THE ADMINISTRATIVE TRIBUNALS ACT, 1985


Published: 1985-02-27

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THE ADMINISTRATIVE TRIBUNALS ACT, 1985
ACT NO. 13 OF 1985
[27th February, 1985.]


An Act to provide for the adjudication or trial by Administrative

Tribunals of disputes and complaints with respect to recruitment and

conditions of service of persons appointed to public services and

of any local or other authority within the territory of India or under

the control of the Government of India or of 1*[any corporation or

society owned or controlled by the Government in pursuance of article

323A of the Constitution] and for matters connected therewith or

incidental thereto.



BE it enacted by Parliament in the Thirty-sixth Year of the

Republic of India as follows:--


CHAP
PRELIMINARY


CHAPTER I



PRELIMINARY


1.
Short title, extent and commencement.


1. Short title, extent and commencement. (1) This Act may be

called the Administrative Tribunals Act, 1985.



(2) It extends,--



(a) in so far as it relates to the Central Administrative

Tribunal, to the whole of India;



(b) in so far as it relates to Administrative Tribunals for

States, to the whole of India, except the State of Jammu and

Kashmir.



(3) The provisions of this Act, in so far as they relate to the

Central Administrative Tribunal, shall come into force on such date 2*

as the Central Government may, by notification, appoint.



(4) The provisions of this Act, in so far as they relate to an

Administrative Tribunal for a State, shall come into force in a State

on such date2* as the Central Government may, by notification,

appoint.


2.
Act not to apply to certain persons.


2. Act not to apply to certain persons. The provisions of this

Act shall not apply to--



(a) any member of the naval, military or air forces or of

any other armed forces of the Union;



3* * * * *

----------------------------------------------------------------------

*

----------------------------------------------------------------------

Date of State Notification No.

Commencement and Date

---------------------------------------------------------------------

1.1.1985 Gujarat G.S.R. 956(E), 31.12.1985

1.1.1985 Himachal Pradesh G.S.R. 956(E), 31.12.1985

1.1.1985 Karnataka G.S.R. 956(E), 31.12.1985

1.1.1985 Maharashtra G.S.R. 956(E), 31.12.1985

1.1.1985 Madhya Pradesh G.S.R. 956(E), 31.12.1985

1.1.1985 Orissa G.S.R. 956(E), 31.12.1985

5.12.1986 Tamil Nadu G.S.R. 1254(E), 5.12.1986

3.8.1989 Arunachal Pradesh G.S.R. 638(E), 3.8.1989

1.11.1989 Andhra Pradesh G.S.R. 921(E), 25.10.1989.

22.10.1991 Bihar S.D. 715(E), 22.10.1991.



1. Subs. by Act 19 of 1986, S. 2 (w.e.f. 22-1-1986).

2. 1-7-1985 : Vide Notification No. G.S.R. 527(E), dated 1-7-1985.

3. Omitted by Act 19 of 1986 S. 3 (w.e.f. 1-11-1985).



47



(c) any officer or servant of the Supreme Court or of any

High Court 1*[or courts subordinate there to];



(d) any person appointed to the secretarial staff of either

House of Parliament or to the secretarial staff of any State

Legislature or a House thereof or, in the case of a Union

territory having a Legislature, of that Legislature.


3.
Definitions.


3. Definitions. In this Act, unless the context otherwise

requires,--



2*[(a) "Administrative Member" means a Member of a Tribunal

who is not a Judicial Member within the meaning of clause (i);]



3*[(aa)] "Administrative Tribunal", in relation to a State,

means the Administrative Tribunal for the State or, as the case

may be, the Joint Administrative Tribunal for that State and any

other State or States;



(b) "application" means an application made under section

19;



(c) "appointed day", in relation to a Tribunal, means the

date 4* with effect from which it is established, by

notification, under section 4;



(d) "appropriate Government" means,--



(i) in relation to the Central Administrative Tribunal

or a Joint Administrative Tribunal, the Central Government;



(ii) in relation to a State Administrative Tribunal,

the State Government;



(e) "Bench" means a Bench of a Tribunal;



(f) "Central Administrative Tribunal" means the

Administrative Tribunal established under sub-section (1) of

section 4;



(g) "Chairman" means the Chairman of a Tribunal;



(h) "Joint Administrative Tribunal" means an Administrative

Tribunal for two or more States established under sub-section (3)

of section 4;



5*[(i) "Judicial Member" means a Member of a Tribunal

appointed as such under this Act, and includes the Chairman or a

Vice-Chairman who possesses any of the qualifications specified

in sub-section (3) of section 6;



(ia) "Member" means a Member (whether Judicial or

Administrative) of a Tribunal, and includes the Chairman and a

Vice-Chairman;]



(j) "notification" means a notification published in the

Official Gazette;



(k) "post" means a post within or outside India;



(l) "prescribed" means prescribed by rules made under this

Act;



(m) "President" means the President of India;



6* * * * *



(o) "rules" means rules made under this Act;



(p) "service" means service within or outside India;



(q) "service matters", in relation to a person, means all

matters relating to the conditions of his service in connection

with the affairs of the Union or of any State or of any local or

other authority within the territory of India or under the

control of the Government

---------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Ins. by Act 51 of 1987, S. 2.

2. Subs. by Act 19 of 1986 s. 4 (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).

3. Relettered by s. 4, ibid. (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).

4. 1.11.1985 : Vide Notification No. G.S.R. 764(E), dated 28.9.1985.

5. Subs. by s. 4, ibid. (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).

6. Omitted by s. 4, ibid. (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).



48



of India, or, as the case may be, of any corporation 1*[or

society] owned or controlled by the Government, as respects--



(i) remuneration (including allowances), pension and

other retirement benefits;



(ii) tenure including confirmation, seniority,

promotion, reversion, premature retirement and

superannuation;



(iii) leave of any kind;



(iv) disciplinary matters; or



(v) any other matter whatsoever;



(r) "service rules as to redressal of grievances", in

relation to any matter, means the rules, regulations, orders or

other instruments or arrangements as in force for the time being

with respect to redressal, otherwise than under this Act, of any

grievances in relation to such matters;



1*[(rr) "society" means a society registered under the

Societies Registration Act, 1860 (21 of 1860), or under any

corresponding law for the time being in force in a State;]



(s) "Supreme Court" means the Supreme Court of India;



(t) "Tribunal" means the Central Administrative Tribunal or

a State Administrative Tribunal or a Joint Administrative

Tribunal;



(u) "Vice-Chairman" means the Vice-Chairman of a Tribunal.



