Arbitration Ordinance


Published: 2014-04-10

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Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 1

Chapter: 609 Arbitration Ordinance Gazette Number Version Date

Long title E.R. 2 of 2014 10/04/2014


An Ordinance to reform the law relating to arbitration, and to provide for related and consequential matters.


[1 June 2011] L.N. 38 of 2011


(Enacting provision omitted—E.R. 2 of 2014)

(Originally 17 of 2010)

Part: 1 PRELIMINARY L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011




Section: 1 Short title E.R. 2 of 2014 10/04/2014


(1) This Ordinance may be cited as the Arbitration Ordinance.
(2) (Omitted as spent—E.R. 2 of 2014)

(Amended E.R. 2 of 2014)

Section: 2 Interpretation L.N. 163 of 2013 03/03/2014


(1) In this Ordinance—
“arbitral tribunal” (仲裁庭) means a sole arbitrator or a panel of arbitrators, and includes an umpire;
“arbitration” (仲裁) means any arbitration, whether or not administered by a permanent arbitral institution;
“arbitration agreement” (仲裁協議) has the same meaning as in section 19;
“arbitrator” (仲裁員), except in sections 23, 24, 30, 31, 32 and 65 and section 1 of Schedule 2, includes an umpire;
“claimant” (申索人) means a person who makes a claim or a counter-claim in an arbitration;
“Commission” (貿法委) means the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law;
“Convention award” (公約裁決) means an arbitral award made in a State or the territory of a State, other than

China or any part of China, which is a party to the New York Convention;
“Court” (原訟法庭) means the Court of First Instance of the High Court;
“dispute” (爭議) includes a difference;
“function” (職能) includes a power and a duty;
“HKIAC” (香港國際仲裁中心) means the Hong Kong International Arbitration Centre, a company incorporated

in Hong Kong under the Companies Ordinance (Cap 32) as in force at the time of the incorporation and limited
by guarantee; (Amended 28 of 2012 ss. 912 & 920)

“interim measure” (臨時措施)—
(a) if it is granted by an arbitral tribunal, has the same meaning as in section 35(1) and (2); or
(b) if it is granted by a court, has the same meaning as in section 45(9),

and “interim measure of protection” (臨時保全措施) is to be construed accordingly;
Macao (澳門) means the Macao Special Administrative Region; (Added 7 of 2013 s. 3)
Macao award (澳門裁決) means an arbitral award made in Macao in accordance with the arbitration law of Macao;

(Added 7 of 2013 s. 3)
“the Mainland” (內地) means any part of China other than Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan;
“Mainland award” (內地裁決) means an arbitral award made in the Mainland by a recognized Mainland arbitral

authority in accordance with the Arbitration Law of the People’s Republic of China;
“mediation” (調解) includes conciliation;



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 2

“New York Convention” (《紐約公約》) means the Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign
Arbitral Awards done at New York on 10 June 1958;

“party” (一方、方)—
(a) means a party to an arbitration agreement; or
(b) in relation to any arbitral or court proceedings, means a party to the proceedings;

“recognized Mainland arbitral authority” (認可內地仲裁當局) means an arbitral authority that is specified in the
list of recognized Mainland arbitral authorities published by the Secretary for Justice under section 97;

“repealed Ordinance” (《舊有條例》) means the Arbitration Ordinance (Cap 341) repealed by section 109;
“respondent” (被申請人) means a person against whom a claim or a counterclaim is made in an arbitration;
“UNCITRAL Model Law” (《貿法委示範法》 ) means the UNCITRAL Model Law on International

Commercial Arbitration as adopted by the Commission on 21 June 1985 and as amended by the Commission on
7 July 2006, the full text of which is set out in Schedule 1.
(2) If—

(a) a provision of this Ordinance refers to the fact that the parties have agreed, or in any other way refers
to an agreement of the parties, the agreement includes any arbitration rules referred to in that
agreement; or

(b) a provision of this Ordinance provides that the parties may agree, the agreement, if any, may include
any arbitration rules by referring to those rules in that agreement.

(3) If—
(a) a provision of this Ordinance (other than sections 53 and 68) refers to a claim, that provision also

applies to a counter-claim; or
(b) a provision of this Ordinance (other than section 53) refers to a defence, that provision also applies to a

defence to a counter-claim.
(4) A note located in the text of this Ordinance, a section heading of any provision of this Ordinance or a

heading of any provision of the UNCITRAL Model Law is for reference only and has no legislative effect.
(5) If the Chinese equivalent of an English expression used in any provision of this Ordinance is different from

the Chinese equivalent of the same English expression used in any provision of the UNCITRAL Model Law, those
Chinese equivalents are to be treated as being identical in effect.

Section: 3 Object and principles of this Ordinance L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011


(1) The object of this Ordinance is to facilitate the fair and speedy resolution of disputes by arbitration without
unnecessary expense.

(2) This Ordinance is based on the principles—
(a) that, subject to the observance of the safeguards that are necessary in the public interest, the parties to a

dispute should be free to agree on how the dispute should be resolved; and
(b) that the court should interfere in the arbitration of a dispute only as expressly provided for in this

Ordinance.

Section: 4 UNCITRAL Model Law to have force of law in Hong

Kong
L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



The provisions of the UNCITRAL Model Law that are expressly stated in this Ordinance as having effect have
the force of law in Hong Kong subject to the modifications and supplements as expressly provided for in this
Ordinance.

Section: 5 Arbitrations to which this Ordinance applies 7 of 2013 19/07/2013


(1) Subject to subsection (2), this Ordinance applies to an arbitration under an arbitration agreement, whether
or not the agreement is entered into in Hong Kong, if the place of arbitration is in Hong Kong.
(2) If the place of arbitration is outside Hong Kong, only this Part, sections 20 and 21, Part 3A, sections 45, 60 and

61 and Part 10 apply to the arbitration. (Amended 7 of 2013 s. 4)
(3) If any other Ordinance provides that this Ordinance applies to an arbitration under that other Ordinance, this



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 3

Ordinance (other than sections 20(2), (3) and (4), 22(1), 58 and 74(8) and (9)) applies to an arbitration under that other
Ordinance, subject to the following—

(a) a reference in article 16(1) of the UNCITRAL Model Law, given effect to by section 34, to any
objections with respect to the existence or validity of the arbitration agreement is to be construed as
any objections with respect to the application of that other Ordinance to the dispute in question;

(b) that other Ordinance is deemed to have expressly provided that, subject to paragraph (c), all the
provisions in Schedule 2 apply; and

(c) section 2 of Schedule 2 (if applicable) only applies so as to authorize 2 or more arbitral proceedings
under the same Ordinance to be consolidated or to be heard at the same time or one immediately after
another.

(4) Subsection (3) has effect, in relation to an arbitration under any other Ordinance, only in so far as this
Ordinance is consistent with—

(a) that other Ordinance; and
(b) any rules or procedures authorized or recognized by that other Ordinance.


Section: 6 Application L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011


This Ordinance applies to the Government and the Offices set up by the Central People’s Government in the
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

Part: 2 GENERAL PROVISIONS L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011




Section: 7 Article 1 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Scope of application) L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011


Section 5 has effect in substitution for article 1 of the UNCITRAL Model Law.

Section: 8 Article 2 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Definitions and rules

of interpretation)
L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



(1) Section 2 has effect in substitution for article 2 of the UNCITRAL Model Law.
(2) For the purposes of subsection (1), a reference to this Ordinance in section 2 (other than section 2(5)) is to

be construed as including the UNCITRAL Model Law.
(3) In the provisions of the UNCITRAL Model Law—

(a) a reference to this State is to be construed as Hong Kong;
(b) a reference to a State is to be construed as including Hong Kong;
(c) a reference to different States is to be construed as including Hong Kong and any other place;
(d) a reference to an article is to be construed as an article of the UNCITRAL Model Law; and
(e) (other than in article 2A of the UNCITRAL Model Law, given effect to by section 9) a reference to

this Law is to be construed as this Ordinance.

Section: 9 Article 2A of UNCITRAL Model Law (International origin

and general principles)
L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



Article 2A of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—


“Article 2A. International origin and general
principles


(1) In the interpretation of this Law, regard is to be had to its international origin and to the need to
promote uniformity in its application and the observance of good faith.
(2) Questions concerning matters governed by this Law which are not expressly settled in it are to be
settled in conformity with the general principles on which this Law is based.”.



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 4


Section: 10 Article 3 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Receipt of written

communications)
L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



(1) Article 3 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—


“Article 3. Receipt of written communications


(1) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties:
(a) any written communication is deemed to have been received if it is delivered to the

addressee personally or if it is delivered at his place of business, habitual residence or mailing address;
if none of these can be found after making a reasonable inquiry, a written communication is deemed to
have been received if it is sent to the addressee’s last-known place of business, habitual residence or
mailing address by registered letter or any other means which provides a record of the attempt to
deliver it;

(b) the communication is deemed to have been received on the day it is so delivered.
(2) The provisions of this article do not apply to communications in court proceedings.”.

(2) Without affecting subsection (1), if a written communication (other than communications in court
proceedings) is sent by any means by which information can be recorded and transmitted to the addressee, the
communication is deemed to have been received on the day it is so sent.

(3) Subsection (2) applies only if there is a record of receipt of the communication by the addressee.

Section: 11 Article 4 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Waiver of right to

object)
L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



Article 4 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—


“Article 4. Waiver of right to object


A party who knows that any provision of this Law from which the parties may derogate or any
requirement under the arbitration agreement has not been complied with and yet proceeds with the
arbitration without stating his objection to such non-compliance without undue delay or, if a time-limit
is
provided therefor, within such period of time, shall be deemed to have waived his right to object.”.


Section: 12 Article 5 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Extent of court

intervention)
L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



Article 5 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—


“Article 5. Extent of court intervention


In matters governed by this Law, no court shall intervene except where so provided in this Law.”.

Section: 13 Article 6 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Court or other

authority for certain functions of arbitration assistance
and supervision)

L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



(1) Subsections (2) to (6) have effect in substitution for article 6 of the UNCITRAL Model Law.
(2) The functions of the court or other authority referred to in article 11(3) or (4) of the UNCITRAL Model

Law, given effect to by section 24, are to be performed by the HKIAC.
(3) The HKIAC may, with the approval of the Chief Justice, make rules to facilitate the performance of its

functions under section 23(3), 24 or 32(1).



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 5

(4) The functions of the court or other authority referred to in—
(a) article 13(3) of the UNCITRAL Model Law, given effect to by section 26; or
(b) article 14(1) of the UNCITRAL Model Law, given effect to by section 27,

are to be performed by the Court.
(5) The functions of the court referred to in—

(a) article 16(3) of the UNCITRAL Model Law, given effect to by section 34; or
(b) article 34(2) of the UNCITRAL Model Law, given effect to by section 81,

are to be performed by the Court.
(6) The functions of the competent court referred to in article 27 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, given effect to

by section 55, are to be performed by the Court.

