may be committed wholly or partially by electronic means.
(3) In determining whether an act is a terrorist-linked activity, it shall not be necessary for an offence under section 6(1)(a) insofar as that provision relates to a terrorist activity, to have actually been committed.”.

Public provocation to commit terrorist offence
4. The Principal Act is amended by the insertion of the following section after section 4:
“4A. For the purposes of this Part, public provocation to commit a terrorist offence means the intentional distribution, or otherwise making available, by whatever means of communication by a person of a message to the public, with the intent of encouraging, directly or indirectly, the commission by a person of a terrorist activity.”.

Recruitment for terrorism
5. The Principal Act is amended by the insertion of the following section after section 4A (inserted by section 4 ):
“4B. For the purposes of this Part, recruitment for terrorism means—
(a) the intentional recruitment of another person—
(i) to commit, or participate in the commission of, a terrorist activity,
(ii) to commit an act in or outside the State that, if committed in the State, would constitute an offence under section 6 of the Act of 1998, or
(iii) to commit an act in or outside the State that, if committed in the State, would constitute an offence under section 21 or 21A of the Act of 1939,
or
(b) the intentional commission of an act in or outside the State that, if committed in the State, would constitute an offence under section 3 of the Criminal Law Act 1976 .”.

Training for terrorism
6. The Principal Act is amended by the insertion of the following section after section 4B (inserted by section 5 ):
“4C. (1) For the purposes of this Part, training for terrorism means intentionally providing instruction or training in the skills of—
(a) making or using, for the purpose of committing, or contributing to the commission of, a terrorist activity—
(i) firearms or explosives,
(ii) nuclear material,
(iii) biological weapons, chemical weapons or prohibited weapons, or
(iv) such other weapons, or noxious or hazardous substances, that may be used in a terrorist activity as the Minister may prescribe,
or
(b) such other techniques or methods for the purpose of committing, or contributing to the commission of, a terrorist activity as the Minister may prescribe,
knowing that the skills provided are intended to be used by a person receiving the instruction or training for the purpose of committing, or contributing to the commission of, a terrorist activity.
(2) The Minister may, if he or she considers it appropriate to do so, make regulations for the purposes of subsection (1) and he or she shall—
(a) before making such regulations, consult with the Commissioner of the Garda Síochána, the Minister for Defence and such other Minister of the Government as the Minister considers appropriate having regard to the weapons, substances, techniques or methods concerned, and
(b) in making such regulations, have regard to the following:
(i) the capability of the weapon, substance, technique or method concerned to cause the death of or serious bodily injury to persons or substantial material damage to property;
(ii) the capacity of the weapon, substance, technique or method concerned to be used for the purposes of a terrorist activity and the likelihood of it being so used;
(iii) the extent to which instruction or training—
(I) in the making or use of the weapon or substance concerned, or
(II) in the use of the technique or method concerned,
is required for the making or use, as the case may be, of that weapon, substance, technique or method for the purpose of committing, or contributing to the commission of, a terrorist activity.
(3) In this section—
‘biological weapon’ and ‘prohibited weapon’ have the same meanings as in the Biological Weapons Act 2011 ;
‘chemical weapons’ has the same meaning as in section 2 of the Chemical Weapons Act 1997 ;
‘explosive’ means an explosive within the meaning of the Explosives Act 1875 and any other substance or thing that is an explosive substance within the meaning of the Explosive Substances Act 1883 ;
‘firearm’ has the same meaning as in section 1 of the Firearms Act 1925 ;
‘nuclear material’ has the same meaning as in section 2 of the Radiological Protection Act 1991 .”.

Amendment of section 6(1)(a)(ii) of Principal Act
7. Section 6(1)(a)(ii) of the Principal Act is amended by the insertion of “other than public provocation to commit a terrorist offence,” after “a terrorist-linked activity,”.

Amendment of section 7(1) of Principal Act
8. Section 7(1) of the Principal Act is amended—
(a) in paragraph (d), by the substitution of “a maximum term of less than 10 years of imprisonment,” for “a maximum term of less than 10 years of imprisonment.”, and
(b) by the addition of the following paragraph:
“(e) in the case of an offence that is a terrorist-linked activity referred to—
(i) in paragraph (c) of the definition in section 4 of ‘terrorist-linked activity’—
(I) on summary conviction, to a class A fine or imprisonment for a term not exceeding 12 months or both, or
(II) on conviction on indictment, to a fine or imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years or both,
(ii) in paragraph (d) of that definition, on conviction on indictment to a fine or imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years or both, and
(iii) in paragraph (e) of that definition, on conviction on indictment to a fine or imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years or both.”.

Amendment of section 44(2) of Principal Act
9. Section 44(2) of the Principal Act is amended by the substitution of the following paragraph for paragraph (a):
“(a) in relation to an act committed outside the State—
(i) a certificate that is signed by an officer of the Minister for Foreign Affairs and Trade and states that a passport was issued by that Minister of the Government to a person on a specified date, and
(ii) a certificate that is signed by an officer of the Minister and states that, to the best of the officer’s knowledge and belief, the person has not ceased to be an Irish citizen,
is evidence that the person was an Irish citizen on the date on which the offence concerned is alleged to have been committed, unless the contrary is shown,”.

Insertion of Schedules to Principal Act
10. The Principal Act is amended by the insertion—
(a) after Schedule 1, of Schedule 1A as set out in Schedule 1 to this Act, and
(b) after Schedule 1A (inserted by paragraph (a)), of Schedule 1B as set out in Schedule 2 to this Act.