Explanation.--In the case of a Tribunal having two or more

Vice-Chairman, references to the Vice-Chairman in this Act shall

be construed as a reference to each of those Vice-Chairmen.


CHAP
ESTABLISHMENT OF TRIBUNALS AND BENCHES THEREOF


CHAPTER II



ESTABLISHMENT OF TRIBUNALS AND BENCHES THEREOF


4.
Establishment of Administrative Tribunals.


4. Establishment of Administrative Tribunals. (1) The Central

Government shall, by notification, establish an Administrative

Tribunal, to be known as the Central Administrative Tribunal, to

exercise the jurisdiction, powers and authority conferred on the

Central Administrative Tribunal by or under this Act.



(2) The Central Government may, on receipt of a request in this

behalf from any State Government, establish, by notification, an

Administrative Tribunal for the State to be known as the.......(name

of the State) Administrative Tribunal to exercise the jurisdiction,

powers and authority conferred on the Administrative Tribunal for the

State by or under this Act.



(3) Two or more States may, notwithstanding anything contained in

sub-section (2) and notwithstanding that any or all of those States

has or have Tribunals established under that sub-section, enter into

an agreement that the same Administrative Tribunal shall be the

Administrative Tribunal for each of the States participating in the

agreement, and if the agreement is approved by the Central Government

and published in the Gazette of India and the Official Gazette of each

of those States, the Central Government may, by notification,

establish a Joint Administrative Tribunal to exercise the

jurisdiction, powers and authority conferred on the Administrative

Tribunals for those States by or under this Act.

---------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Ins. by Act 19 of 1986, S. 4 (w.e.f. 22-1-1986).



49



(4) An agreement under sub-section (3) shall contain provisions

as to the name of the Joint Administrative Tribunal, the manner in

which the participating States may be associated in the selection of

the Chairman, Vice-Chairman and other Members of the Joint

Administrative Tribunal, the places at which the Bench or Benches of

the Tribunal shall sit, the apportionment among the participating

States of the expenditure in connection with the Joint Administrative

Tribunal and may also contain such other supplemental, incidental and

consequential provisions not inconsistent with this Act as may be

deemed necessary or expedient for giving effect to the agreement.



1*[(5) Notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing

provisions of this section or sub-section (1) of section 5, the

Central Government may,--



(a) with the concurrence of any State Government, designate,

by notification, all or any of the Members of the Bench or

Benches of the State Administrative Tribunal established for that

State under sub-section (2) as Members of the Bench or Benches of

the Central Administrative Tribunal in respect of that State and

the same shall exercise the jurisdiction, powers and authority

conferred on the Central Administrative Tribunal by or under this

Act;



(b) on receipt of a request in this behalf from any State

Government, designate, by notification, all or any of the Members

of the Bench or Benches of the Central Administrative Tribunal

functioning in that State as the Members of the Bench or Benches

of the State Administrative Tribunal for that State and the same

shall exercise the jurisdiction, powers and authority conferred

on the Administrative Tribunal for that State by or under this

Act, and upon such designation, the Bench or Benches of the State

Administrative Tribunal or, as the case may be, the Bench or

Benches of the Central Administrative Tribunal shall be deemed,

in all respects, to be the Central Administrative Tribunal, or

the State Administrative Tribunal for that State established

under the provisions of article 323A of the Constitution and this

Act.



(6) Every notification under sub-section (5) shall also provide

for the apportionment between the State concerned and the Central

Government of the expenditure in connection with the Members common to

the Central Administrative Tribunal and the State Administrative

Tribunal and such other incidental and consequential provisions not

inconsistent with this Act as may be deemed necessary or expedient.]


5.
Composition of Tribunals and Benches thereof.


5. Composition of Tribunals and Benches thereof. (1) Each

Tribunal shall consist of a Chairman and such number of Vice-Chairman

2*[and Judicial and Administrative Members] as the appropriate

Government may deem fit and, subject to the other provisions of this

Act, the jurisdiction, powers and authority of the Tribunal may be

exercised by Benches thereof.



2*[(2) Subject to the other provisions of this Act, a Bench shall

consist of one Judicial Member and one Administrative Member.]



3* * * * *



(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), 3***

the Chairman--



2*[(a) may, in addition to discharging the functions of the

Judicial Member or the Administrative Member of the Bench to

which he is appointed, discharge the functions of the Judicial

Member or, as the case may be, the Administrative Member, of any

other Bench;],



(b) may transfer the Vice-Chairman or other Member from one

Bench to another Bench;



2*['(c) may authorise the Vice-Chairman or the Judicial

Member or the Administrative Member appointed to one Bench to

discharge also the functions of the Vice-Chairman or, as the case

may be, the Judicial Member or the Administrative Member of

another Bench; and]



(d) may, for the purpose of securing that any case or cases

which, having regard to the nature of the questions involved,

requires or require, in his opinion or under the rules made by

the Central Government in this behalf, to be decided by a Bench

composed of more than 2*[two members], issue such general or

special orders, as he may deem fit.



1*[Provided that every Bench constituted in pursuance of

this clause shall include at least one Judicial Member and one

Administrative Member.]



3* * * * *

---------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Ins. by Act 19 of 1986, s. 5 (w.e.f 22-1-1986).

2. Subs. by s. 6, ibid. (w.e.f 1-11-1985).

3. Omitted by s. 6, ibid. (w.e.f. 1.11.1985).



50



(6) Notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing

provisions of this section, it shall be competent for the Chairman or

any other Member authorised by the Chairman in this behalf to function

as 1*[a Bench] consisting of a single Member and exercise the

jurisdiction, powers and authority of the Tribunal in respect of such

classes of cases or such matters pertaining to such classes of cases

as the Chairman may by general or special order specify:



Provided that if at any stage of the hearing of any such case or

matter it appears to the Chairman or such Member that the case or

matter is of such a nature that it ought to be heard by a Bench

consisting of 1*[two members], the case or matter may be transferred

by the Chairman or, as the case may be, referred to him for transfer

to, such Bench as the Chairman may deem fit.