Section: 14 Application of Limitation Ordinance and other limitation

enactments to arbitrations
L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



(1) The Limitation Ordinance (Cap 347) and any other Ordinance relating to the limitation of actions
(“limitation enactments”) apply to arbitrations as they apply to actions in the court.

(2) For the purposes of subsection (1), a reference in a limitation enactment to bringing an action is to be
construed as, in relation to an arbitration, commencing the arbitral proceedings.

(3) Despite any term in an arbitration agreement to the effect that no cause of action may accrue in respect of
any matter required by the agreement to be submitted to arbitration until an award is made under the agreement, the
cause of action is, for the purposes of the limitation enactments (whether in their application to arbitrations or to other
proceedings), deemed to accrue in respect of that matter at the time when it would have accrued but for that term.

(4) If a court orders that an award is to be set aside, the period between—
(a) the commencement of the arbitral proceedings; and
(b) the date of the order of the court setting aside the award,

must be excluded in computing the time prescribed by a limitation enactment for the commencement of proceedings
(including arbitral proceedings) with respect to the matter submitted to arbitration.

Section: 15 Reference of interpleader issue to arbitration by court L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011


(1) If—
(a) relief by way of interpleader is granted by a court; and
(b) there is an arbitration agreement between the claimants in the interpleader proceedings in respect of

any issue between those claimants,
the court granting the relief must, subject to subsection (2), direct that the issue is to be determined in accordance with
the agreement.

(2) The court may refuse to make a direction under subsection (1) if the circumstances are such that legal
proceedings brought by a claimant in respect of the issue would not be stayed.

(3) If the court refuses to make a direction under subsection (1), any provision of the arbitration agreement that
an award is a condition precedent to the bringing of legal proceedings in respect of the issue does not affect the
determination of the issue by the court.

(4) A direction of the court under subsection (1) is not subject to appeal.
(5) The leave of the court making a decision under subsection (2) is required for any appeal from that decision.


Section: 16 Proceedings to be heard otherwise than in open court L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011


(1) Subject to subsection (2), proceedings under this Ordinance in the court are to be heard otherwise than in
open court.

(2) The court may order those proceedings to be heard in open court—
(a) on the application of any party; or
(b) if, in any particular case, the court is satisfied that those proceedings ought to be heard in open court.

(3) An order of the court under subsection (2) is not subject to appeal.




Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 6

Section: 17 Restrictions on reporting of proceedings heard otherwise
than in open court

L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



(1) This section applies to proceedings under this Ordinance in the court heard otherwise than in open court
(“closed court proceedings”).

(2) A court in which closed court proceedings are being heard must, on the application of any party, make a
direction as to what information, if any, relating to the proceedings may be published.

(3) A court must not make a direction permitting information to be published unless—
(a) all parties agree that the information may be published; or
(b) the court is satisfied that the information, if published, would not reveal any matter (including the

identity of any party) that any party reasonably wishes to remain confidential.
(4) Despite subsection (3), if—

(a) a court gives a judgment in respect of closed court proceedings; and
(b) the court considers that judgment to be of major legal interest,

the court must direct that reports of the judgment may be published in law reports and professional publications.
(5) If a court directs under subsection (4) that reports of a judgment may be published, but any party reasonably

wishes to conceal any matter in those reports (including the fact that the party was such a party), the court must, on the
application of the party—

(a) make a direction as to the action to be taken to conceal that matter in those reports; and
(b) if the court considers that a report published in accordance with the direction made under paragraph (a)

would still be likely to reveal that matter, direct that the report may not be published until after the end
of a period, not exceeding 10 years, that the court may direct.

(6) A direction of the court under this section is not subject to appeal.

Section: 18 Disclosure of information relating to arbitral proceedings

and awards prohibited
L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



(1) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, no party may publish, disclose or communicate any information
relating to—

(a) the arbitral proceedings under the arbitration agreement; or
(b) an award made in those arbitral proceedings.

(2) Nothing in subsection (1) prevents the publication, disclosure or communication of information referred to
in that subsection by a party—

(a) if the publication, disclosure or communication is made—
(i) to protect or pursue a legal right or interest of the party; or
(ii) to enforce or challenge the award referred to in that subsection,
in legal proceedings before a court or other judicial authority in or outside Hong Kong;

(b) if the publication, disclosure or communication is made to any government body, regulatory body,
court or tribunal and the party is obliged by law to make the publication, disclosure or communication;
or

(c) if the publication, disclosure or communication is made to a professional or any other adviser of any of
the parties.


Part: 3 ARBITRATION AGREEMENT L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011




Section: 19 Article 7 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Definition and form
of arbitration agreement)

L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



(1) Option I of Article 7 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—
“Option I


Article 7. Definition and form of arbitration



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 7

agreement


(1) “Arbitration agreement” is an agreement by the parties to submit to arbitration all or certain
disputes which have arisen or which may arise between them in respect of a defined legal relationship,
whether contractual or not. An arbitration agreement may be in the form of an arbitration clause in a
contract or in the form of a separate agreement.
(2) The arbitration agreement shall be in writing.
(3) An arbitration agreement is in writing if its content is recorded in any form, whether or not the
arbitration agreement or contract has been concluded orally, by conduct, or by other means.
(4) The requirement that an arbitration agreement be in writing is met by an electronic
communication if the information contained therein is accessible so as to be useable for subsequent
reference; “electronic communication” means any communication that the parties make by means of
data messages; “data message” means information generated, sent, received or stored by electronic,
magnetic, optical or similar means, including, but not limited to, electronic data interchange (EDI),
electronic mail, telegram, telex or telecopy.
(5) Furthermore, an arbitration agreement is in writing if it is contained in an exchange of statements
of claim and defence in which the existence of an agreement is alleged by one party and not denied by
the other.
(6) The reference in a contract to any document containing an arbitration clause constitutes an
arbitration agreement in writing, provided that the reference is such as to make that clause part of the
contract.”.

(2) Without affecting subsection (1), an arbitration agreement is in writing if—
(a) the agreement is in a document, whether or not the document is signed by the parties to the agreement;

or
(b) the agreement, although made otherwise than in writing, is recorded by one of the parties to the

agreement, or by a third party, with the authority of each of the parties to the agreement.
(3) A reference in an agreement to a written form of arbitration clause constitutes an arbitration agreement if

the reference is such as to make that clause part of the agreement.

Section: 20 Article 8 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Arbitration

agreement and substantive claim before court)
L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



(1) Article 8 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—


“Article 8. Arbitration agreement and substantive
claim before court


(1) A court before which an action is brought in a matter which is the subject of an arbitration
agreement shall, if a party so requests not later than when submitting his first statement on the
substance of the dispute, refer the parties to arbitration unless it finds that the agreement is null and
void, inoperative or incapable of being performed.
(2) Where an action referred to in paragraph (1) of this article has been brought, arbitral proceedings
may nevertheless be commenced or continued, and an award may be made, while the issue is pending
before the court.”.

(2) If a dispute in the matter which is the subject of an arbitration agreement involves a claim or other dispute
that is within the jurisdiction of the Labour Tribunal established by section 3 (Establishment of tribunal) of the Labour
Tribunal Ordinance (Cap 25), the court before which an action has been brought may, if a party so requests, refer the
parties to arbitration if it is satisfied that—

(a) there is no sufficient reason why the parties should not be referred to arbitration in accordance with the
arbitration agreement; and

(b) the party requesting arbitration was ready and willing at the time the action was brought to do all
things necessary for the proper conduct of the arbitration, and remains so.

(3) Subsection (1) has effect subject to section 15 (Arbitration agreements) of the Control of Exemption
Clauses Ordinance (Cap 71).



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 8

(4) If the court refuses to refer the parties to arbitration, any provision of the arbitration agreement that an
award is a condition precedent to the bringing of legal proceedings in respect of any matter is of no effect in relation to
those proceedings.

(5) If the court refers the parties in an action to arbitration, it must make an order staying the legal proceedings
in that action.

(6) In the case of Admiralty proceedings—
(a) the reference of the parties to arbitration and an order for the stay of those proceedings may, despite

subsections (1) and (5), be made conditional on the giving of security for the satisfaction of any award
made in the arbitration; or

(b) if the court makes an order under subsection (5) staying those proceedings, the court may (where
property has been arrested, or bail or other security has been given to prevent or obtain release from
arrest, in those proceedings) order that the property arrested, or the bail or security given, be retained
as security for the satisfaction of any award made in the arbitration.

(7) Subject to any provision made by rules of court and to any necessary modifications, the same law and
practice apply to the property, bail or security retained in pursuance of an order under subsection (6) as would apply if
the property, bail or security retained were held for the purposes of proceedings in the court making the order.

(8) A decision of the court to refer the parties to arbitration under—
(a) article 8 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, given effect to by subsection (1); or
(b) subsection (2),

is not subject to appeal.
(9) The leave of the court making a decision to refuse to refer the parties to arbitration under—

(a) article 8 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, given effect to by subsection (1); or
(b) subsection (2),

is required for any appeal from that decision.
(10) A decision or order of the court under subsection (6) is not subject to appeal.


Section: 21 Article 9 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Arbitration

agreement and interim measures by court)
L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



Article 9 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—


“Article 9. Arbitration agreement and interim
measures by court


It is not incompatible with an arbitration agreement for a party to request, before or during arbitral
proceedings, from a court an interim measure of protection and for a court to grant such measure.”.


Section: 22 Whether agreement discharged by death of a party L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011


(1) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, an arbitration agreement is not discharged by the death of a party
and may be enforced by or against the personal representatives of that party.

(2) Subsection (1) does not affect the operation of any enactment or rule of law by virtue of which a substantive
right or obligation is extinguished by death.

Part: 3A Enforcement of Emergency Relief 7 of 2013 19/07/2013


(Part 3A added 7 of 2013 s. 5)

Section: 22A Interpretation 7 of 2013 19/07/2013


In this Part—
emergency arbitrator (緊急仲裁員) means an emergency arbitrator appointed under the arbitration rules (including

the arbitration rules of a permanent arbitral institution) agreed to or adopted by the parties to deal with the



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 9

parties’ applications for emergency relief before an arbitral tribunal is constituted.

Section: 22B Enforcement of emergency relief granted by emergency

arbitrator
7 of 2013 19/07/2013



(1) Any emergency relief granted, whether in or outside Hong Kong, by an emergency arbitrator under the relevant
arbitration rules is enforceable in the same manner as an order or direction of the Court that has the same effect,
but only with the leave of the Court.