Amendment of Part 1 of Schedule 2 to Principal Act
11. Part 1 of Schedule 2 to the Principal Act is amended—
(a) by the insertion of the following paragraph after paragraph 7:
“Offences relating to maritime navigation and fixed platforms located on the continental shelf
7A. Any offence under section 2 of the Maritime Security Act 2004 .”,
(b) in paragraph 10, by the addition of the following subparagraph:
“(f) section 2 of the Biological Weapons Act 2011 (development, etc. of biological weapons).”,
and
(c) in paragraph 11—
(i) in subparagraph (c), by the substitution of “(offences against internationally protected persons);” for “(offences against internationally protected persons).”, and
(ii) by the addition of the following subparagraph:
“(d) section 13 (offence of financing terrorism).”.

Short title, collective citation and commencement
12. (1) This Act may be cited as the Criminal Justice (Terrorist Offences) (Amendment) Act 2015.
(2) The Principal Act and this Act may be cited together as the Criminal Justice (Terrorist Offences) Acts 2005 and 2015.
(3) This Act shall come into operation one week after the day of its passing.
SCHEDULE 1

Council Framework Decision 2008/919/JHA of 28 November 2008 amending Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA on Combating Terrorism
Section 10
“SCHEDULE 1A
Council Framework Decision 2008/919/JHA
of 28 november 2008
amending Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA on combating terrorism
The Council of the European Union,
Having regard to the Treaty on European Union, and in particular Article 29, Article 31(1) (e) and Article 34(2) (b) thereof,
Having regard to the proposal from the Commission,
Having regard to the opinion of the European Parliament 1 ,
Whereas:
(1) Terrorism constitutes one of the most serious violations of the universal values of human dignity, liberty, equality and solidarity, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms on which the European Union is founded. It also represents one of the most serious attacks on democracy and the rule of law, principles which are common to the Member States and on which the European Union is based.
(2) Council Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA of 13 June 2002 on combating terrorism 2 is the basis of the counter-terrorist policy of the European Union. The achievement of a legal framework common to all Member States, and in particular, of a harmonised definition of terrorist offences, has allowed the counter-terrorism policy of the European Union to develop and expand, subject to the respect of fundamental rights and the rule of law.
(3) The terrorist threat has grown and rapidly evolved in recent years, with changes in the modus operandi of terrorist activists and supporters including the replacement of structured and hierarchical groups by semi-autonomous cells loosely tied to each other. Such cells inter-link international networks and increasingly rely on the use of new technologies, in particular the Internet.
(4) The Internet is used to inspire and mobilise local terrorist networks and individuals in Europe and also serves as a source of information on terrorist means and methods, thus functioning as a ‘virtual training camp’. Activities of public provocation to commit terrorist offences, recruitment for terrorism and training for terrorism have multiplied at very low cost and risk.
(5) The Hague Programme on strengthening freedom, security and justice in the European Union, adopted by the European Council on 5 November 2004, underlines that effective prevention and combating of terrorism in full compliance with fundamental rights requires Member States not to confine their activities to maintaining their own security, but to focus also on the security of the Union as a whole.
(6) The Council and Commission Action Plan implementing the Hague Programme on strengthening freedom, security and justice in the European Union 3 , recalls that a global response is required to address terrorism and that the expectations that citizens have of the Union cannot be ignored, nor can the Union fail to respond to them. In addition, it states that attention must focus on different aspects of prevention, preparedness and response to further enhance, and where necessary complement, Member States’ capabilities to fight terrorism, concentrating particularly on recruitment, financing, risk analysis, protection of critical infrastructures and consequence management.
(7) This Framework Decision provides for the criminalisation of offences linked to terrorist activities in order to contribute to the more general policy objective of preventing terrorism through reducing the dissemination of those materials which might incite persons to commit terrorist attacks.
(8) United Nations Security Council Resolution 1624 (2005) calls upon States to take measures that are necessary and appropriate, and in accordance with their obligations under international law, to prohibit by law incitement to commit terrorist act or acts and to prevent such conduct. The report of the Secretary- General of the United Nations ‘Uniting against terrorism: recommendations for a global counter-terrorism strategy’ of 27 April 2006, interprets the above- mentioned Resolution as providing for a basis for the criminalisation of incitement to terrorist acts and recruitment, including through the Internet. The United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy of 8 September 2006 mentions that the Member States of the UN resolve to explore ways and means to coordinate efforts at the international and regional level to counter terrorism in all its forms and manifestations on the Internet.
(9) The Council of Europe Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism establishes the obligations of States parties thereto to criminalise public provocation to commit a terrorist offence and recruitment and training for terrorism, when committed unlawfully and intentionally.
(10) The definition of terrorist offences, including offences linked to terrorist activities, should be further approximated in all Member States, so that it covers public provocation to commit a terrorist offence, recruitment for terrorism and training for terrorism, when committed intentionally.
(11) Penalties should be provided for natural persons having intentionally committed or legal persons held liable for public provocation to commit terrorist offences, recruitment for terrorism and training for terrorism. These forms of behaviour should be equally punishable in all Member States irrespective of whether they are committed through the Internet or not.