2*(7) Subject to the other provisions of this Act, the Benches of

the Central Administrative Tribunal shall ordinarily sit at New Delhi

(which shall be known as the principal Bench), Allahabad, Calcutta,

Madras, New Bombay and at such other places as the Central Government

may, by notification, specify.



(8) Subject to the other provisions of this Act, the places at

which the principal Bench and other Benches of a State Administrative

Tribunal shall ordinarily sit shall be such as the State Government

may, by notification, specify.".


6.
Qualifications for appointment as Chairman, Vice-Chairman or otherMember.


6. Qualifications for appointment as Chairman, Vice-Chairman or

other Member. (1) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as

the Chairman unless he--



(a) is, or has been, a Judge of a High Court; or



(b) has, for at least two years, held the office of Vice-

Chairman, 3***



3* * * * *



(2) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as the Vice-

Chairman unless he--



4*[(a) is, or has been, or is qualified to be, a Judge of a

High Court; or]



(b) has, for at least two years, held the post of a

Secretary to the Government of India or any other post under the

Central or a State Government carrying a scale of pay which is

not less than that of a Secretary to the Government of India; or



5*[(bb) has, for at least five years, held the post of an

Additional Secretary to the Government of India or any other post

under the Central or a State Government carrying a scale of pay

which is not less than that of an Additional Secretary to the

Government of India; or]



(c) has, for a period of not less than three years, held

office as 2*[a Judicial member or an Administrative Member]



2*[(3) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a

Judicial Member unless he--



(a) is, or has been, or is qualified to be, a Judge of a

High Court; or



(b) has been a member of the Indian Legal Service and has

held a post in Grade I of that Service for at least three years.



(3A) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as an

Administrative Member unless he--



(a) has, for at least two years, held the post of an

Additional Secretary to the Government of India or any other post

under the Central or a State Government carrying a scale of pay

which is not less than that of an Additional Secretary to the

Government of India; or



(b) has, for at least three years, held the post of a Joint

Secretary to the Government of India or any other post under the

Central or a State Government carrying a scale of pay which is

not less than that of a Joint Secretary to the Government of

India, and shall, in either case, have adequate administrative

experience.];



(4) 2*['Subject to the provisions of sub-section (7), the

Chairman], Vice-Chairman and every other Member of the Central

Administrative Tribunal shall be appointed by the President.

---------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Subs. by Act 19 of 1986, S. 6 (w.e.f. 1.11.1985).

2. Subs, by Act 51 of 1987, S.3.

3. Omitted by s. 3, ibid.

4. Subs. by s. 3, ibid.

5. Ins. by Act 19 of 1986, s. 7 (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).



51



(5) 1*[Subject to the provisions of sub-section (7), the

Chairman], Vice-Chairman and every other Member of an Administrative

Tribunal for a State shall be appointed by the President after

consultation with the Governor of the concerned State.



(6) The Chairman, Vice-Chairman and every other Member of a Joint

Administrative Tribunal shall, subject to the terms of the agreement

between the participating State Governments published under sub-

section (3) of section 4, 2*[and subject to the provisions of sub-

section (7)] be appointed by the President after consultation with the

Governors of the concerned States.



3*[(7) No appointment of a person possessing the qualifications

specified in this section as the Chairman, a Vice-Chairman or a Member

shall be made except after consultation with the Chief Justice of

India].



Explanation.--In computing, for the purposes of this section, the

period during which a person has held any post under the Central or a

State Government, there shall be included the period during which he

has held any other post under the Central or a State Government

(including an office under this Act carrying the same scale of pay as

that of the first mentioned post or a higher scale of pay.


7.
Vice-Chairman to act as Chairman or to discharge his functions incertain

circumstances.


7. Vice-Chairman to act as Chairman or to discharge his functions

in certain circumstances. (1) In the event of the occurrance of any

vacancy in the office of the Chairman by reason of his death,

resignation or otherwise, the Vice-Chairman or, as the case may be,

such one of the Vice-Chairman as the appropriate Government may, by

notification, authorise in this behalf, shall act as the Chairman

until the date on which a new Chairman, appointed in accordance with

the provisions of this Act to fill such vacancy enters upon his

office.



(2) When the Chairman is unable to discharge his functions owing

to absence, illness or any other cause, the Vice-Chairman or, as the

case may be, such one of the Vice-Chairmen as the appropriate

Government may, by notification, authorise in this behalf, shall

discharge the functions of the Chairman until the date on which the

Chairman resumes his duties.


8.
Term of office.


4*[8. Term of office. The Chairman, Vice-Chairman or other

Member shall hold office as such for a term of five years from the

date on which he enters upon his office, but shall be eligible for re-

appointment for another term of five years:



Provided that no Chairman, Vice-Chairman or other Member shall

hold office as such after he has attained,--



(a) in the case of the Chairman or Vice-Chairman, the age of

sixty-five years, and



(b) in the case of any other Member, the age of sixty-two

years.].


9.
Resignation and removal.


9. Resignation and removal. (1) The Chairman, Vice-Chairman or

other Member may, by notice in writing under his hand addressed to the

President, resign his office:



Provided that the Chairman, Vice-Chairman or other Member shall,

unless he is permitted by the President to relinquish his office

sooner, continue to hold office until the expiry of three months from

the date of receipt of such notice or until a person duly appointed as

his successor enters upon his office or until the expiry of his term

of office, whichever is the earliest.



(2) The Chairman, Vice-Chairman or any other Member shall not be

removed from his office except by an order made by the President on

the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity after an inquiry made

by a Judge of the Supreme Court in which such Chairman, Vice-Chairman

or other Member had been informed of the charges against him and given

a reasonable opportunity of being heard in respect of those charges.

---------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Subs. by Act 19 of 1986, S. 7 (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).