(2) The Court may not grant leave to enforce any emergency relief granted outside Hong Kong unless the party
seeking to enforce it can demonstrate that it consists only of one or more temporary measures (including an
injunction) by which the emergency arbitrator orders a party to do one or more of the following—
(a) maintain or restore the status quo pending the determination of the dispute concerned;
(b) take action that would prevent, or refrain from taking action that is likely to cause, current or imminent

harm or prejudice to the arbitral process itself;
(c) provide a means of preserving assets out of which a subsequent award made by an arbitral tribunal may be

satisfied;
(d) preserve evidence that may be relevant and material to resolving the dispute;
(e) give security in connection with anything to be done under paragraph (a), (b), (c) or (d);
(f) give security for the costs of the arbitration.

(3) If leave is granted under subsection (1), the Court may enter judgment in terms of the emergency relief.
(4) A decision of the Court to grant or refuse to grant leave under subsection (1) is not subject to appeal.

Part: 4 Composition of Arbitral Tribunal E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015


(*Format changes—E.R. 3 of 2015)
_____________________________________________________________________________
Note:
* The format of Part 4 has been updated to the current legislative styles.

Part:
Division:

4
1

Arbitrators E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015





Section: 23 Article 10 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Number of
arbitrators)

E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015



(1) Article 10(1) of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—


“Article 10. Number of arbitrators


(1) The parties are free to determine the number of arbitrators.
(2) [Not applicable]”.

(2) For the purposes of subsection (1), the freedom of the parties to determine the number of arbitrators includes the
right of the parties to authorize a third party, including an institution, to make that determination.

(3) The number of arbitrators in an arbitration is to be either 1 or 3 as decided by the HKIAC in the particular case if

(a) the parties fail to agree on the number of arbitrators; and
(b) section 1 of Schedule 2 does not apply. (Replaced 11 of 2015 s. 3)


Section: 24 Article 11 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Appointment of

arbitrators)
E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015



(1) Article 11 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect subject to section 13(2)
and (3)—



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 10


“Article 11. Appointment of arbitrators


(1) No person shall be precluded by reason of his nationality from acting as an arbitrator, unless
otherwise agreed by the parties.
(2) The parties are free to agree on a procedure of appointing the arbitrator or arbitrators, subject to
the provisions of paragraphs (4) and (5) of this article.
(3) Failing such agreement,

(a) in an arbitration with three arbitrators, each party shall appoint one arbitrator, and the two
arbitrators thus appointed shall appoint the third arbitrator; if a party fails to appoint the arbitrator
within thirty days of receipt of a request to do so from the other party, or if the two arbitrators fail to
agree on the third arbitrator within thirty days of their appointment, the appointment shall be made,
upon request of a party, by the court or other authority specified in article 6;

(b) in an arbitration with a sole arbitrator, if the parties are unable to agree on the arbitrator, he
shall be appointed, upon request of a party, by the court or other authority specified in article 6.
(4) Where, under an appointment procedure agreed upon by the parties,

(a) a party fails to act as required under such procedure, or
(b) the parties, or two arbitrators, are unable to reach an agreement expected of them under

such procedure, or
(c) a third party, including an institution, fails to perform any function entrusted to it under

such procedure, any party may request the court or other authority specified in article 6 to take the
necessary measure, unless the agreement on the appointment procedure provides other means for
securing the appointment.
(5) A decision on a matter entrusted by paragraph (3) or (4) of this article to the court or other
authority specified in article 6 shall be subject to no appeal. The court or other authority, in appointing
an arbitrator, shall have due regard to any qualifications required of the arbitrator by the agreement of
the parties and to such considerations as are likely to secure the appointment of an independent and
impartial arbitrator and, in the case of a sole or third arbitrator, shall take into account as well the
advisability of appointing an arbitrator of a nationality other than those of the parties.”.

(2) In an arbitration with an even number of arbitrators—
(a) if the parties have not agreed on a procedure for appointing the arbitrators under article 11(2) of the

UNCITRAL Model Law, given effect to by subsection (1), each party is to appoint the same number of
arbitrators; or

(b) if—
(i) a party fails to act as required under an appointment procedure agreed upon by the parties; or
(ii) in the case of paragraph (a), a party fails to appoint the appropriate number of arbitrators under that

paragraph within 30 days of receipt of a request to do so from the other party,
the HKIAC must make the necessary appointment upon a request to do so from any party.

(3) In an arbitration with an uneven number of arbitrators greater than 3—
(a) if the parties have not agreed on a procedure for appointing the arbitrators under article 11(2) of the

UNCITRAL Model Law, given effect to by subsection (1)—
(i) each party is to appoint the same number of arbitrators; and
(ii) unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the HKIAC must appoint the remaining arbitrator or arbitrators;

or
(b) if—

(i) a party fails to act as required under an appointment procedure agreed upon by the parties; or
(ii) in the case of paragraph (a), a party fails to appoint the appropriate number of arbitrators under that

paragraph within 30 days of receipt of a request to do so from the other party,
the HKIAC must make the necessary appointment upon a request to do so from any party.

(4) In any other case (in particular, if there are more than 2 parties) article 11(4) of the UNCITRAL Model Law,
given effect to by subsection (1), applies as in the case of a failure to agree on an appointment procedure.

(5) If any appointment of an arbitrator is made by the HKIAC by virtue of this Ordinance, the appointment—
(a) has effect as if it were made with the agreement of all parties; and
(b) is subject to article 11(5) of the UNCITRAL Model Law, given effect to by subsection (1).



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 11


Section: 25 Article 12 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Grounds for

challenge)
E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015



Article 12 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—


“Article 12. Grounds for challenge


(1) When a person is approached in connection with his possible appointment as an arbitrator, he
shall disclose any circumstances likely to give rise to justifiable doubts as to his impartiality or
independence. An arbitrator, from the time of his appointment and throughout the arbitral proceedings,
shall without delay disclose any such circumstances to the parties unless they have already been
informed of them by him.
(2) An arbitrator may be challenged only if circumstances exist that give rise to justifiable doubts as
to his impartiality or independence, or if he does not possess qualifications agreed to by the parties. A
party may challenge an arbitrator appointed by him, or in whose appointment he has participated, only
for reasons of which he becomes aware after the appointment has been made.”.


Section: 26 Article 13 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Challenge

procedure)
E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015



(1) Article 13 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect subject to section 13(4)



“Article 13. Challenge procedure


(1) The parties are free to agree on a procedure for challenging an arbitrator, subject to the
provisions of paragraph (3) of this article.
(2) Failing such agreement, a party who intends to challenge an arbitrator shall, within fifteen days
after becoming aware of the constitution of the arbitral tribunal or after becoming aware of any
circumstance referred to in article 12(2), send a written statement of the reasons for the challenge to the
arbitral tribunal. Unless the challenged arbitrator withdraws from his office or the other party agrees to
the challenge, the arbitral tribunal shall decide on the challenge.
(3) If a challenge under any procedure agreed upon by the parties or under the procedure of
paragraph (2) of this article is not successful, the challenging party may request, within thirty days
after having received notice of the decision rejecting the challenge, the court or other authority
specified in article 6 to decide on the challenge, which decision shall be subject to no appeal; while
such a request is pending, the arbitral tribunal, including the challenged arbitrator, may continue the
arbitral proceedings and make an award.”.

(2) During the period that a request for the Court to decide on a challenge is pending, the Court may refuse to grant
leave under section 84 for the enforcement of any award made during that period by the arbitral tribunal that
includes the challenged arbitrator.

(3) An arbitrator who is challenged under article 13(2) of the UNCITRAL Model Law, given effect to by subsection
(1), is entitled, if the arbitrator considers it appropriate in the circumstances of the challenge, to withdraw from
office as an arbitrator.

(4) The mandate of a challenged arbitrator terminates under article 13 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, given effect
to by subsection (1), if—
(a) the arbitrator withdraws from office;
(b) the parties agree to the challenge;
(c) the arbitral tribunal upholds the challenge and no request is made for the Court to decide on the challenge;

or
(d) the Court, upon request to decide on the challenge, upholds the challenge.

(5) If the Court upholds the challenge, the Court may set aside the award referred to in subsection (2).




Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 12

Section: 27 Article 14 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Failure or
impossibility to act)

E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015



Article 14 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect subject to section 13(4)—


“Article 14. Failure or impossibility to act


(1) If an arbitrator becomes de jure or de facto unable to perform his functions or for other reasons
fails to act without undue delay, his mandate terminates if he withdraws from his office or if the parties
agree on the termination. Otherwise, if a controversy remains concerning any of these grounds, any
party may request the court or other authority specified in article 6 to decide on the termination of the
mandate, which decision shall be subject to no appeal.
(2) If, under this article or article 13(2), an arbitrator withdraws from his office or a party agrees to
the termination of the mandate of an arbitrator, this does not imply acceptance of the validity of any
ground referred to in this article or article 12(2).”.


Section: 28 Article 15 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Appointment of

substitute arbitrator)
E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015



Article 15 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—


“Article 15. Appointment of substitute arbitrator


Where the mandate of an arbitrator terminates under article 13 or 14 or because of his withdrawal from
office for any other reason or because of the revocation of his mandate by agreement of the parties or
in any other case of termination of his mandate, a substitute arbitrator shall be appointed according to
the rules that were applicable to the appointment of the arbitrator being replaced.”.


Section: 29 Death of arbitrator or person appointing arbitrator E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015


(1) The authority of an arbitrator is personal and the mandate of the arbitrator terminates on the arbitrator’s death.
(2) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the death of the person by whom an arbitrator was appointed does not

revoke the arbitrator’s authority.

Section: 30 Appointment of umpire E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015


In an arbitration with an even number of arbitrators, the arbitrators may, unless otherwise agreed by the parties,
appoint an umpire at any time after they are themselves appointed.

Section: 31 Functions of umpire in arbitral proceedings E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015


(1) The parties are free to agree what the functions of an umpire are to be and, in particular—
(a) whether the umpire is to attend the arbitral proceedings; and
(b) when, and the extent to which, the umpire is to replace the arbitrators as the arbitral tribunal with the power

to make orders, directions and awards.
(2) If or to the extent that there is no such agreement of the parties, the arbitrators are free to agree on the functions

of the umpire.
(3) Subsections (4) to (11) apply subject to any agreement of the parties or the arbitrators.
(4) After an umpire is appointed, the umpire must attend the arbitral proceedings.
(5) The umpire must be supplied with the same documents and other materials as are supplied to the arbitrators.
(6) Orders, directions and awards are to be made by the arbitrators unless, subject to subsection (9), the arbitrators

cannot agree on a matter relating to the dispute submitted to arbitration.
(7) If the arbitrators cannot agree on a matter relating to the dispute submitted to arbitration, they must forthwith



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 13

give notice of that fact in writing to the parties and the umpire, in which case the umpire is to replace the
arbitrators as the arbitral tribunal with the power to make orders, directions and awards, in respect of that matter
only, subject to subsection (9)(b), as if the umpire were the sole arbitrator.