(12) Given that the objectives of this Framework Decision cannot be sufficiently achieved by the Member States unilaterally, and can therefore, because of the need for European-wide harmonised rules, be better achieved at the level of the Union, the Union may adopt measures, in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity, as set out in Article 5 of the EC Treaty and referred to in Article 2 of the EU Treaty. In accordance with the principle of proportionality, as set out in Article 5 of the EC Treaty, this Framework Decision does not go beyond what is necessary in order to achieve those objectives.
(13) The Union observes the principles recognised by Article 6(2) of the EU Treaty and reflected in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, notably Chapters II and VI thereof. Nothing in this Framework Decision may be interpreted as being intended to reduce or restrict fundamental rights or freedoms such as freedom of expression, assembly, or of association, the right to respect for private and family life, including the right to respect of the confidentiality of correspondence.
(14) Public provocation to commit terrorist offences, recruitment for terrorism and training for terrorism are intentional crimes. Therefore, nothing in this Framework Decision may be interpreted as being intended to reduce or restrict the dissemination of information for scientific, academic or reporting purposes. The expression of radical, polemic or controversial views in the public debate on sensitive political questions, including terrorism, falls outside the scope of this Framework Decision and, in particular, of the definition of public provocation to commit terrorist offences.
(15) The implementation of the criminalisation under this Framework Decision should be proportional to the nature and circumstances of the offence, with respect to the legitimate aims pursued and to their necessity in a democratic society, and should exclude any form of arbitrariness or discrimination,
HAS ADOPTED THIS FRAMEWORK DECISION:
Article 1
Amendments
Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA shall be amended as follows:
1. Article 3 shall be replaced by the following:
‘Article 3
Offences linked to terrorist activities
1. For the purposes of this Framework Decision:
(a) “public provocation to commit a terrorist offence” shall mean the distribution, or otherwise making available, of a message to the public, with the intent to incite the commission of one of the offences listed in Article 1(1)(a) to (h), where such conduct, whether or not directly advocating terrorist offences, causes a danger that one or more such offences may be committed;
(b) “recruitment for terrorism” shall mean soliciting another person to commit one of the offences listed in Article 1(1)(a) to (h), or in Article 2(2);
(c) “training for terrorism” shall mean providing instruction in the making or use of explosives, firearms or other weapons or noxious or hazardous substances, or in other specific methods or techniques, for the purpose of committing one of the offences listed in Article 1(1)(a) to (h), knowing that the skills provided are intended to be used for this purpose.
2. Each Member State shall take the necessary measures to ensure that offences linked to terrorist activities include the following intentional acts:
(a) public provocation to commit a terrorist offence;
(b) recruitment for terrorism;
(c) training for terrorism;
(d) aggravated theft with a view to committing one of the offences listed in Article 1(1);
(e) extortion with a view to the perpetration of one of the offences listed in Article 1(1);
(f) drawing up false administrative documents with a view to committing one of the offences listed in Article 1(1)(a) to (h) and Article 2(2)(b).
3. For an act as set out in paragraph 2 to be punishable, it shall not be necessary that a terrorist offence be actually committed.’
2. Article 4 shall be replaced by the following:
‘Article 4
Aiding or abetting, inciting and attempting
1. Each Member State shall take the necessary measures to ensure that aiding or abetting an offence referred to in Article 1(1), Articles 2 or 3 is made punishable.
2. Each Member State shall take the necessary measures to ensure that inciting an offence referred to in Article 1(1), Article 2 or Article 3(2)(d) to (f) is made punishable.
3. Each Member State shall take the necessary measures to ensure that attempting to commit an offence referred to in Article 1(1) and Article 3(2)(d) to (f), with the exception of possession as provided for in Article 1(1)(f) and the offence referred to in Article 1(1)(i), is made punishable.
4. Each Member State may decide to take the necessary measures to ensure that attempting to commit an offence referred to in Article 3(2)(b) and (c) is made punishable.’
Article 2
Fundamental principles relating to freedom of expression
This Framework Decision shall not have the effect of requiring Member States to take measures in contradiction of fundamental principles relating to freedom of expression, in particular freedom of the press and the freedom of expression in other media as they result from constitutional traditions or rules governing the rights and responsibilities of, and the procedural guarantees for, the press or other media where these rules relate to the determination or limitation of liability.
Article 3
Implementation and report
1. Member States shall take the necessary measures to comply with this Framework Decision by 9 December 2010. In the implementation of this Framework Decision, Member States shall ensure that the criminalisation shall be proportionate to the legitimate aims pursued and necessary in a democratic society and shall exclude any form of arbitrariness and discrimination.
2. By 9 December 2010, Member States shall forward to the General Secretariat of the Council and to the Commission the text of the provisions transposing into their national law the obligations imposed on them under this Framework Decision. On the basis of a report drawn up from that information and a report from the Commission, the Council shall assess, by 9 December 2011, whether Member States have taken the necessary measures to comply with this Framework Decision.
Article 4
Entry into force
This Framework Decision shall enter into force on the day of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union.
Done at Brussels, 28 November 2008.
For the Council
The President
M. Alliot-Marie”.
SCHEDULE 2