2. Ins. by s. 7, ibid. (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).

3. Subs. by Act 51 of 1987, S. 3.

4. Subs. by S. 4, ibid.



52



(3) The Central Government may, by rules, regulate the procedure

for the investigation of misbehaviour or incapacity of the Chairman,

Vice-Chairman or other Member referred to in sub-section (2).


10.
Salaries and allowances and other terms and conditions of service ofChairman,

Vice-Chairman and other Members.


10. Salaries and allowances and other terms and conditions of

service of Chairman, Vice-Chairman and other Members. The salaries and

allowances payable to, and the other terms and conditions of service

(including pension, gratuity and other retirement benefits) of, the

Chairman, Vice-Chairman and other Members shall be such as may be

prescribed by the Central Government:



Provided that neither the salary and allowances nor the other

terms and conditions of service of the Chairman, Vice-Chairman or

other Member shall be varied to his disadvantage after his

appointment.


11.
Provision as to the holding of offices by Chairman, etc., on ceasingto be

such Chairman, etc.


11. Provision as to the holding of offices by Chairman, etc., on

ceasing to be such Chairman, etc. On ceasing to hold office,--



(a) the Chairman of the Central Administrative Tribunal shall be

ineligible for further employment either under the Government of India

or under the Government of a State;



(b) the Chairman of a State Administrative Tribunal or a Joint

Administrative Tribunal shall, subject to the other provisions of this

Act, be eligible for appointment as the Chairman or Vice-Chairman or

any other Member of the Central Administrative Tribunal or as the

Chairman of any other State Administrative Tribunal or Joint

Administrative Tribunal, but not for any other employment either under

the Government of India or under the Government of a State;



(c) the Vice-Chairman of the Central Administrative Tribunal

shall, subject to the other provisions of this Act, be eligible for

appointment as the Chairman of that Tribunal or as the Chairman or

Vice-Chairman of any State Administrative Tribunal or Joint

Administrative Tribunal, but not for any other employment either under

the Government of India or under the Government of a State;



(d) the Vice-Chairman of a State Administrative Tribunal or a

Joint Administrative Tribunal shall, subject to the other provisions

of this Act, be eligible for appointment as the Chairman of that

Tribunal or as the Chairman or Vice-Chairman of the Central

Administrative Tribunal or of any other State Administrative Tribunal

or Joint Administrative Tribunal, but not for any other employment

either under the Government of India or under the Government of a

State;



(e) a Member (other than the Chairman or Vice-Chairman) of any

Tribunal shall, subject to the other provisions of this Act, be

eligible for appointment as the Chairman or Vice-Chairman of such

Tribunal or as the Chairman, Vice-Chairman or other Member of any

other Tribunal, but not for any other employment either under the

Government of India or under the Government of a State;



(f) the Chairman, Vice-Chairman or other Member shall not appear,

act or plead before any Tribunal of which he was the Chairman, Vice-

Chairman or other Member.



53



Explanation.--For the purposes of this section, employment under

the Government of India or under the Government of a State includes

employment under any local or other authority within the territory of

India or under the control of the Government of India or under any

corporation 1*[or society] owned or controlled by the Government.


12.
Financial and administrative powers of the Chairman.


12. Financial and administrative powers of the Chairman. The

Chairman shall exercise such financial and administrative powers over

the 2*** Benches as may be vested in him under the rules made by the

appropriate Government:



Provided that the Chairman shall have authority to delegate such

of his financial and administrative powers as he may think fit to

3*[the Vice-Chairman or any officer of the Tribunal, subject to the

condition that the Vice-Chairman or such officer] shall, while

exercising such delegated powers, continue to act under the direction,

control and supervision of the Chairman.


13.
Staff of the Tribunal.


13. Staff of the Tribunal. (1) The appropriate Government shall

determine the nature and categories of the officers and other

employees required to assist a Tribunal in the discharge of its

functions and provide the Tribunal with such officers and other

employees as it may think fit.



4*[(1A) The officers and other employees of a Tribunal shall

discharge their functions under the general superintendence of the

Chairman.].



(2) The salaries and allowances and conditions of service of the

officers and other employees of a Tribunal shall be such as may be

specified by rules made by the appropriate Government.


CHAP
JURISDICTION, POWERS AND AUTHORITY OF TRIBUNALS


CHAPTER III



JURISDICTION, POWERS AND AUTHORITY OF TRIBUNALS


14.
Jurisdiction, powers and authority of the Central AdministrativeTribunal.


14. Jurisdiction, powers and authority of the Central

Administrative Tribunal. (1) Save as otherwise expressly provided in

this Act, the Central Administrative Tribunal shall exercise, on and

from the appointed day, all the jurisdiction, powers and authority

exercisable immediately before that day by all courts (except the

Supreme Court 5*** in relation to--



(a) recruitment, and matters concerning recruitment, to any

All-India Service or to any civil service of the Union or a civil

post under the Union or to a post connected with defence or in

the defence services, being, in either case, a post filled by a

civilian;



(b) all service matters concerning--



(i) a member of any All-India Service; or



(ii) a person [not being a member of an All-India

Service or a person referred to in clause (c)] appointed to

any civil service of the Union or any civil post under the

Union; or



(iii) a civilian [not being a member of an All-India

Service or a person referred to in clause (c)] appointed to

any defence, services or a post connected with defence,



and pertaining to the service of such member, person or civilian,

in connection with the affairs of the Union or of any State or of

any local or other authority within the territory of India or

under the control of the Government of India or of any corporation

6*[or society] owned or controlled by the Government;

---------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Ins. by Act 19 of 1986, S. 8 (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).

2. Omitted by S. 9, ibid. (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).

3. Subs. by s. 9, ibid. (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).

4. Ins. by S. 10, ibid. (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).

5. Omitted by s. 11, ibid. (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).

6. Ins. by s. 11. ibid. (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).



54



(c) all service matters pertaining to service in connection

with the affairs of the Union concerning a person appointed to

any service or post referred to in sub-clause (ii) or sub-clause

(iii) of clause (b), being a person whose services have been

placed by a State Government or any local or other authority or

any corporation 1*[or society] or other body, at the disposal of

the Central Government for such appointment.