(8) If the arbitrators cannot agree on a matter relating to the dispute submitted to arbitration but—
(a) they fail to give notice of that fact; or
(b) any of them fails to join in the giving of notice,
any party may apply to the Court which may decide that the umpire is to replace the arbitrators as the arbitral
tribunal with the power to make orders, directions and awards, in respect of that matter only, as if the umpire
were the sole arbitrator.

(9) Despite the replacement by the umpire as the arbitral tribunal in respect of a matter, on which the arbitrators
cannot agree, relating to the dispute submitted to arbitration, the arbitrators may—
(a) still make orders, directions and awards in respect of the other matters relating to the dispute if they

consider that it would save costs by doing so; or
(b) refer the entirety of the dispute to the umpire for arbitration.

(10) For the purposes of this section, the arbitrators cannot agree on a matter relating to the dispute submitted to
arbitration if any one of the arbitrators, in that arbitrator’s view, disagrees with the other arbitrator or any of the
other arbitrators over that matter.

(11) A decision of the Court under subsection (8) is not subject to appeal.

Part:
Division:

4
2

Mediators E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015





Section: 32 Appointment of mediator E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015


(1) If—
(a) any arbitration agreement provides for the appointment of a mediator by a person who is not one of the

parties; and
(b) that person—

(i) refuses to make the appointment; or
(ii) does not make the appointment within the time specified in the arbitration agreement or, if no time is

so specified, within a reasonable time after being requested by any party to make the appointment,
the HKIAC may, on the application of any party, appoint a mediator.

(2) An appointment made by the HKIAC under subsection (1) is not subject to appeal.
(3) If any arbitration agreement provides for the appointment of a mediator and further provides that the person so

appointed is to act as an arbitrator in the event that no settlement acceptable to the parties can be reached in the
mediation proceedings—
(a) no objection may be made against the person’s acting as an arbitrator, or against the person’s conduct of

the arbitral proceedings, solely on the ground that the person had acted previously as a mediator in
connection with some or all of the matters relating to the dispute submitted to arbitration; or

(b) if the person declines to act as an arbitrator, any other person appointed as an arbitrator is not required first
to act as a mediator unless it is otherwise expressed in the arbitration agreement.


Section: 33 Power of arbitrator to act as mediator E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015


(1) If all parties consent in writing, and for so long as no party withdraws the party’s consent in writing, an
arbitrator may act as a mediator after the arbitral proceedings have commenced.

(2) If an arbitrator acts as a mediator, the arbitral proceedings must be stayed to facilitate the conduct of the
mediation proceedings.

(3) An arbitrator who is acting as a mediator—
(a) may communicate with the parties collectively or separately; and
(b) must treat the information obtained by the arbitrator from a party as confidential, unless otherwise agreed

by that party or unless subsection (4) applies.



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 14

(4) If—
(a) confidential information is obtained by an arbitrator from a party during the mediation proceedings

conducted by the arbitrator as a mediator; and
(b) those mediation proceedings terminate without reaching a settlement acceptable to the parties,
the arbitrator must, before resuming the arbitral proceedings, disclose to all other parties as much of that
information as the arbitrator considers is material to the arbitral proceedings.

(5) No objection may be made against the conduct of the arbitral proceedings by an arbitrator solely on the ground
that the arbitrator had acted previously as a mediator in accordance with this section.


Part: 5 JURISDICTION OF ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011




Section: 34 Article 16 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Competence of
arbitral tribunal to rule on its jurisdiction)

L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



(1) Article 16 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect subject to section
13(5)—


“Article 16. Competence of arbitral tribunal to

rule on its jurisdiction


(1) The arbitral tribunal may rule on its own jurisdiction, including any objections with respect to the
existence or validity of the arbitration agreement. For that purpose, an arbitration clause which forms
part of a contract shall be treated as an agreement independent of the other terms of the contract. A
decision by the arbitral tribunal that the contract is null and void shall not entail ipso jure the invalidity
of the arbitration clause.
(2) A plea that the arbitral tribunal does not have jurisdiction shall be raised not later than the
submission of the statement of defence. A party is not precluded from raising such a plea by the fact
that he has appointed, or participated in the appointment of, an arbitrator. A plea that the arbitral
tribunal is exceeding the scope of its authority shall be raised as soon as the matter alleged to be
beyond the scope of its authority is raised during the arbitral proceedings. The arbitral tribunal may, in
either case, admit a later plea if it considers the delay justified.
(3) The arbitral tribunal may rule on a plea referred to in paragraph (2) of this article either as a
preliminary question or in an award on the merits. If the arbitral tribunal rules as a preliminary
question that it has jurisdiction, any party may request, within thirty days after having received notice
of that ruling, the court specified in article 6 to decide the matter, which decision shall be subject to no
appeal; while such a request is pending, the arbitral tribunal may continue the arbitral proceedings and
make an award.”.

(2) The power of the arbitral tribunal to rule on its own jurisdiction under subsection (1) includes the power to
decide as to—

(a) whether the tribunal is properly constituted; or
(b) what matters have been submitted to arbitration in accordance with the arbitration agreement.

(3) If a dispute is submitted to arbitration in accordance with an arbitration agreement and a party—
(a) makes a counter-claim arising out of the same dispute; or
(b) relies on a claim arising out of that dispute for the purposes of a set-off,

the arbitral tribunal has jurisdiction to decide on the counter-claim or the claim so relied on only to the extent that the
subject matter of that counter-claim or that claim falls within the scope of the same arbitration agreement.

(4) A ruling of the arbitral tribunal that it does not have jurisdiction to decide a dispute is not subject to appeal.
(5) Despite section 20, if the arbitral tribunal rules that it does not have jurisdiction to decide a dispute, the

court must, if it has jurisdiction, decide that dispute.

Part: 6 INTERIM MEASURES AND PRELIMINARY ORDERS L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011






Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 15

Part:
Division:

6
1

Interim measures L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011





Section: 35 Article 17 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Power of arbitral
tribunal to order interim measures)

L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



(1) Article 17 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—


“Article 17. Power of arbitral tribunal to order
interim measures


(1) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the arbitral tribunal may, at the request of a party, grant
interim measures.
(2) An interim measure is any temporary measure, whether in the form of an award or in another
form, by which, at any time prior to the issuance of the award by which the dispute is finally decided,
the arbitral tribunal orders a party to:

(a) Maintain or restore the status quo pending determination of the dispute;
(b) Take action that would prevent, or refrain from taking action that is likely to cause, current

or imminent harm or prejudice to the arbitral process itself;
(c) Provide a means of preserving assets out of which a subsequent award may be satisfied; or
(d) Preserve evidence that may be relevant and material to the resolution of the dispute.”.

(2) An interim measure referred to in article 17 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, given effect to by subsection
(1), is to be construed as including an injunction but not including an order under section 56.

(3) If an arbitral tribunal has granted an interim measure, the tribunal may, on the application of any party,
make an award to the same effect as the interim measure.

Section: 36 Article 17A of UNCITRAL Model Law (Conditions for

granting interim measures)
L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



Article 17A of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—


“Article 17A. Conditions for granting interim
measures


(1) The party requesting an interim measure under article 17(2)(a), (b) and (c) shall satisfy the
arbitral tribunal that:

(a) Harm not adequately reparable by an award of damages is likely to result if the measure is
not ordered, and such harm substantially outweighs the harm that is likely to result to the party against
whom the measure is directed if the measure is granted; and

(b) There is a reasonable possibility that the requesting party will succeed on the merits of the
claim. The determination on this possibility shall not affect the discretion of the arbitral tribunal in
making any subsequent determination.
(2) With regard to a request for an interim measure under article 17(2)(d), the requirements in
paragraphs (1)(a) and (b) of this article shall apply only to the extent the arbitral tribunal considers
appropriate.”.


Part:
Division:

6
2

Preliminary orders L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011







Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 16

Section: 37 Article 17B of UNCITRAL Model Law (Applications for
preliminary orders and conditions for granting
preliminary orders)

L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



Article 17B of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—


“Article 17B. Applications for preliminary orders
and conditions for granting preliminary orders


(1) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, a party may, without notice to any other party, make a
request for an interim measure together with an application for a preliminary order directing a party
not to frustrate the purpose of the interim measure requested.
(2) The arbitral tribunal may grant a preliminary order provided it considers that prior disclosure of
the request for the interim measure to the party against whom it is directed risks frustrating the purpose
of the measure.
(3) The conditions defined under article 17A apply to any preliminary order, provided that the harm
to be assessed under article 17A(1)(a), is the harm likely to result from the order being granted or
not.”.


Section: 38 Article 17C of UNCITRAL Model Law (Specific regime

for preliminary orders)
L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



Article 17C of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—


“Article 17C. Specific regime for preliminary
orders


(1) Immediately after the arbitral tribunal has made a determination in respect of an application for a
preliminary order, the arbitral tribunal shall give notice to all parties of the request for the interim
measure, the application for the preliminary order, the preliminary order, if any, and all other
communications, including by indicating the content of any oral communication, between any party
and the arbitral tribunal in relation thereto.
(2) At the same time, the arbitral tribunal shall give an opportunity to any party against whom a
preliminary order is directed to present its case at the earliest practicable time.
(3) The arbitral tribunal shall decide promptly on any objection to the preliminary order.
(4) A preliminary order shall expire after twenty days from the date on which it was issued by the
arbitral tribunal. However, the arbitral tribunal may issue an interim measure adopting or modifying
the preliminary order, after the party against whom the preliminary order is directed has been given
notice and an opportunity to present its case.
(5) A preliminary order shall be binding on the parties but shall not be subject to enforcement by a
court. Such a preliminary order does not constitute an award.”.


Part:
Division:

6
3

Provisions applicable to interim measures and preliminary
orders

L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011





Section: 39 Article 17D of UNCITRAL Model Law (Modification,
suspension, termination)

L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



Article 17D of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—


“Article 17D. Modification, suspension,
termination



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 17


The arbitral tribunal may modify, suspend or terminate an interim measure or a preliminary order

it has granted, upon application of any party or, in exceptional circumstances and upon prior notice to
the parties, on the arbitral tribunal’s own initiative.”.


Section: 40 Article 17E of UNCITRAL Model Law (Provision of

security)
L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



Article 17E of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—


“Article 17E. Provision of security


(1) The arbitral tribunal may require the party requesting an interim measure to provide appropriate
security in connection with the measure.
(2) The arbitral tribunal shall require the party applying for a preliminary order to provide security in
connection with the order unless the arbitral tribunal considers it inappropriate or unnecessary to do
so.”.