Council of Europe Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism
Section 10
“SCHEDULE 1B
Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism
The member States of the Council of Europe and the other Signatories hereto,
Considering that the aim of the Council of Europe is to achieve greater unity between its members;
Recognising the value of reinforcing co-operation with the other Parties to this Convention;
Wishing to take effective measures to prevent terrorism and to counter, in particular, public provocation to commit terrorist offences and recruitment and training for terrorism;
Aware of the grave concern caused by the increase in terrorist offences and the growing terrorist threat;
Aware of the precarious situation faced by those who suffer from terrorism, and in this connection reaffirming their profound solidarity with the victims of terrorism and their families;
Recognising that terrorist offences and the offences set forth in this Convention, by whoever perpetrated, are under no circumstances justifiable by considerations of a political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious or other similar nature, and recalling the obligation of all Parties to prevent such offences and, if not prevented, to prosecute and ensure that they are punishable by penalties which take into account their grave nature;
Recalling the need to strengthen the fight against terrorism and reaffirming that all measures taken to prevent or suppress terrorist offences have to respect the rule of law and democratic values, human rights and fundamental freedoms as well as other provisions of international law, including, where applicable, international humanitarian law;
Recognising that this Convention is not intended to affect established principles relating to freedom of expression and freedom of association;
Recalling that acts of terrorism have the purpose by their nature or context to seriously intimidate a population or unduly compel a government or an international organisation to perform or abstain from performing any act or seriously destabilise or destroy the fundamental political, constitutional, economic or social structures of a country or an international organisation;
Have agreed as follows:
Article 1 - Terminology
1 For the purposes of this Convention, ‘terrorist offence’ means any of the offences within the scope of and as defined in one of the treaties listed in the Appendix.
2 On depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, a State or the European Community which is not a party to a treaty listed in the Appendix may declare that, in the application of this Convention to the Party concerned, that treaty shall be deemed not to be included in the Appendix. This declaration shall cease to have effect as soon as the treaty enters into force for the Party having made such a declaration, which shall notify the Secretary General of the Council of Europe of this entry into force.
Article 2 - Purpose
The purpose of the present Convention is to enhance the efforts of Parties in preventing terrorism and its negative effects on the full enjoyment of human rights, in particular the right to life, both by measures to be taken at national level and through international co-operation, with due regard to the existing applicable multilateral or bilateral treaties or agreements between the Parties.
Article 3 - National prevention policies
1 Each Party shall take appropriate measures, particularly in the field of training of law enforcement authorities and other bodies, and in the fields of education, culture, information, media and public awareness raising, with a view to preventing terrorist offences and their negative effects while respecting human rights obligations as set forth in, where applicable to that Party, the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and other obligations under international law.
2 Each Party shall take such measures as may be necessary to improve and develop the co-operation among national authorities with a view to preventing terrorist offences and their negative effects by, inter alia:
a exchanging information;
b improving the physical protection of persons and facilities;
c enhancing training and coordination plans for civil emergencies.
3 Each Party shall promote tolerance by encouraging inter-religious and cross-cultural dialogue involving, where appropriate, non-governmental organisations and other elements of civil society with a view to preventing tensions that might contribute to the commission of terrorist offences.
4 Each Party shall endeavour to promote public awareness regarding the existence, causes and gravity of and the threat posed by terrorist offences and the offences set forth in this Convention and consider encouraging the public to provide factual, specific help to its competent authorities that may contribute to preventing terrorist offences and offences set forth in this Convention.
Article 4 - International co-operation on prevention
Parties shall, as appropriate and with due regard to their capabilities, assist and support each other with a view to enhancing their capacity to prevent the commission of terrorist offences, including through exchange of information and best practices, as well as through training and other joint efforts of a preventive character.
Article 5 - Public provocation to commit a terrorist offence
1 For the purposes of this Convention, “public provocation to commit a terrorist offence” means the distribution, or otherwise making available, of a message to the public, with the intent to incite the commission of a terrorist offence, where such conduct, whether or not directly advocating terrorist offences, causes a danger that one or more such offences may be committed.
2 Each Party shall adopt such measures as may be necessary to establish public provocation to commit a terrorist offence, as defined in paragraph 1, when committed unlawfully and intentionally, as a criminal offence under its domestic law.
Article 6 - Recruitment for terrorism
1 For the purposes of this Convention, “recruitment for terrorism” means to solicit another person to commit or participate in the commission of a terrorist offence, or to join an association or group, for the purpose of contributing to the commission of one or more terrorist offences by the association or the group.
2 Each Party shall adopt such measures as may be necessary to establish recruitment for terrorism, as defined in paragraph 1, when committed unlawfully and intentionally, as a criminal offence under its domestic law.
Article 7 - Training for terrorism
1 For the purposes of this Convention, “training for terrorism” means to provide instruction in the making or use of explosives, firearms or other weapons or noxious or hazardous substances, or in other specific methods or techniques, for the purpose of carrying out or contributing to the commission of a terrorist offence, knowing that the skills provided are intended to be used for this purpose.
2 Each Party shall adopt such measures as may be necessary to establish training for terrorism, as defined in paragraph 1, when committed unlawfully and intentionally, as a criminal offence under its domestic law.
Article 8 - Irrelevance of the commission of a terrorist offence
For an act to constitute an offence as set forth in Articles 5 to 7 of this Convention, it shall not be necessary that a terrorist offence be actually committed.
Article 9 - Ancillary offences
1 Each Party shall adopt such measures as may be necessary to establish as a criminal offence under its domestic law:
a Participating as an accomplice in an offence as set forth in Articles 5 to 7 of this Convention;
b Organising or directing others to commit an offence as set forth in Articles 5 to 7 of this Convention;
c Contributing to the commission of one or more offences as set forth in Articles 5 to 7 of this Convention by a group of persons acting with a common purpose. Such contribution shall be intentional and shall either:
i be made with the aim of furthering the criminal activity or criminal purpose of the group, where such activity or purpose involves the commission of an offence as set forth in Articles 5 to 7 of this Convention; or
ii be made in the knowledge of the intention of the group to commit an offence as set forth in Articles 5 to 7 of this Convention.
2 Each Party shall also adopt such measures as may be necessary to establish as a criminal offence under, and in accordance with, its domestic law the attempt to commit an offence as set forth in Articles 6 and 7 of this Convention.
Article 10 - Liability of legal entities
1 Each Party shall adopt such measures as may be necessary, in accordance with its legal principles, to establish the liability of legal entities for participation in the offences set forth in Articles 5 to 7 and 9 of this Convention.
2 Subject to the legal principles of the Party, the liability of legal entities may be criminal, civil or administrative.
3 Such liability shall be without prejudice to the criminal liability of the natural persons who have committed the offences.
Article 11 - Sanctions and measures
1 Each Party shall adopt such measures as may be necessary to make the offences set forth in Articles 5 to 7 and 9 of this Convention punishable by effective, proportionate and dissuasive penalties.
2 Previous final convictions pronounced in foreign States for offences set forth in the present Convention may, to the extent permitted by domestic law, be taken into account for the purpose of determining the sentence in accordance with domestic law.
3 Each Party shall ensure that legal entities held liable in accordance with Article 10 are subject to effective, proportionate and dissuasive criminal or non-criminal sanctions, including monetary sanctions.
Article 12 - Conditions and safeguards
1 Each Party shall ensure that the establishment, implementation and application of the criminalisation under Articles 5 to 7 and 9 of this Convention are carried out while respecting human rights obligations, in particular the right to freedom of expression, freedom of association and freedom of religion, as set forth in, where applicable to that Party, the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and other obligations under international law.
2 The establishment, implementation and application of the criminalisation under Articles 5 to 7 and 9 of this Convention should furthermore be subject to the principle of proportionality, with respect to the legitimate aims pursued and to their necessity in a democratic society, and should exclude any form of arbitrariness or discriminatory or racist treatment.
Article 13 - Protection, compensation and support for victims of terrorism
Each Party shall adopt such measures as may be necessary to protect and support the victims of terrorism that has been committed within its own territory. These measures may include, through the appropriate national schemes and subject to domestic legislation, inter alia, financial assistance and compensation for victims of terrorism and their close family members.
Article 14 - Jurisdiction
1 Each Party shall take such measures as may be necessary to establish its jurisdiction over the offences set forth in this Convention:
a when the offence is committed in the territory of that Party;
b when the offence is committed on board a ship flying the flag of that Party, or on board an aircraft registered under the laws of that Party;
c when the offence is committed by a national of that Party.
2 Each Party may also establish its jurisdiction over the offences set forth in this Convention:
a when the offence was directed towards or resulted in the carrying out of an offence referred to in Article 1 of this Convention, in the territory of or against a national of that Party;
b when the offence was directed towards or resulted in the carrying out of an offence referred to in Article 1 of this Convention, against a State or government facility of that Party abroad, including diplomatic or consular premises of that Party;
c when the offence was directed towards or resulted in an offence referred to in Article 1 of this Convention, committed in an attempt to compel that Party to do or abstain from doing any act;
d when the offence is committed by a stateless person who has his or her habitual residence in the territory of that Party;
e when the offence is committed on board an aircraft which is operated by the Government of that Party.
3 Each Party shall take such measures as may be necessary to establish its jurisdiction over the offences set forth in this Convention in the case where the alleged offender is present in its territory and it does not extradite him or her to a Party whose jurisdiction is based on a rule of jurisdiction existing equally in the law of the requested Party.
4 This Convention does not exclude any criminal jurisdiction exercised in accordance with national law.
5 When more than one Party claims jurisdiction over an alleged offence set forth in this Convention, the Parties involved shall, where appropriate, consult with a view to determining the most appropriate jurisdiction for prosecution.
Article 15 - Duty to investigate
1 Upon receiving information that a person who has committed or who is alleged to have committed an offence set forth in this Convention may be present in its territory, the Party concerned shall take such measures as may be necessary under its domestic law to investigate the facts contained in the information.
2 Upon being satisfied that the circumstances so warrant, the Party in whose territory the offender or alleged offender is present shall take the appropriate measures under its domestic law so as to ensure that person’s presence for the purpose of prosecution or extradition.
3 Any person in respect of whom the measures referred to in paragraph 2 are being taken shall be entitled to:
a communicate without delay with the nearest appropriate representative of the State of which that person is a national or which is otherwise entitled to protect that person’s rights or, if that person is a stateless person, the State in the territory of which that person habitually resides;
b be visited by a representative of that State;
c be informed of that person’s rights under subparagraphs a. and b.
4 The rights referred to in paragraph 3 shall be exercised in conformity with the laws and regulations of the Party in the territory of which the offender or alleged offender is present, subject to the provision that the said laws and regulations must enable full effect to be given to the purposes for which the rights accorded under paragraph 3 are intended.
5 The provisions of paragraphs 3 and 4 shall be without prejudice to the right of any Party having a claim of jurisdiction in accordance with Article 14, paragraphs 1.c and 2.d to invite the International Committee of the Red Cross to communicate with and visit the alleged offender.
Article 16 - Non application of the Convention
This Convention shall not apply where any of the offences established in accordance with Articles 5 to 7 and 9 is committed within a single State, the alleged offender is a national of that State and is present in the territory of that State, and no other State has a basis under Article 14, paragraph 1 or 2 of this Convention, to exercise jurisdiction, it being understood that the provisions of Articles 17 and 20 to 22 of this Convention shall, as appropriate, apply in those cases.
Article 17 - International co-operation in criminal matters
1 Parties shall afford one another the greatest measure of assistance in connection with criminal investigations or criminal or extradition proceedings in respect of the offences set forth in Articles 5 to 7 and 9 of this Convention, including assistance in obtaining evidence in their possession necessary for the proceedings.