2*[Explanation.--For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared

that references to "Union" in this sub-section shall be construed as

including references also to a Union territory.]



(2) The Central Government may, by notification, apply with

effect from such date as may be specified in the notification the

provisions of sub-section (3) to local or other authorities within the

territory of India or under the control of the Government of India and

to corporations 1*[or societies] owned or controlled by Government,

not being a local or other authority or corporation 1*[or society]

controlled or owned by a State Government:



Provided that if the Central Government considers it expedient so

to do for the purpose of facilitating transition to the scheme as

envisaged by this Act, different dates may be so specified under this

sub-section in respect of different classes of, or different

categories under any class of, local or other authorities or

corporations 1*[or societies].



(3) Save as otherwise expressly provided in this Act, the Central

Administrative Tribunal shall also exercise, on and from the date with

effect from which the provisions of this sub-section apply to any

local or other authority or corporation 1*[or society], all the

jurisdiction, powers and authority exercisable immediately before that

date by all courts (except the Supreme Court 3*** in relation to--



(a) recruitment, and matters concerning recruitment, to any

service or post in connection with the affairs of such local or

other authority or corporation 1*[or society]; and



(b) all service matters concerning a person [other than a

person referred to in clause (a) or clause (b) of sub-section

(1)] appointed to any service or post in connection with the

affairs of such local or other authority or corporation 1*[or

society] and pertaining to the service of such person in

connection with such affairs.


15.
Jurisdiction, powers and authority of State Administrative Tribunals.


15. Jurisdiction, powers and authority of State Administrative

Tribunals. (1) Save as otherwise expressly provided in this Act, the

Administrative Tribunal for a State shall exercise, on and from the

appointed day, all the jurisdiction, powers and authority exercisable

immediately before that day by all courts (except the Supreme Court

4*** in relation to--



(a) recruitment, and matters concerning recruitment, to any

civil service of the State or to any civil post under the State;



(b) all service matters concerning a person [not being a

person referred to in clause (c) of this sub-section or a member,

person or civilian referred to in clause (b) of sub-section (1)

of section 14] appointed to any civil service of the State or any

civil post under the State and pertaining to the service of such

person in connection with the affairs of the State or of any

local or other authority under the control of the State

Government or of any corporation owned 5*[or society] or

controlled by the State Government;



(c) all service matters pertaining to service in connection

with the affairs of the State concerning a person appointed to

any service or post referred to in clause (b), being a person

whose service have

---------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Ins. by Act 19 of 1986, S. 11 (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).

2. Ins. by S. 11 ibid (w.e.f. 1.11.1985).

3. Omitted by S. 11, ibid. (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).

4. Omitted by S. 12, ibid. (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).

5. Ins. by S. 12, ibid. (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).



55



been placed by any such local or other authority or corporation

1*[or society] or other body as is controlled or owned by the

State Government, at the disposal of the State Government for

such appointment.



(2) The State Government may, by notification, apply with effect

from such date as may be specified in the notification the provisions

of sub-section (3) to local or other authorities and corporations

1*[or societies] controlled or owned by the State Government:



Provided that if the State Government considers it expedient so

to do for the purpose of facilitating transition to the scheme as

envisaged by this Act, different dates may be so specified under this

sub-section in respect of different classes of, or different

categories under any class of, local or other authorities or

corporations 1*[or societies]



(3) Save as otherwise expressly provided in this Act, the

Administrative Tribunal for a State shall also exercise, on and from

the date with effect from which the provisions of this sub-section

apply to any local or other authority or corporation 2*[or society],

all the jurisdiction, powers and authority exercisable immediately

before that date by all courts (except the Supreme Court 2*** in

relation to--



(a) recruitment, and matters concerning recruitment, to any

service or post in connection with the affairs of such local or

other authority or corporation 1*[or society]; and



(b) all service matters concerning a person [other than a

person referred to in clause (b) of sub-section (1) of this

section or a member, person or civilian referred to in clause (b)

of sub-section (1) of section 14] appointed to any service or

post in connection with the affairs of such local or other

authority or corporation 1*[or society] and pertaining to the

service of such person in connection with such affairs.



(4) For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that the

jurisdiction, powers and authority of the Administrative Tribunal for

a State shall not extend to, or be exercisable in relation to, any

matter in relation to which the jurisdiction, powers and authority of

the Central Administrative Tribunal extends or is exercisable.


16.
Jurisdiction, powers and authority of a Joint Administrative Tribunal.


16. Jurisdiction, powers and authority of a Joint Administrative

Tribunal. A Joint Administrative Tribunal for two or more States shall

exercise all the jurisdiction, powers and authority exercisable by the

Administrative Tribunals for such States.


17.
Power to punish for contempt.


17. Power to punish for contempt. A Tribunal shall have, and

exercise, the same jurisdiction, powers and authority in respect of

contempt of itself as a High Court has and may exercise and, for this

purpose, the provisions of the Contempt of Courts Act, 1971, (70 of

1971.) shall have effect subject to the modifications that--



(a) the reference therein to a High Court shall be construed

as including a reference to such Tribunal;

---------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Ins. by Act 19 of 1986, S. 12 (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).

2. Omitted s. 12, ibid. (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).



56



(b) the references to the Advocate-General in section 15 of

the said Act shall be construed,--



(i) in relation to the Central Administrative Tribunal,

as a reference to the Attorney-General or the Solicitor-

General or the Additional Solicitor-General; and



(ii) in relation to an Administrative Tribunal for a

State or a Joint Administrative Tribunal for two or more

States, as a reference to the Advocate-General of the State

or any of the States for which such Tribunal has been

established.


18.
Distribution of business amongst the Benches.


18. Distribution of business amongst the Benches. (1) Where

1*[any Benches of a Tribunal are constituted], the appropriate

Government may, from time to time, by notification, make provisions as

to the distribution of the business of the Tribunal amongst the 2***

Benches and specify the matters which may be dealt with by each Bench.



(2) If any question arises as to whether any matter falls within

the purview of the business allocated to a Bench of a Tribunal, the

decision of the Chairman thereon shall be final.



Explanation.--For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared

that the expression "matters" includes applications under section 19.