Section: 41 Article 17F of UNCITRAL Model Law (Disclosure) L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011


Article 17F of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—


“Article 17F. Disclosure


(1) The arbitral tribunal may require any party promptly to disclose any material change in the
circumstances on the basis of which the measure was requested or granted.
(2) The party applying for a preliminary order shall disclose to the arbitral tribunal all circumstances
that are likely to be relevant to the arbitral tribunal’s determination whether to grant or maintain the
order, and such obligation shall continue until the party against whom the order has been requested has
had an opportunity to present its case. Thereafter, paragraph (1) of this article shall apply.”.


Section: 42 Article 17G of UNCITRAL Model Law (Costs and

damages)
L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



Article 17G of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—


“Article 17G. Costs and damages


The party requesting an interim measure or applying for a preliminary order shall be liable for
any costs and damages caused by the measure or the order to any party if the arbitral tribunal later
determines that, in the circumstances, the measure or the order should not have been granted. The
arbitral tribunal may award such costs and damages at any point during the proceedings.”.


Part:
Division:

6
4

Recognition and enforcement of interim measures L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011





Section: 43 Article 17H of UNCITRAL Model Law (Recognition and
enforcement)

L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



Section 61 has effect in substitution for article 17H of the UNCITRAL Model Law.




Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 18

Section: 44 Article 17I of UNCITRAL Model Law (Grounds for
refusing recognition or enforcement)

L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



Article 17I of the UNCITRAL Model Law does not have effect.

Part:
Division:

6
5

Court-ordered interim measures L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011





Section: 45 Article 17J of UNCITRAL Model Law (Court-ordered
interim measures)

L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



(1) Article 17J of the UNCITRAL Model Law does not have effect.
(2) On the application of any party, the Court may, in relation to any arbitral proceedings which have been or

are to be commenced in or outside Hong Kong, grant an interim measure.
(3) The powers conferred by this section may be exercised by the Court irrespective of whether or not similar

powers may be exercised by an arbitral tribunal under section 35 in relation to the same dispute.
(4) The Court may decline to grant an interim measure under subsection (2) on the ground that—

(a) the interim measure sought is currently the subject of arbitral proceedings; and
(b) the Court considers it more appropriate for the interim measure sought to be dealt with by the arbitral

tribunal.
(5) In relation to arbitral proceedings which have been or are to be commenced outside Hong Kong, the Court

may grant an interim measure under subsection (2) only if—
(a) the arbitral proceedings are capable of giving rise to an arbitral award (whether interim or final) that

may be enforced in Hong Kong under this Ordinance or any other Ordinance; and
(b) the interim measure sought belongs to a type or description of interim measure that may be granted in

Hong Kong in relation to arbitral proceedings by the Court.
(6) Subsection (5) applies even if—

(a) the subject matter of the arbitral proceedings would not, apart from that subsection, give rise to a cause
of action over which the Court would have jurisdiction; or

(b) the order sought is not ancillary or incidental to any arbitral proceedings in Hong Kong.
(7) In exercising the power under subsection (2) in relation to arbitral proceedings outside Hong Kong, the

Court must have regard to the fact that the power is—
(a) ancillary to the arbitral proceedings outside Hong Kong; and
(b) for the purposes of facilitating the process of a court or arbitral tribunal outside Hong Kong that has

primary jurisdiction over the arbitral proceedings.
(8) The Court has the same power to make any incidental order or direction for the purposes of ensuring the

effectiveness of an interim measure granted in relation to arbitral proceedings outside Hong Kong as if the interim
measure were granted in relation to arbitral proceedings in Hong Kong.

(9) An interim measure referred to in subsection (2) means an interim measure referred to in article 17(2) of the
UNCITRAL Model Law, given effect to by section 35(1), as if—

(a) a reference to the arbitral tribunal in that article were the court; and
(b) a reference to arbitral proceedings in that article were court proceedings,

and is to be construed as including an injunction but not including an order under section 60.
(10) A decision, order or direction of the Court under this section is not subject to appeal.


Part: 7 CONDUCT OF ARBITRAL PROCEEDINGS L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011




Section: 46 Article 18 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Equal treatment of
parties)

L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



(1) Subsections (2) and (3) have effect in substitution for article 18 of the UNCITRAL Model Law.
(2) The parties must be treated with equality.



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 19

(3) When conducting arbitral proceedings or exercising any of the powers conferred on an arbitral tribunal by
this Ordinance or by the parties to any of those arbitral proceedings, the arbitral tribunal is required—

(a) to be independent;
(b) to act fairly and impartially as between the parties, giving them a reasonable opportunity to present

their cases and to deal with the cases of their opponents; and
(c) to use procedures that are appropriate to the particular case, avoiding unnecessary delay or expense, so

as to provide a fair means for resolving the dispute to which the arbitral proceedings relate.

Section: 47 Article 19 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Determination of

rules of procedure)
L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



(1) Article 19(1) of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—


“Article 19. Determination of rules of procedure


(1) Subject to the provisions of this Law, the parties are free to agree on the procedure to be
followed by the arbitral tribunal in conducting the proceedings.
(2) [Not applicable]”.

(2) If or to the extent that there is no such agreement of the parties, the arbitral tribunal may, subject to the
provisions of this Ordinance, conduct the arbitration in the manner that it considers appropriate.

(3) When conducting arbitral proceedings, an arbitral tribunal is not bound by the rules of evidence and may
receive any evidence that it considers relevant to the arbitral proceedings, but it must give the weight that it considers
appropriate to the evidence adduced in the arbitral proceedings.

Section: 48 Article 20 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Place of arbitration) L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011


Article 20 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—


“Article 20. Place of arbitration


(1) The parties are free to agree on the place of arbitration. Failing such agreement, the place of
arbitration shall be determined by the arbitral tribunal having regard to the circumstances of the case,
including the convenience of the parties.
(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of this article, the arbitral tribunal may, unless
otherwise agreed by the parties, meet at any place it considers appropriate for consultation among its
members, for hearing witnesses, experts or the parties, or for inspection of goods, other property or
documents.”.


Section: 49 Article 21 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Commencement of

arbitral proceedings)
L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



(1) Article 21 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—


“Article 21. Commencement of arbitral proceedings


Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the arbitral proceedings in respect of a particular dispute
commence on the date on which a request for that dispute to be referred to arbitration is received by
the respondent.”.

(2) A request referred to in article 21 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, given effect to by subsection (1), has to
be made by way of a written communication as referred to in section 10.




Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 20

Section: 50 Article 22 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Language) L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011


Article 22 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—


“Article 22. Language


(1) The parties are free to agree on the language or languages to be used in the arbitral proceedings.
Failing such agreement, the arbitral tribunal shall determine the language or languages to be used in
the proceedings. This agreement or determination, unless otherwise specified therein, shall apply to
any written statement by a party, any hearing and any award, decision or other communication by the
arbitral tribunal.
(2) The arbitral tribunal may order that any documentary evidence shall be accompanied by a
translation into the language or languages agreed upon by the parties or determined by the arbitral
tribunal.”.


Section: 51 Article 23 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Statements of claim

and defence)
L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



Article 23 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—


“Article 23. Statements of claim and defence


(1) Within the period of time agreed by the parties or determined by the arbitral tribunal, the
claimant shall state the facts supporting his claim, the points at issue and the relief or remedy sought,
and the respondent shall state his defence in respect of these particulars, unless the parties have
otherwise agreed as to the required elements of such statements. The parties may submit with their
statements all documents they consider to be relevant or may add a reference to the documents or other
evidence they will submit.
(2) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, either party may amend or supplement his claim or
defence during the course of the arbitral proceedings, unless the arbitral tribunal considers it
inappropriate to allow such amendment having regard to the delay in making it.”.


Section: 52 Article 24 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Hearings and

written proceedings)
L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



Article 24 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—


“Article 24. Hearings and written proceedings


(1) Subject to any contrary agreement by the parties, the arbitral tribunal shall decide whether to
hold oral hearings for the presentation of evidence or for oral argument, or whether the proceedings
shall be conducted on the basis of documents and other materials. However, unless the parties have
agreed that no hearings shall be held, the arbitral tribunal shall hold such hearings at an appropriate
stage of the proceedings, if so requested by a party.
(2) The parties shall be given sufficient advance notice of any hearing and of any meeting of the
arbitral tribunal for the purposes of inspection of goods, other property or documents.
(3) All statements, documents or other information supplied to the arbitral tribunal by one party shall
be communicated to the other party. Also any expert report or evidentiary document on which the
arbitral tribunal may rely in making its decision shall be communicated to the parties.”.


Section: 53 Article 25 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Default of a party) L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011


(1) Article 25 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 21


“Article 25. Default of a party


Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, if, without showing sufficient cause,

(a) the claimant fails to communicate his statement of claim in accordance with article 23(1),
the arbitral tribunal shall terminate the proceedings;

(b) the respondent fails to communicate his statement of defence in accordance with article
23(1), the arbitral tribunal shall continue the proceedings without treating such failure in itself as an
admission of the claimant’s allegations;

(c) any party fails to appear at a hearing or to produce documentary evidence, the arbitral
tribunal may continue the proceedings and make the award on the evidence before it.”.

(2) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, subsections (3) and (4) apply except in relation to an application for
security for costs.

(3) If, without showing sufficient cause, a party fails to comply with any order or direction of the arbitral
tribunal, the tribunal may make a peremptory order to the same effect, prescribing the time for compliance with it that
the arbitral tribunal considers appropriate.

(4) If a party fails to comply with a peremptory order, then without affecting section 61, the arbitral tribunal
may—

(a) direct that the party is not entitled to rely on any allegation or material which was the subject matter of
the peremptory order;

(b) draw any adverse inferences that the circumstances may justify from the non-compliance;
(c) make an award on the basis of any materials which have been properly provided to the arbitral

tribunal; or
(d) make any order that the arbitral tribunal thinks fit as to the payment of the costs of the arbitration

incurred in consequence of the non-compliance.

Section: 54 Article 26 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Expert appointed

by arbitral tribunal)
L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



(1) Article 26 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—


“Article 26. Expert appointed by arbitral tribunal


(1) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the arbitral tribunal
(a) may appoint one or more experts to report to it on specific issues to be determined by the

arbitral tribunal;
(b) may require a party to give the expert any relevant information or to produce, or to provide

access to, any relevant documents, goods or other property for his inspection.
(2) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, if a party so requests or if the arbitral tribunal considers it
necessary, the expert shall, after delivery of his written or oral report, participate in a hearing where the
parties have the opportunity to put questions to him and to present expert witnesses in order to testify
on the points at issue.”.