2 Parties shall carry out their obligations under paragraph 1 in conformity with any treaties or other agreements on mutual legal assistance that may exist between them. In the absence of such treaties or agreements, Parties shall afford one another assistance in accordance with their domestic law.
3 Parties shall co-operate with each other to the fullest extent possible under relevant law, treaties, agreements and arrangements of the requested Party with respect to criminal investigations or proceedings in relation to the offences for which a legal entity may be held liable in accordance with Article 10 of this Convention in the requesting Party.
4 Each Party may give consideration to establishing additional mechanisms to share with other Parties information or evidence needed to establish criminal, civil or administrative liability pursuant to Article 10.
Article 18 - Extradite or prosecute
1 The Party in the territory of which the alleged offender is present shall, when it has jurisdiction in accordance with Article 14, if it does not extradite that person, be obliged, without exception whatsoever and whether or not the offence was committed in its territory, to submit the case without undue delay to its competent authorities for the purpose of prosecution, through proceedings in accordance with the laws of that Party. Those authorities shall take their decision in the same manner as in the case of any other offence of a serious nature under the law of that Party.
2 Whenever a Party is permitted under its domestic law to extradite or otherwise surrender one of its nationals only upon the condition that the person will be returned to that Party to serve the sentence imposed as a result of the trial or proceeding for which the extradition or surrender of the person was sought, and this Party and the Party seeking the extradition of the person agree with this option and other terms they may deem appropriate, such a conditional extradition or surrender shall be sufficient to discharge the obligation set forth in paragraph 1.
Article 19 - Extradition
1 The offences set forth in Articles 5 to 7 and 9 of this Convention shall be deemed to be included as extraditable offences in any extradition treaty existing between any of the Parties before the entry into force of this Convention. Parties undertake to include such offences as extraditable offences in every extradition treaty to be subsequently concluded between them.
2 When a Party which makes extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty receives a request for extradition from another Party with which it has no extradition treaty, the requested Party may, if it so decides, consider this Convention as a legal basis for extradition in respect of the offences set forth in Articles 5 to 7 and 9 of this Convention. Extradition shall be subject to the other conditions provided by the law of the requested Party.
3 Parties which do not make extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty shall recognise the offences set forth in Articles 5 to 7 and 9 of this Convention as extraditable offences between themselves, subject to the conditions provided by the law of the requested Party.
4 Where necessary, the offences set forth in Articles 5 to 7 and 9 of this Convention shall be treated, for the purposes of extradition between Parties, as if they had been committed not only in the place in which they occurred but also in the territory of the Parties that have established jurisdiction in accordance with Article 14.
5 The provisions of all extradition treaties and agreements concluded between Parties in respect of offences set forth in Articles 5 to 7 and 9 of this Convention shall be deemed to be modified as between Parties to the extent that they are incompatible with this Convention.
Article 20 - Exclusion of the political exception clause
1 None of the offences referred to in Articles 5 to 7 and 9 of this Convention, shall be regarded, for the purposes of extradition or mutual legal assistance, as a political offence, an offence connected with a political offence, or as an offence inspired by political motives. Accordingly, a request for extradition or for mutual legal assistance based on such an offence may not be refused on the sole ground that it concerns a political offence or an offence connected with a political offence or an offence inspired by political motives.
2 Without prejudice to the application of Articles 19 to 23 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties of 23 May 1969 to the other Articles of this Convention, any State or the European Community may, at the time of signature or when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession of the Convention, declare that it reserves the right to not apply paragraph 1 of this Article as far as extradition in respect of an offence set forth in this Convention is concerned. The Party undertakes to apply this reservation on a case-by-case basis, through a duly reasoned decision.
3 Any Party may wholly or partly withdraw a reservation it has made in accordance with paragraph 2 by means of a declaration addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe which shall become effective as from the date of its receipt.
4 A Party which has made a reservation in accordance with paragraph 2 of this Article may not claim the application of paragraph 1 of this Article by any other Party; it may, however, if its reservation is partial or conditional, claim the application of this article in so far as it has itself accepted it.
5 The reservation shall be valid for a period of three years from the day of the entry into force of this Convention in respect of the Party concerned. However, such reservation may be renewed for periods of the same duration.
6 Twelve months before the date of expiry of the reservation, the Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall give notice of that expiry to the Party concerned. No later than three months before expiry, the Party shall notify the Secretary General of the Council of Europe that it is upholding, amending or withdrawing its reservation. Where a Party notifies the Secretary General of the Council of Europe that it is upholding its reservation, it shall provide an explanation of the grounds justifying its continuance. In the absence of notification by the Party concerned, the Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall inform that Party that its reservation is considered to have been extended automatically for a period of six months. Failure by the Party concerned to notify its intention to uphold or modify its reservation before the expiry of that period shall cause the reservation to lapse.
7 Where a Party does not extradite a person in application of this reservation, after receiving an extradition request from another Party, it shall submit the case, without exception whatsoever and without undue delay, to its competent authorities for the purpose of prosecution, unless the requesting Party and the requested Party agree otherwise. The competent authorities, for the purpose of prosecution in the requested Party, shall take their decision in the same manner as in the case of any offence of a grave nature under the law of that Party. The requested Party shall communicate, without undue delay, the final outcome of the proceedings to the requesting Party and to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, who shall forward it to the Consultation of the Parties provided for in Article 30.
8 The decision to refuse the extradition request on the basis of this reservation shall be forwarded promptly to the requesting Party. If within a reasonable time no judicial decision on the merits has been taken in the requested Party according to paragraph 7, the requesting Party may communicate this fact to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, who shall submit the matter to the Consultation of the Parties provided for in Article 30. This Consultation shall consider the matter and issue an opinion on the conformity of the refusal with the Convention and shall submit it to the Committee of Ministers for the purpose of issuing a declaration thereon. When performing its functions under this paragraph, the Committee of Ministers shall meet in its composition restricted to the States Parties.