CHAP
PROCEDURE


CHAPTER IV



PROCEDURE


19.
Applications to tribunals.


19. Applications to tribunals. (1) Subject to the other

provisions of this Act, a person aggrieved by any order pertaining to

any matter within the jurisdiction of a Tribunal may make an

application to the Tribunal for the redressal of his grievance.



Explanation.--For the purposes of this sub-section, "order" means

an order made--



(a) by the Government or a local or other authority within

the territory of India or under the control of the Government of

India on by any corporation 3*[or society] owned or controlled by

the Government; or



(b) by an officer, committee or other body or agency of the

Government or a local or other authority or corporation 3*[or

society] referred to in clause (a).



(2) Every application under sub-section (1) shall be in such form

and be accompanied by such documents or other evidence and by such fee

(if any, not exceeding one hundred rupees) 4*[in respect of the filing

of such application and by such other fees for the service or

execution of processes, as may be prescribed by the Central

Government.]



4*[(3) On receipt of an application under sub-section (1), the

Tribunal shall, if satisfied after such inquiry as it may deem

necessary, that the application is a fit case for adjudication or

trial by it, admit such application; but where the Tribunal is not so

satisfied, it may summarily reject the application after recording its

reasons.]



(4) Where an application has been admitted by a Tribunal under

sub-section (3), every proceeding under the relevant service rules as

to redressal of grievances in relation to the subject-matter of such

application pending immediately before such admission shall abate and

save

---------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Subs. by Act 19 of 1986, S. 13 (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).

2. Omitted by S. 13, (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).

3. Ins. by S. 14, ibid. (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).

4. Subs. by S. 14, ibid. (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).



57



as otherwise directed by the Tribunal, no appeal or representation in

relation to such matter shall thereafter be entertained under such

rules.


20.
Applications not to be admitted unless other remedies exhausted.


20. Applications not to be admitted unless other remedies

exhausted. (1) A Tribunal shall not ordinarily admit an application

unless it is satisfied that the applicant had availed of all the

remedies available to him under the relevant service rules as to

redressal of grievances.



(2) For the purposes of sub-section (1), a person shall be deemed

to have availed of all the remedies available to him under the

relevant service rules as to redressal of grievances,--



(a) if a final order has been made by the Government or

other authority or officer or other person competent to pass such

order under such rules, rejecting any appeal preferred or

representation made by such person in connection with the

grievance; or



(b) where no final order has been made by the Government or

other authority or officer or other person competent to pass such

order with regard to the appeal preferred or representation made

by such person, if a period of six months from the date on which

such appeal was preferred or representation was made has expired.



(3) For the purposes of sub-sections (1) and (2), any remedy

available to an applicant by way of submission of a memorial to the

President or to the Governor of a State or to any other functionary

shall not be deemed to be of one of the remedies which are available

unless the applicant had elected to submit such memorial.


21.
Limitation.


21. Limitation. (1) A Tribunal shall not admit an application,--



(a) in a case where a final order such as is mentioned in

clause (a) of sub-section (2) of section 20 has been made in

connection with the grievance unless the application is made,

within one year from the date on which such final order has been

made;



(b) in a case where an appeal or representation such as is

mentioned in clause (b) of sub-section (2) of section 20 has been

made and a period of six months had expired thereafter without

such final order having been made, within one year from the date

of expiry of the said period of six months.



(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), where-

-



(a) the grievance in respect of which an application is made

had arisen by reason of any order made at any time during the

period of three years immediately preceding the date on which the

jurisdiction, powers and authority of the Tribunal becomes

exercisable under this Act in respect of the matter to which such

order relates; and



(b) no proceedings for the redressal of such grievance had

been commenced before the said date before any High Court, the

application shall be entertained by the Tribunal if it is made

within the period referred to in clause (a), or, as the case may

be, clause (b), of sub-section (1) or within a period of six

months from the said date, whichever period expires later.



(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1) or sub-

section (2), an application may be admitted after the period of one

year specified in clause (a) or clause (b) of sub-section (1) or, as

the case



58



may be, the period of six months specified in sub-section (2), if the

applicant satisfies the Tribunal that he had sufficient cause for not

making the application within such period.


22.
Procedure and powers of Tribunals.


22. Procedure and powers of Tribunals. (1) A Tribunal shall not

be bound by the procedure laid down in the Code of Civil Procedure,

1908, (5 of 1908.) but shall be guided by the principles of natural

justice and subject to the other provisions of this Act and of any

rules made by the Central Government, the Tribunal shall have power to

regulate its own procedure including the fixing of places and times of

its inquiry and deciding whether to sit in public or in private.



(2) A Tribunal shall decide every application made to it as

expeditiously as possible and ordinarily every application shall be

decided on a perusal of documents and written representations and

1*[after hearing such oral arguments as may be advanced"].



(3) A Tribunal shall have, for the purposes of 1*[discharging its

functions under this Act], the same powers as are vested in a civil

court under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, (5 of 1908.) while

trying a suit, in respect of the following matters, namely:--



(a) summoning and enforcing the attendance of any person and

examining him on oath;



(b) requiring the discovery and production of documents;



(c) receiving evidence on affidavits;



(d) subject to the provisions of sections 123 and 124 of the

Indian Evidence Act, 1872, (1 of 1872.) requisitioning any public

record or document or copy of such record or document from any

office;



(e) issuing commissions for the examination of witness or

documents;



(f) reviewing its decisions;



(g) dismissing a representation for default or deciding it

ex parte;



(h) setting aside any order of dismissal of any

representation for default or any order passed by it ex parte;

and



(i) any other matter which may be prescribed by the Central

Government.


23.
Right of applicant to take assistance of legal practitioner and

ofGovernment, etc., to appoint presenting officers.


23. Right of applicant to take assistance of legal practitioner

and of Government, etc., to appoint presenting officers. (1) A person

making an application to a Tribunal under this Act may either appear

in person or take the assistance of a legal practitioner of his choice

to present his case before the Tribunal.