(2) Without affecting article 26 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, given effect to by subsection (1), in assessing
the amount of the costs of arbitral proceedings (other than the fees and expenses of the tribunal) under section 74—

(a) the arbitral tribunal may appoint assessors to assist it on technical matters, and may allow any of those
assessors to attend the proceedings; and

(b) the parties must be given a reasonable opportunity to comment on any information, opinion or advice
offered by any of those assessors.


Section: 55 Article 27 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Court assistance in

taking evidence)
L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



(1) Article 27 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 22


“Article 27. Court assistance in taking evidence


The arbitral tribunal or a party with the approval of the arbitral tribunal may request from a competent
court of this State assistance in taking evidence. The court may execute the request within its
competence and according to its rules on taking evidence.”.

(2) The Court may order a person to attend proceedings before an arbitral tribunal to give evidence or to
produce documents or other evidence.

(3) The powers conferred by this section may be exercised by the Court irrespective of whether or not similar
powers may be exercised by an arbitral tribunal under section 56 in relation to the same dispute.

(4) A decision or order of the Court made in the exercise of its power under this section is not subject to appeal.
(5) Section 81 (Warrant or order to bring up prisoner to give evidence) of the Evidence Ordinance (Cap 8)

applies as if a reference to any proceedings, either criminal or civil, in that section were any arbitral proceedings.

Section: 56 General powers exercisable by arbitral tribunal L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011


Expanded Cross Reference:

39, 40, 41, 42



(1) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, when conducting arbitral proceedings, an arbitral tribunal may make
an order—

(a) requiring a claimant to give security for the costs of the arbitration;
(b) directing the discovery of documents or the delivery of interrogatories;
(c) directing evidence to be given by affidavit; or
(d) in relation to any relevant property—

(i) directing the inspection, photographing, preservation, custody, detention or sale of the relevant
property by the arbitral tribunal, a party to the arbitral proceedings or an expert; or

(ii) directing samples to be taken from, observations to be made of, or experiments to be conducted
on the relevant property.

(2) An arbitral tribunal must not make an order under subsection (1)(a) only on the ground that the claimant is


(a) a natural person who is ordinarily resident outside Hong Kong;
(b) a body corporate—

(i) incorporated under the law of a place outside Hong Kong; or
(ii) the central management and control of which is exercised outside Hong Kong; or

(c) an association—
(i) formed under the law of a place outside Hong Kong; or
(ii) the central management and control of which is exercised outside Hong Kong.

(3) An arbitral tribunal—
(a) must, when making an order under subsection (1)(a), specify the period within which the order has to

be complied with; and
(b) may extend that period or an extended period.

(4) An arbitral tribunal may make an award dismissing a claim or stay a claim if it has made an order under
subsection (1)(a) but the order has not been complied with within the period specified under subsection (3)(a) or
extended under subsection (3)(b).

(5) Despite section 35(2), sections 39 to 42 apply, if appropriate, to an order under subsection (1)(d) as if a
reference to an interim measure in those sections were an order under that subsection.

(6) Property is a relevant property for the purposes of subsection (1)(d) if—
(a) the property is owned by or is in the possession of a party to the arbitral proceedings; and
(b) the property is the subject of the arbitral proceedings, or any question relating to the property has

arisen in the arbitral proceedings.
(7) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, an arbitral tribunal may, when conducting arbitral proceedings,

decide whether and to what extent it should itself take the initiative in ascertaining the facts and the law relevant to



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 23

those arbitral proceedings.
(8) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, an arbitral tribunal may—

(a) administer oaths to, or take the affirmations of, witnesses and parties;
(b) examine witnesses and parties on oath or affirmation; or
(c) direct the attendance before the arbitral tribunal of witnesses in order to give evidence or to produce

documents or other evidence.
(9) A person is not required to produce in arbitral proceedings any document or other evidence that the person

could not be required to produce in civil proceedings before a court.

Section: 57 Arbitral tribunal may limit amount of recoverable costs L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011


(1) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, an arbitral tribunal may direct that the recoverable costs of arbitral
proceedings before it are limited to a specified amount.

(2) Subject to subsection (3), the arbitral tribunal may make or vary a direction either—
(a) on its own initiative; or
(b) on the application of any party.

(3) A direction may be made or varied at any stage of the arbitral proceedings but, for the limit of the
recoverable costs to be taken into account, this must be done sufficiently in advance of—

(a) the incurring of the costs to which the direction or the variation relates; or
(b) the taking of the steps in the arbitral proceedings which may be affected by the direction or the

variation.
(4) In this section—

(a) a reference to costs is to be construed as the parties’ own costs; and
(b) a reference to arbitral proceedings includes any part of those arbitral proceedings.


Section: 58 Power to extend time for arbitral proceedings L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011


(1) This section applies to an arbitration agreement that provides for a claim to be barred or for a claimant’s
right to be extinguished unless the claimant, before the time or within the period specified in the agreement, takes a
step—

(a) to commence arbitral proceedings; or
(b) to commence any other dispute resolution procedure that must be exhausted before arbitral

proceedings may be commenced.
(2) On the application of any party to such an arbitration agreement, an arbitral tribunal may make an order

extending the time or period referred to in subsection (1).
(3) An application may be made only after a claim has arisen and after exhausting any available arbitral

procedures for obtaining an extension of time.
(4) An arbitral tribunal may make an order under this section extending the time or period referred to in

subsection (1) only if it is satisfied—
(a) that—

(i) the circumstances were such as to be outside the reasonable contemplation of the parties when
they entered into the arbitration agreement; and

(ii) it would be just to extend the time or period; or
(b) that the conduct of any party makes it unjust to hold the other party to the strict terms of the agreement.

(5) An arbitral tribunal may extend the time or period referred to in subsection (1), or the time or period
extended under subsection (4), for a further period and on the terms that it thinks fit, and the tribunal may do so even
though that time or period or the extended time or period has expired.

(6) This section does not affect the operation of section 14 or any other enactment that limits the period for
commencing arbitral proceedings.

(7) The power conferred on an arbitral tribunal by this section is exercisable by the Court if at the relevant time
there is not in existence an arbitral tribunal that is capable of exercising that power.

(8) An order of the Court made in exercise of its power conferred by subsection (7) is not subject to appeal.




Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 24

Section: 59 Order to be made in case of delay in pursuing claims in
arbitral proceedings

L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



(1) Unless otherwise expressed in an arbitration agreement, a party who has a claim under the agreement must,
after the commencement of the arbitral proceedings, pursue that claim without unreasonable delay.

(2) Without affecting article 25 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, given effect to by section 53(1), the arbitral
tribunal—

(a) may make an award dismissing a party’s claim; and
(b) may make an order prohibiting the party from commencing further arbitral proceedings in respect of

the claim,
if it is satisfied that the party has unreasonably delayed in pursuing the claim in the arbitral proceedings.

(3) The arbitral tribunal may make an award or order either—
(a) on its own initiative; or
(b) on the application of any other party.

(4) For the purposes of subsection (2), delay is unreasonable if—
(a) it gives rise, or is likely to give rise, to a substantial risk that the issues in the claim will not be resolved

fairly; or
(b) it has caused, or is likely to cause, serious prejudice to any other party.

(5) The power conferred on an arbitral tribunal by this section is exercisable by the Court if there is not in
existence an arbitral tribunal that is capable of exercising that power.

(6) An award or order made by the Court in exercise of its power conferred by subsection (5) is not subject to
appeal.

Section: 60 Special powers of Court in relation to arbitral proceedings L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011


(1) On the application of any party, the Court may, in relation to any arbitral proceedings which have been or
are to be commenced in or outside Hong Kong, make an order—

(a) directing the inspection, photographing, preservation, custody, detention or sale of any relevant
property by the arbitral tribunal, a party to the arbitral proceedings or an expert; or

(b) directing samples to be taken from, observations to be made of, or experiments to be conducted on any
relevant property.

(2) Property is a relevant property for the purposes of subsection (1) if the property is the subject of the arbitral
proceedings, or any question relating to the property has arisen in the arbitral proceedings.

(3) The powers conferred by this section may be exercised by the Court irrespective of whether or not similar
powers may be exercised by an arbitral tribunal under section 56 in relation to the same dispute.

(4) The Court may decline to make an order under this section in relation to a matter referred to in subsection
(1) on the ground that—

(a) the matter is currently the subject of arbitral proceedings; and
(b) the Court considers it more appropriate for the matter to be dealt with by the arbitral tribunal.

(5) An order made by the Court under this section may provide for the cessation of that order, in whole or in
part, when the arbitral tribunal makes an order for the cessation.

(6) In relation to arbitral proceedings which have been or are to be commenced outside Hong Kong, the Court
may make an order under subsection (1) only if the arbitral proceedings are capable of giving rise to an arbitral award
(whether interim or final) that may be enforced in Hong Kong under this Ordinance or any other Ordinance.

(7) Subsection (6) applies even if—
(a) the subject matter of the arbitral proceedings would not, apart from that subsection, give rise to a cause

of action over which the Court would have jurisdiction; or
(b) the order sought is not ancillary or incidental to any arbitral proceedings in Hong Kong.

(8) In exercising the power under subsection (1) in relation to arbitral proceedings outside Hong Kong, the
Court must have regard to the fact that the power is—

(a) ancillary to the arbitral proceedings outside Hong Kong; and
(b) for the purposes of facilitating the process of a court or arbitral tribunal outside Hong Kong that has

primary jurisdiction over the arbitral proceedings.
(9) Subject to subsection (10), an order or decision of the Court under this section is not subject to appeal.



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 25

(10) The leave of the Court is required for any appeal from an order of the Court under subsection (1) for the
sale of any relevant property.

Section: 61 Enforcement of orders and directions of arbitral tribunal L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011


(1) An order or direction made, whether in or outside Hong Kong, in relation to arbitral proceedings by an
arbitral tribunal is enforceable in the same manner as an order or direction of the Court that has the same effect, but
only with the leave of the Court.

(2) Leave to enforce an order or direction made outside Hong Kong is not to be granted, unless the party
seeking to enforce it can demonstrate that it belongs to a type or description of order or direction that may be made in
Hong Kong in relation to arbitral proceedings by an arbitral tribunal.

(3) If leave is granted under subsection (1), the Court may enter judgment in terms of the order or direction.
(4) A decision of the Court to grant or refuse to grant leave under subsection (1) is not subject to appeal.
(5) An order or direction referred to in this section includes an interim measure.


Section: 62 Power of Court to order recovery of arbitrator’s fees L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011


(1) Where an arbitrator’s mandate terminates under article 13 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, given effect to
by section 26, or under article 14 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, given effect to by section 27, then on the application
of any party, the Court, in its discretion and having regard to the conduct of the arbitrator and any other relevant
circumstances—

(a) may order that the arbitrator is not entitled to receive the whole or part of the arbitrator’s fees or
expenses; and

(b) may order that the arbitrator must repay the whole or part of the fees or expenses already paid to the
arbitrator.