Article 21 - Discrimination clause
1 Nothing in this Convention shall be interpreted as imposing an obligation to extradite or to afford mutual legal assistance, if the requested Party has substantial grounds for believing that the request for extradition for offences set forth in Articles 5 to 7 and 9 or for mutual legal assistance with respect to such offences has been made for the purpose of prosecuting or punishing a person on account of that person’s race, religion, nationality, ethnic origin or political opinion or that compliance with the request would cause prejudice to that person’s position for any of these reasons.
2 Nothing in this Convention shall be interpreted as imposing an obligation to extradite if the person who is the subject of the extradition request risks being exposed to torture or to inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
3 Nothing in this Convention shall be interpreted either as imposing an obligation to extradite if the person who is the subject of the extradition request risks being exposed to the death penalty or, where the law of the requested Party does not allow for life imprisonment, to life imprisonment without the possibility of parole, unless under applicable extradition treaties the requested Party is under the obligation to extradite if the requesting Party gives such assurance as the requested Party considers sufficient that the death penalty will not be imposed or, where imposed, will not be carried out, or that the person concerned will not be subject to life imprisonment without the possibility of parole.
Article 22 - Spontaneous information
1 Without prejudice to their own investigations or proceedings, the competent authorities of a Party may, without prior request, forward to the competent authorities of another Party information obtained within the framework of their own investigations, when they consider that the disclosure of such information might assist the Party receiving the information in initiating or carrying out investigations or proceedings, or might lead to a request by that Party under this Convention.
2 The Party providing the information may, pursuant to its national law, impose conditions on the use of such information by the Party receiving the information.
3 The Party receiving the information shall be bound by those conditions.
4 However, any Party may, at any time, by means of a declaration addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, declare that it reserves the right not to be bound by the conditions imposed by the Party providing the information under paragraph 2 above, unless it receives prior notice of the nature of the information to be provided and agrees to its transmission.
Article 23 - Signature and entry into force
1 This Convention shall be open for signature by the member States of the Council of Europe, the European Community and by non-member States which have participated in its elaboration.
2 This Convention is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval. Instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval shall be deposited with the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.
3 This Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of three months after the date on which six Signatories, including at least four member States of the Council of Europe, have expressed their consent to be bound by the Convention in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 2.
4 In respect of any Signatory which subsequently expresses its consent to be bound by it, the Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of three months after the date of the expression of its consent to be bound by the Convention in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 2.
Article 24 - Accession to the Convention
1 After the entry into force of this Convention, the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, after consulting with and obtaining the unanimous consent of the Parties to the Convention, may invite any State which is not a member of the Council of Europe and which has not participated in its elaboration to accede to this convention. The decision shall be taken by the majority provided for in Article 20.d of the Statute of the Council of Europe and by the unanimous vote of the representatives of the Parties entitled to sit on the Committee of Ministers.
2 In respect of any State acceding to the convention under paragraph 1 above, the Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of three months after the date of deposit of the instrument of accession with the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.
Article 25 - Territorial application
1 Any State or the European Community may, at the time of signature or when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, specify the territory or territories to which this Convention shall apply.
2 Any Party may, at any later date, by a declaration addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, extend the application of this Convention to any other territory specified in the declaration. In respect of such territory the Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of three months after the date of receipt of the declaration by the Secretary General.
3 Any declaration made under the two preceding paragraphs may, in respect of any territory specified in such declaration, be withdrawn by a notification addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe. The withdrawal shall become effective on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of three months after the date of receipt of such notification by the Secretary General.
Article 26 - Effects of the Convention
1 The present Convention supplements applicable multilateral or bilateral treaties or agreements between the Parties, including the provisions of the following Council of Europe treaties:
-European Convention on Extradition, opened for signature, in Paris, on 13 December 1957 (ETS No. 24);
-European Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters, opened for signature, in Strasbourg, on 20 April 1959 (ETS No. 30);
-European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism, opened for signature, in Strasbourg, on 27 January 1977 (ETS No. 90);
-Additional Protocol to the European Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters, opened for signature in Strasbourg on 17 March 1978 (ETS No. 99);
-Second Additional Protocol to the European Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters, opened for signature in Strasbourg on 8 November 2001 (ETS No. 182);
-Protocol amending the European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism, opened for signature in Strasbourg on 15 May 2003 (ETS No. 190).
2 If two or more Parties have already concluded an agreement or treaty on the matters dealt with in this Convention or have otherwise established their relations on such matters, or should they in future do so, they shall also be entitled to apply that agreement or treaty or to regulate those relations accordingly. However, where Parties establish their relations in respect of the matters dealt with in the present Convention other than as regulated therein, they shall do so in a manner that is not inconsistent with the Convention’s objectives and principles.
3 Parties which are members of the European Union shall, in their mutual relations, apply Community and European Union rules in so far as there are Community or European Union rules governing the particular subject concerned and applicable to the specific case, without prejudice to the object and purpose of the present Convention and without prejudice to its full application with other Parties.