(2) The Central Government or a State Government or a local or

other authority or corporation 2*[or society], to which the provisions

of sub-section (3) of section 14 or sub-section (3) of section 15

apply, 3*[may authorise one or more legal practitioners or any of its

officers to act as presenting officers and every person so authorised

by it may present its case with respect to any application before a

Tribunal"]

---------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Subs. by Act 19 of 1986, S. 15 (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).

2. Ins. by S. 16, ibid. (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).

3. Subs. by S. 16, ibid. (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).



59


24.
Conditions as to making of interim orders.


24. Conditions as to making of interim orders. Notwithstanding

anything contained in any other provisions of this Act or in any other

law for the time being in force, no interim order (whether by way of

injunction or stay or in any other manner) shall be made on, or in any

proceedings relating to, an application unless--



(a) copies of such application and of all documents in

support of the plea for such interim order are furnished to the

party against whom such application is made or proposed to be

made; and



(b) opportunity is given to such party to be heard in the

matter:



Provided that a Tribunal may dispense with the requirements of

clauses (a) and (b) and make an interim order as an exceptional

measure if it is satisfied, for reasons to be recorded in writing,

that it is necessary so to do for preventing any loss being caused to

the applicant which cannot be adequately compensated in money but any

such interim order shall, if it is not sooner vacated, cease to have

effect on the expiry of a period of fourteen days from the date on

which it is made unless the said requirements have been complied with

before the expiry of that period and the Tribunal has continued the

operation of the interim order.


25.
Power of Chairman to transfer cases from one Bench to another.


1*[25. Power of Chairman to transfer cases from one Bench to

another. On the application of any of the parties and after notice to

the parties, and after hearing such of them as he may desire to be

heard, or on his own motion without such notice, the Chairman may

transfer any case pending before one Bench, for disposal, to any other

Bench.


26.
Decision to be by majority.


26. Decision to be by majority. If the Members of a Bench differ

in opinion on any point, the point shall be decided according to the

opinion of the majority, if there is a majority, but if the Members

are equally divided, they shall state the point or points on which

they differ, and make a reference to the Chairman who shall either

hear the point or points himself or refer the case for hearing on such

point or points by one or more of the other Members of the Tribunal

and such point or points shall be decided according to the opinion of

the majority of the Members of the Tribunal who have heard the case,

including those who first heard it."]


27.
Execution of orders of a Tribunal.


27. Execution of orders of a Tribunal. Subject to the other

provisions of this Act and the rules, 2*[the order of a Tribunal

finally disposing of an application or an appeal shall be final and

shall not be called in question in any court (including a High Court)

and such order"] shall be executed in the same manner in which any

final order of the nature referred to in clause (a) of sub-section (2)

of section 20 (whether or not such final order had actually been made)

in respect of the grievance to which the application relates would

have been executed.

---------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Subs. by Act 19 of 1986, S. 17 (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).

2. Subs. by S. 18, ibid. (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).



60


CHAP
MISCELLANEOUS


CHAPTER V



MISCELLANEOUS


28.
Exclusion of jurisdiction of courts except the Supreme Court underarticle

136 of the Constitution.


28. Exclusion of jurisdiction of courts except the Supreme Court

under article 136 of the Constitution. On and from the date from which

any jurisdiction, powers and authority becomes exercisable under this

Act by a Tribunal in relation to recruitment and matters concerning

recruitment to any Service or post or service matters concerning

members of any Service or persons appointed to any Service or post, or

be entitled to exercise any jurisdiction, powers or authority in

relation to such recruitment or matters concerning such recruitment or

such service matters.



1*[no court except--



(a) the Supreme Court; or



(b) any Industrial Tribunal, Labour Court or other authority

constituted under the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 or any other

corresponding law for the time being in force, shall have"].


29.
Transfer of pending cases.


29. Transfer of pending cases. (1) Every suit or other proceeding

pending before any court or other authority immediately before the

date of establishment of a Tribunal under this Act, being a suit or

proceeding the cause of action whereon it is based is such that it

would have been, if it had arisen after such establishment, within the

jurisdiction of such Tribunal, shall stand transferred on that date to

such Tribunal:



Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall apply to any

appeal pending as aforesaid before a High Court 2***



(2) Every suit or other proceeding pending before a court or

other authority immediately before the date with effect from which

jurisdiction is conferred on a Tribunal in relation to any local or

other authority or corporation 3*[ or society], being a suit or

proceeding the cause of action whereon it is based is such that it

would have been, if it had arisen after the said date, within the

jurisdiction of such Tribunal, shall stand transferred on that date to

such Tribunal:



Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall apply to any

appeal pending as aforesaid before a High Court 2***



Explanation.--For the purposes of this sub-section "date with

effect from which jurisdiction is conferred on a Tribunal", in

relation to any local or other authority or corporation 2*[or

society], means the date with effect from which the provisions of sub-

section (3) of section 14 or, as the case may be, sub-section (3) of

section 15 are applied to such local or other authority or corporation

2*[or society].



(3) Where immediately before the date of establishment of a Joint

Administrative Tribunal any one or more of the States for which it is

established, has or have a State Tribunal or State Tribunals, all

cases pending before such State Tribunal or State Tribunals

immediately before the said date together with the records thereof

shall stand transferred on that date to such Joint Administrative

Tribunal.



Explanation.--For the purposes of this sub-section, "State

Tribunal" means a Tribunal established under sub-section (2) of

section 4.



(4) Where any suit, appeal or other proceeding stands transferred

from any court or other authority to a Tribunal under sub-section (1)

or sub-section (2),--



(a) the court or other authority shall, as soon as may be

after such transfer, forward the records of such suit, appeal or

other proceeding to the Tribunal; and

---------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Subs. by Act 19 of 1986, S. 19 (w.e.f. 1.11.1985).

2. Omitted by S. 20, ibid. (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).

3. Ins. by S. 20, ibid. (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).



61



(b) the Tribunal may, on receipt of such records, proceed to

deal with such suit, appeal or other proceeding, so far as may

be, in the same manner as in the case of an application under

section 19 from the stage which was reached before such transfer

or from any earlier stage or de novo as the Tribunal may deem

fit.



(5) Where any case stands transferred to a Joint Administrative

Tribunal under sub-section (3), the Joint Administrative Tribunal may

proceed to deal with such case from the stage which was reached before

it stood so transferred.