(2) An order of the Court under subsection (1) is not subject to appeal.

Section: 63 Representation and preparation work L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011


Section 44 (Penalty for unlawfully practising as a barrister or notary public), section 45 (Unqualified person not
to act as solicitor) and section 47 (Unqualified person not to prepare certain instruments, etc.) of the Legal
Practitioners Ordinance (Cap 159) do not apply to—

(a) arbitral proceedings;
(b) the giving of advice and the preparation of documents for the purposes of arbitral proceedings; or
(c) any other thing done in relation to arbitral proceedings, except where it is done in connection with

court proceedings—
(i) arising out of an arbitration agreement; or
(ii) arising in the course of, or resulting from, arbitral proceedings.


Part: 8 MAKING OF AWARD AND TERMINATION OF

PROCEEDINGS
L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011





Section: 64 Article 28 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Rules applicable to
substance of dispute)

L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



Article 28 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—


“Article 28. Rules applicable to substance of dispute


(1) The arbitral tribunal shall decide the dispute in accordance with such rules of law as are chosen
by the parties as applicable to the substance of the dispute. Any designation of the law or legal system
of a given State shall be construed, unless otherwise expressed, as directly referring to the substantive



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 26

law of that State and not to its conflict of laws rules.
(2) Failing any designation by the parties, the arbitral tribunal shall apply the law determined by the
conflict of laws rules which it considers applicable.
(3) The arbitral tribunal shall decide ex aequo et bono or as amiable compositeur only if the parties
have expressly authorized it to do so.
(4) In all cases, the arbitral tribunal shall decide in accordance with the terms of the contract and
shall take into account the usages of the trade applicable to the transaction.”.


Section: 65 Article 29 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Decision-making by

panel of arbitrators)
L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



Article 29 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—


“Article 29. Decision-making by panel of
arbitrators


In arbitral proceedings with more than one arbitrator, any decision of the arbitral tribunal shall be
made, unless otherwise agreed by the parties, by a majority of all its members. However, questions of
procedure may be decided by a presiding arbitrator, if so authorized by the parties or all members of
the arbitral tribunal.”.


Section: 66 Article 30 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Settlement) L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011


(1) Article 30 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—


“Article 30. Settlement


(1) If, during arbitral proceedings, the parties settle the dispute, the arbitral tribunal shall terminate
the proceedings and, if requested by the parties and not objected to by the arbitral tribunal, record the
settlement in the form of an arbitral award on agreed terms.
(2) An award on agreed terms shall be made in accordance with the provisions of article 31 and shall
state that it is an award. Such an award has the same status and effect as any other award on the merits
of the case.”.

(2) If, in a case other than that referred to in article 30 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, given effect to by
subsection (1), the parties to an arbitration agreement settle their dispute and enter into an agreement in writing
containing the terms of settlement (“settlement agreement”), the settlement agreement is, for the purposes of its
enforcement, to be treated as an arbitral award.

Section: 67 Article 31 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Form and contents

of award)
L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



(1) Article 31 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—


“Article 31. Form and contents of award


(1) The award shall be made in writing and shall be signed by the arbitrator or arbitrators. In arbitral
proceedings with more than one arbitrator, the signatures of the majority of all members of the arbitral
tribunal shall suffice, provided that the reason for any omitted signature is stated.
(2) The award shall state the reasons upon which it is based, unless the parties have agreed that no
reasons are to be given or the award is an award on agreed terms under article 30.
(3) The award shall state its date and the place of arbitration as determined in accordance with article
20(1). The award shall be deemed to have been made at that place.
(4) After the award is made, a copy signed by the arbitrators in accordance with paragraph (1) of this



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 27

article shall be delivered to each party.”.
(2) Article 31(4) of the UNCITRAL Model Law, given effect to by subsection (1), has effect subject to section

77.

Section: 68 Article 32 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Termination of

proceedings)
L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



Article 32 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—


“Article 32. Termination of proceedings


(1) The arbitral proceedings are terminated by the final award or by an order of the arbitral tribunal
in accordance with paragraph (2) of this article.
(2) The arbitral tribunal shall issue an order for the termination of the arbitral proceedings when:

(a) the claimant withdraws his claim, unless the respondent objects thereto and the arbitral
tribunal recognizes a legitimate interest on his part in obtaining a final settlement of the dispute;

(b) the parties agree on the termination of the proceedings;
(c) the arbitral tribunal finds that the continuation of the proceedings has for any other reason

become unnecessary or impossible.
(3) The mandate of the arbitral tribunal terminates with the termination of the arbitral proceedings,
subject to the provisions of articles 33 and 34(4).”.


Section: 69 Article 33 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Correction and

interpretation of award; additional award)
L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



(1) Article 33 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect—


“Article 33. Correction and interpretation of award;
additional award


(1) Within thirty days of receipt of the award, unless another period of time has been agreed upon by
the parties:

(a) a party, with notice to the other party, may request the arbitral tribunal to correct in the
award any errors in computation, any clerical or typographical errors or any errors of similar nature;

(b) if so agreed by the parties, a party, with notice to the other party, may request the arbitral
tribunal to give an interpretation of a specific point or part of the award. If the arbitral tribunal
considers the request to be justified, it shall make the correction or give the interpretation within thirty
days of receipt of the request. The interpretation shall form part of the award.
(2) The arbitral tribunal may correct any error of the type referred to in paragraph (1)(a) of this
article on its own initiative within thirty days of the date of the award.
(3) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, a party, with notice to the other party, may request,
within thirty days of receipt of the award, the arbitral tribunal to make an additional award as to claims
presented in the arbitral proceedings but omitted from the award. If the arbitral tribunal considers the
request to be justified, it shall make the additional award within sixty days.
(4) The arbitral tribunal may extend, if necessary, the period of time within which it shall make a
correction, interpretation or an additional award under paragraph (1) or (3) of this article.
(5) The provisions of article 31 shall apply to a correction or interpretation of the award or to an
additional award.”.

(2) The arbitral tribunal has the power to make other changes to an arbitral award which are necessitated by or
consequential on—

(a) the correction of any error in the award; or
(b) the interpretation of any point or part of the award,

under article 33 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, given effect to by subsection (1).
(3) The arbitral tribunal may review an award of costs within 30 days of the date of the award if, when making



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 28

the award, the tribunal was not aware of any information relating to costs (including any offer for settlement) which it
should have taken into account.

(4) On a review under subsection (3), the arbitral tribunal may confirm, vary or correct the award of costs.

Section: 70 Award of remedy or relief L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011


(1) Subject to subsection (2), an arbitral tribunal may, in deciding a dispute, award any remedy or relief that
could have been ordered by the Court if the dispute had been the subject of civil proceedings in the Court.

(2) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the arbitral tribunal has the same power as the Court to order
specific performance of any contract, other than a contract relating to land or any interest in land.

Section: 71 Awards on different aspects of matters L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011


Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, an arbitral tribunal may make more than one award at different times on
different aspects of the matters to be determined.

Section: 72 Time for making award L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011


(1) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, an arbitral tribunal has the power to make an award at any time.
(2) The time, if any, limited for making an award, whether under this Ordinance or otherwise, may from time to

time be extended by order of the Court on the application of any party, whether that time has expired or not.
(3) An order of the Court under subsection (2) is not subject to appeal.


Section: 73 Effect of award L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011


(1) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, an award made by an arbitral tribunal pursuant to an arbitration
agreement is final and binding both on—

(a) the parties; and
(b) any person claiming through or under any of the parties.

(2) Subsection (1) does not affect the right of a person to challenge the award—
(a) as provided for in section 26 or 81, section 4 or 5 of Schedule 2, or any other provision of this

Ordinance; or
(b) otherwise by any available arbitral process of appeal or review.


Section: 74 Arbitral tribunal may award costs of arbitral proceedings L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011


(1) An arbitral tribunal may include in an award directions with respect to the costs of arbitral proceedings
(including the fees and expenses of the tribunal).

(2) The arbitral tribunal may, having regard to all relevant circumstances (including the fact, if appropriate, that
a written offer of settlement of the dispute concerned has been made), direct in the award under subsection (1) to
whom and by whom and in what manner the costs are to be paid

(3) The arbitral tribunal may also, in its discretion, order costs (including the fees and expenses of the tribunal)
to be paid by a party in respect of a request made by any of the parties for an order or direction (including an interim
measure).

(4) The arbitral tribunal may direct that the costs ordered under subsection (3) are to be paid forthwith or at the
time that the tribunal may otherwise specify.

(5) Subject to section 75, the arbitral tribunal must—
(a) assess the amount of costs to be awarded or ordered to be paid under this section (other than the fees

and expenses of the tribunal); and
(b) award or order those costs (including the fees and expenses of the tribunal).

(6) Subject to subsection (7), the arbitral tribunal is not obliged to follow the scales and practices adopted by
the court on taxation when assessing the amount of costs (other than the fees and expenses of the tribunal) under
subsection (5).

(7) The arbitral tribunal—



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 29

(a) must only allow costs that are reasonable having regard to all the circumstances; and
(b) unless otherwise agreed by the parties, may allow costs incurred in the preparation of the arbitral

proceedings prior to the commencement of the arbitration.
(8) A provision of an arbitration agreement to the effect that the parties, or any of the parties, must pay their

own costs in respect of arbitral proceedings arising under the agreement is void.
(9) A provision referred to in subsection (8) is not void if it is part of an agreement to submit to arbitration a

dispute that had arisen before the agreement was made.

Section: 75 Taxation of costs of arbitral proceedings (other than fees

and expenses of arbitral tribunal)
7 of 2013 19/07/2013



(1) Without affecting section 74(1) and (2), if the parties have agreed that the costs of arbitral proceedings are to be
taxed by the court, then unless the arbitral tribunal otherwise directs in an award, the award is deemed to have
included the tribunal’s directions that the costs (other than the fees and expenses of the tribunal) are to be taxed
by the court on the party and party basis in accordance with rule 28(2) of Order 62 of the Rules of the High
Court (Cap 4 sub. leg. A). (Amended 7 of 2013 s. 7)
(2) On taxation by the court, the arbitral tribunal must make an additional award of costs reflecting the result of

such taxation.
(3) A decision of the court on taxation is not subject to appeal.
(4) This section does not apply to costs ordered to be paid under section 74(3).


Section: 76 Costs in respect of unqualified person L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011


Section 50 (No costs for unqualified person) of the Legal Practitioners Ordinance (Cap 159) does not apply to
the recovery of costs in an arbitration.

Section: 77 Determination of arbitral tribunal’s fees and expenses in

case of dispute
L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



(1) An arbitral tribunal may refuse to deliver an award to the parties unless full payment of the fees and
expenses of the tribunal is made.