4 Nothing in this Convention shall affect other rights, obligations and responsibilities of a Party and individuals under international law, including international humanitarian law.
5 The activities of armed forces during an armed conflict, as those terms are understood under international humanitarian law, which are governed by that law, are not governed by this Convention, and the activities undertaken by military forces of a Party in the exercise of their official duties, inasmuch as they are governed by other rules of international law, are not governed by this Convention.
Article 27 - Amendments to the Convention
1 Amendments to this Convention may be proposed by any Party, the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe or the Consultation of the Parties.
2 Any proposal for amendment shall be communicated by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe to the Parties.
3 Moreover, any amendment proposed by a Party or the Committee of Ministers shall be communicated to the Consultation of the Parties, which shall submit to the Committee of Ministers its opinion on the proposed amendment.
4 The Committee of Ministers shall consider the proposed amendment and any opinion submitted by the Consultation of the Parties and may approve the amendment.
5 The text of any amendment approved by the Committee of Ministers in accordance with paragraph 4 shall be forwarded to the Parties for acceptance.
6 Any amendment approved in accordance with paragraph 4 shall come into force on the thirtieth day after all Parties have informed the Secretary General of their acceptance thereof.
Article 28 - Revision of the Appendix
1 In order to update the list of treaties in the Appendix, amendments may be proposed by any Party or by the Committee of Ministers. These proposals for amendment shall only concern universal treaties concluded within the United Nations system dealing specifically with international terrorism and having entered into force. They shall be communicated by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe to the Parties.
2 After having consulted the non-member Parties, the Committee of Ministers may adopt a proposed amendment by the majority provided for in Article 20.d of the Statute of the Council of Europe. The amendment shall enter into force following the expiry of a period of one year after the date on which it has been forwarded to the Parties. During this period, any Party may notify the Secretary General of the Council of Europe of any objection to the entry into force of the amendment in respect of that Party.
3 If one third of the Parties notifies the Secretary General of the Council of Europe of an objection to the entry into force of the amendment, the amendment shall not enter into force.
4 If less than one third of the Parties notifies an objection, the amendment shall enter into force for those Parties which have not notified an objection.
5 Once an amendment has entered into force in accordance with paragraph 2 and a Party has notified an objection to it, this amendment shall come into force in respect of the Party concerned on the first day of the month following the date on which it notifies the Secretary General of the Council of Europe of its acceptance.
Article 29 - Settlement of disputes
In the event of a dispute between Parties as to the interpretation or application of this Convention, they shall seek a settlement of the dispute through negotiation or any other peaceful means of their choice, including submission of the dispute to an arbitral tribunal whose decisions shall be binding upon the Parties to the dispute, or to the International Court of Justice, as agreed upon by the Parties concerned.
Article 30 - Consultation of the Parties
1 The Parties shall consult periodically with a view to:
a making proposals to facilitate or improve the effective use and implementation of this Convention, including the identification of any problems and the effects of any declaration made under this Convention;
b formulating its opinion on the conformity of a refusal to extradite which is referred to them in accordance with Article 20, paragraph 8;
c making proposals for the amendment of this Convention in accordance with Article 27;
d formulating their opinion on any proposal for the amendment of this Convention which is referred to them in accordance with Article 27, paragraph 3;
e expressing an opinion on any question concerning the application of this Convention and facilitating the exchange of information on significant legal, policy or technological developments.
2 The Consultation of the Parties shall be convened by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe whenever he finds it necessary and in any case when a majority of the Parties or the Committee of Ministers request its convocation.
3 The Parties shall be assisted by the Secretariat of the Council of Europe in carrying out their functions pursuant to this article.
Article 31 - Denunciation
1 Any Party may, at any time, denounce this Convention by means of a notification addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.
2 Such denunciation shall become effective on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of three months after the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary General.
Article 32 - Notification
The Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall notify the member States of the Council of Europe, the European Community, the non-member States which have participated in the elaboration of this Convention as well as any State which has acceded to, or has been invited to accede to, this Convention of:
a any signature;
b the deposit of any instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession;
c any date of entry into force of this Convention in accordance with Article 23;
d any declaration made under Article 1, paragraph 2, 22, paragraph 4, and 25;
e any other act, notification or communication relating to this Convention.
In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorised thereto, have signed this Convention.
Done at Warsaw, this 16 th day of May 2005, in English and in French, both texts being equally authentic, in a single copy which shall be deposited in the archives of the Council of Europe. The Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall transmit certified copies to each member State of the Council of Europe, to the European Community, to the non-member States which have participated in the elaboration of this Convention, and to any State invited to accede to it.
Appendix
1 Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft, signed at The Hague on 16 December 1970;
2 Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Civil Aviation, concluded at Montreal on 23 September 1971;
3 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes Against Internationally Protected Persons, Including Diplomatic Agents, adopted in New York on 14 December 1973;
4 International Convention Against the Taking of Hostages, adopted in New York on 17 December 1979;
5 Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, adopted in Vienna on 3 March 1980;
6 Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports Serving International Civil Aviation, done at Montreal on 24 February 1988;
7 Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Maritime Navigation, done at Rome on 10 March 1988;
8 Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf, done at Rome on 10 March 1988;
9 International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings, adopted in New York on 15 December 1997;
10 International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism, adopted in New York on 9 December 1999;
11 International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, adopted in New York on 13 April 2005.”.
1O.J. No. L330, 9.12.2008, p.21.

2O.J. No. L164, 22.6.2002, p.3.

3O.J. No. L330, 9.12.2008, p.21.

1Not yet published in the Official Journal.

2O.J. L164, 22.6.2002, p.3.

3O.J. C198, 12.8.2005, p.1.
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