1*[(6) Every case pending before a Tribunal immediately before

the commencement of the Administrative Tribunals (Amendment) Act,

1987, being a case the cause of action whereon it is based is such

that it would have been, if it had arisen after such commencement,

within the jurisdiction of any court, shall, together with the records

thereof, stand transferred on such commencement to such court.



(7) Where any case stands transferred to a court under sub-

section (6), that court may proceed to deal with such case from the

stage which was reached before it stood so transferred.]


29A.
Provision for filing of certain appeals.


2*[29A. Provision for filing of certain appeals. Where any decree

or order has been made or passed by any court (other than a High

Court) in any suit or proceeding before the establishment of a

Tribunal, being a suit or proceeding the cause of action whereon it is

based is such that it would have been if it had arisen after such

establishment, within the jurisdiction of such Tribunal, and no appeal

has been preferred against such decree or order before such

establishment and the time for preferring such appeal under any law

for the time being in force had not expireo before such establishment,

such appeal shall lie--



(a) to the Central Administrative Tribunal, within ninety

days from the date on which the Administrative Tribunals

(Amendment) Bill, 1986 receives the assent of the President, or

within ninety days from the date of receipt of the copy of such

decree or order, whichever is later, or



(b) to any other Tribunal, within ninety days from its

establishment or within ninety days from the date of receipt of

the copy of such decree or order, whichever is later."].


30.
Proceedings before a Tribunal to be judicial proceedings.


30. Proceedings before a Tribunal to be judicial proceedings. All

proceedings before a Tribunal shall be deemed to be judicial

proceedings within the meaning of sections 193, 219 and 228 of the

Indian Penal Code. (45 of 1860.)


31.
Members and staff of Tribunal to be public servants.


31. Members and staff of Tribunal to be public servants. The

Chairman, Vice-Chairman and other Members and the officers and other

employees provided under section 13 to a Tribunal shall be deemed to

be public servants within the meaning of section 21 of the Indian

Penal Code. (45 of 1860.)


32.
Protection of action taken in good faith.


32. Protection of action taken in good faith. No suit,

prosecution or other legal proceeding shall lie against the Central or

State Government or against the Chairman, Vice-Chairman or other

Member of any Central or Joint or State Administrative Tribunal, or

any other person authorised by such Chairman, Vice-Chairman or other

Member for anything which is in good faith done or intended to be done

in pursuance of this Act or any rule or order made thereunder.


33.
Act to have overriding effect.


33. Act to have overriding effect. The provisions of this Act

shall have effect notwithstanding anything inconsistent therewith

contained in any other law for the time being in force or in any

instrument having effect by virtue of any law other than this Act.


34.
Power to remove difficulties.


34. Power to remove difficulties. (1) If any difficulty arises in

giving effect to the provisions of this Act, the Central Government

may, by order published in the Official Gazette, make such provisions,

not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act as appear to it to be

necessary or expedient for removing the difficulty.



(2) Every order made under this section shall, as soon as may be

after it is made, be laid before each House of Parliament.


35.
Power of the Central Government to make rules.


35. Power of the Central Government to make rules. (1) The

Central Government may, subject to the provisions of section 36, by

notification, make rules to carry out the provisions of this Act.



(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power,

such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters,

namely:--



(a) the case or cases which shall be decided by a Bench

composed of more than 3*[two members] under clause (d) of sub-

section (4) of section 5;



(b) the procedure under sub-section (3) of section 9 for the

investigation of misbehaviour or incapacity of Chairman, Vice-

Chairman or other Member;

---------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Ins. by Act 51 of 1987, S. 5.

2. Ins. by Act 19 of 1986, S. 21 (w.e.f. 22.1.1936).

3. Subs. by S. 22, ibid. (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).



62



(c) the salaries and allowances payable to, and the other

terms and conditions of, the Chairman, Vice-Chairman and other

Members;



(d) the form in which an application may be made under

section 19, the documents and other evidence by which such

application shall be accompanied 1*[and the fees payable in

respect of the filing of such application or for the service or

execution of processes]



(e) the rules subject to which a Tribunal shall have power

to regulate its own procedure under sub-section (1) of section 22

and the additional matters in respect of which a Tribunal may

exercise the powers of a civil court under clause (i) of sub-

section (3) of that section; and



(f) any other matter which may be prescribed or in respect

of which rules are required to be made by the Central Government.


36.
Power of the appropriate Government to make rules.


36. Power of the appropriate Government to make rules. The

appropriate Government may, by notification, make rules to provide for

all or any of the following matters, namely:--



(a) the financial and administrative powers which the

Chairman of a Tribunal may exercise over the 2*** Benches of the

Tribunal under section 12;



(b) the salaries and allowances and conditions of service of

the officers and other employees of a Tribunal under sub-section

(2) of section 13; and



(c) any other matter not being a matter specified in section

35 in respect of which rules are required to be made by the

appropriate Government.


36A.
Power to make rules retrospectively.


3*[36A. The Power to make rules retrospectively. The power to

make rules under clause (c) of sub-section (2) of section 35 or

clause (b) of section 36 shall include the power to make such rules

or any of them retrospectively from a date not earlier than the date

on which this Act received the assent of the President, but no such

retrospective effect shall be given to any such rule so as to

prejudicially affect the interests of any person to whom such rule may

be applicable].


37.
Laying of rules.


37. Laying of rules. (1) Every rule made under this Act by the

Central Government shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made,

before each House of Parliament, while it is in session, for a total

period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two

or more successive sessions, and if, before the expiry of the session

immediately following the session or the successive sessions

aforesaid, both Houses agree in making any modification in the rule or

both Houses agree that the rule should not be made, the rule shall

thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect,

as the case may be; so, however, that any such modification or

annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything

previously done under that rule.



(2) Every rule made by a State Government under this Act shall be

laid, as soon as may be after it is made, before the State

Legislature.

---------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Subs. by Act 19 of 1986, S. 22 (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).

2. Omitted by S. 23, ibid. (w.e.f. 22.1.1986).

3. Ins. by Act 51 of 1987, S. 6.

Related Laws