(2) If the arbitral tribunal refuses to deliver an award to the parties under subsection (1), a party may apply to
the Court, which—

(a) may order the tribunal to deliver the award on the payment into the Court by the applicant of—
(i) the fees and expenses demanded; or
(ii) a lesser amount that the Court may specify;

(b) may order that the amount of the fees and expenses payable to the tribunal is to be determined by the
means and on the terms that the Court may direct; and

(c) may order that—
(i) the fees and expenses as determined under paragraph (b) to be payable are to be paid to the

tribunal out of the money paid into the Court; and
(ii) the balance of the money paid into the Court, if any, is to be paid out to the applicant.

(3) For the purposes of subsection (2)—
(a) the amount of the fees and expenses payable is the amount which the applicant is liable to pay—

(i) under section 78; or
(ii) under any agreement relating to the payment of the arbitrators; and

(b) the fees and expenses of—
(i) an expert appointed under article 26 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, given effect to by section

54(1); or
(ii) an assessor appointed under section 54(2),
are to be treated as the fees and expenses of the arbitral tribunal.

(4) No application under subsection (2) may be made if—
(a) there is any available arbitral process for appeal or review of the amount of the fees or expenses

demanded; or



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 30

(b) the total amount of the fees and expenses demanded has been fixed by a written agreement between a
party and the arbitrators.

(5) Subsections (1) to (4) also apply to any arbitral or other institution or person vested by the parties with
powers in relation to the delivery of the arbitral tribunal’s award.

(6) If subsections (1) to (4) so apply under subsection (5), the references to the fees and expenses of the arbitral
tribunal are to be construed as including the fees and expenses of that institution or person.

(7) If an application is made to the Court under subsection (2), enforcement of the award (when delivered to the
parties), but only in so far as it relates to the fees or expenses of the arbitral tribunal, must be stayed until the
application has been disposed of under this section.

(8) An arbitrator is entitled to appear and be heard on any determination under this section.
(9) If the amount of the fees and expenses determined under subsection (2)(b) is different from the amount

previously awarded by the arbitral tribunal, the tribunal must amend the previous award to reflect the result of the
determination.

(10) An order of the Court under this section is not subject to appeal.

Section: 78 Liability to pay fees and expenses of arbitral tribunal L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011


(1) The parties to proceedings before an arbitral tribunal are jointly and severally liable to pay to the tribunal
reasonable fees and expenses, if any, of the tribunal that are appropriate in the circumstances.

(2) Subsection (1) has effect subject to any order of the Court made under section 62 or any other relevant
provision of this Ordinance.

(3) This section does not affect—
(a) the liability of the parties as among themselves to pay the costs of the arbitral proceedings; or
(b) any contractual right or obligation relating to payment of the fees and expenses of the arbitral tribunal.

(4) In this section, a reference to an arbitral tribunal includes—
(a) a member of the tribunal who has ceased to act; and
(b) an umpire who has not yet replaced members of the tribunal.


Section: 79 Arbitral tribunal may award interest L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011


(1) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, an arbitral tribunal may, in the arbitral proceedings before it, award
simple or compound interest from the dates, at the rates, and with the rests that the tribunal considers appropriate,
subject to section 80, for any period ending not later than the date of payment—

(a) on money awarded by the tribunal in the arbitral proceedings;
(b) on money claimed in, and outstanding at the commencement of, the arbitral proceedings but paid

before the award is made; or
(c) on costs awarded or ordered by the tribunal in the arbitral proceedings.

(2) Subsection (1) does not affect any other power of an arbitral tribunal to award interest.
(3) A reference in subsection (1)(a) to money awarded by the tribunal includes an amount payable in

consequence of a declaratory award by the tribunal.

Section: 80 Interest on money or costs awarded or ordered in arbitral

proceedings
L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



(1) Interest is payable on money awarded by an arbitral tribunal from the date of the award at the judgment
rate, except when the award otherwise provides.

(2) Interest is payable on costs awarded or ordered by an arbitral tribunal from—
(a) the date of the award or order on costs; or
(b) the date on which costs ordered are directed to be paid forthwith,

at the judgment rate, except when the award or order on costs otherwise provides.
(3) In this section, “judgment rate” (判定利率) means the rate of interest determined by the Chief Justice

under section 49(1)(b) (Interest on judgments) of the High Court Ordinance (Cap 4).




Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 31

Part: 9 RECOURSE AGAINST AWARD L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011




Section: 81 Article 34 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Application for
setting aside as exclusive recourse against arbitral award)

L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



(1) Article 34 of the UNCITRAL Model Law, the text of which is set out below, has effect subject to section
13(5)—


“Article 34. Application for setting aside as

exclusive recourse against arbitral award


(1) Recourse to a court against an arbitral award may be made only by an application for setting
aside in accordance with paragraphs (2) and (3) of this article.
(2) An arbitral award may be set aside by the court specified in article 6 only if:

(a) the party making the application furnishes proof that:
(i) a party to the arbitration agreement referred to in article 7 was under some incapacity;

or the said agreement is not valid under the law to which the parties have subjected it
or, failing any indication thereon, under the law of this State; or

(ii) the party making the application was not given proper notice of the appointment of an
arbitrator or of the arbitral proceedings or was otherwise unable to present his case; or

(iii) the award deals with a dispute not contemplated by or not falling within the terms of
the submission to arbitration, or contains decisions on matters beyond the scope of
the submission to arbitration, provided that, if the decisions on matters submitted to
arbitration can be separated from those not so submitted, only that part of the award
which contains decisions on matters not submitted to arbitration may be set aside; or

(iv) the composition of the arbitral tribunal or the arbitral procedure was not in
accordance with the agreement of the parties, unless such agreement was in conflict
with a provision of this Law from which the parties cannot derogate, or, failing such
agreement, was not in accordance with this Law; or

(b) the court finds that:
(i) the subject-matter of the dispute is not capable of settlement by arbitration under the

law of this State; or
(ii) the award is in conflict with the public policy of this State.

(3) An application for setting aside may not be made after three months have elapsed from the date
on which the party making that application had received the award or, if a request had been made
under article 33, from the date on which that request had been disposed of by the arbitral tribunal.
(4) The court, when asked to set aside an award, may, where appropriate and so requested by a party,
suspend the setting aside proceedings for a period of time determined by it in order to give the arbitral
tribunal an opportunity to resume the arbitral proceedings or to take such other action as in the arbitral
tribunal’s opinion will eliminate the grounds for setting aside.”.

(2) Subsection (1) does not affect—
(a) the power of the Court to set aside an arbitral award under section 26(5);
(b) the right to challenge an arbitral award under section 4 of Schedule 2 (if applicable); or
(c) the right to appeal against an arbitral award on a question of law under section 5 of Schedule 2 (if

applicable).
(3) Subject to subsection (2)(c), the Court does not have jurisdiction to set aside or remit an arbitral award on

the ground of errors of fact or law on the face of the award.
(4) The leave of the Court is required for any appeal from a decision of the Court under article 34 of the

UNCITRAL Model Law, given effect to by subsection (1).

Part: 10 Recognition and Enforcement of Awards E.R. 2 of 2014 10/04/2014


(*Format changes—E.R. 2 of 2014)



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 32

____________________________________________________________________________
Note:
* The format of Part 10 has been updated to the current legislative styles.

Part:
Division:

10
1

Enforcement of arbitral awards E.R. 2 of 2014 10/04/2014





Section: 82 Article 35 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Recognition and
enforcement)

E.R. 2 of 2014 10/04/2014



Article 35 of the UNCITRAL Model Law does not have effect.

Section: 83 Article 36 of UNCITRAL Model Law (Grounds for

refusing recognition or enforcement)
E.R. 2 of 2014 10/04/2014



Article 36 of the UNCITRAL Model Law does not have effect.

Section: 84 Enforcement of arbitral awards E.R. 2 of 2014 10/04/2014


(1) Subject to section 26(2), an award, whether made in or outside Hong Kong, in arbitral proceedings by an arbitral
tribunal is enforceable in the same manner as a judgment of the Court that has the same effect, but only with the
leave of the Court.

(2) If leave is granted under subsection (1), the Court may enter judgment in terms of the award.
(3) The leave of the Court is required for any appeal from a decision of the Court to grant or refuse leave to enforce

an award under subsection (1).

Section: 85 Evidence to be produced for enforcement of arbitral

awards
E.R. 2 of 2014 10/04/2014



The party seeking to enforce an arbitral award, whether made in or outside Hong Kong, which is not a Convention
award, Mainland award or Macao award, must produce— (Amended 7 of 2013 s. 9)

(a) the duly authenticated original award or a duly certified copy of it;
(b) the original arbitration agreement or a duly certified copy of it; and
(c) if the award or agreement is not in either or both of the official languages, a translation of it in either official

language certified by an official or sworn translator or by a diplomatic or consular agent. (Replaced 7 of
2013 s. 9)


Section: 86 Refusal of enforcement of arbitral awards E.R. 2 of 2014 10/04/2014


(1) Enforcement of an award referred to in section 85 may be refused if the person against whom it is invoked
proves—
(a) that a party to the arbitration agreement was under some incapacity (under the law applicable to that party);

(Replaced 7 of 2013 s. 10)
(b) that the arbitration agreement was not valid—

(i) under the law to which the parties subjected it; or
(ii) (if there was no indication of the law to which the arbitration agreement was subjected) under the law

of the country where the award was made;
(c) that the person—

(i) was not given proper notice of the appointment of the arbitrator or of the arbitral proceedings; or
(ii) was otherwise unable to present the person’s case;

(d) subject to subsection (3), that the award—
(i) deals with a difference not contemplated by or not falling within the terms of the submission to

arbitration; or



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 33

(ii) contains decisions on matters beyond the scope of the submission to arbitration;
(e) that the composition of the arbitral authority or the arbitral procedure was not in accordance with—

(i) the agreement of the parties; or
(ii) (if there was no agreement) the law of the country where the arbitration took place; or

(f) that the award—
(i) has not yet become binding on the parties; or
(ii) has been set aside or suspended by a competent authority of the country in which, or under the law of

which, it was made.
(2) Enforcement of an award referred to in section 85 may also be refused if—

(a) the award is in respect of a matter which is not capable of settlement by arbitration under the law of Hong
Kong;

(b) it would be contrary to public policy to enforce the award; or
(c) for any other reason the court considers it just to do so.

(3) If an award referred to in section 85 contains, apart from decisions on matters submitted to arbitration (arbitral
decisions), decisions on matters not submitted to arbitration (unrelated decisions), the award may be enforced
only in so far as it relates to the arbitral decisions that can be separated from the unrelated decisions. (Replaced
7 of 2013 s. 10)

(4) If an application for setting aside or suspending an award referred to in section 85 has been made to a competent
authority as mentioned in subsection (1)(f), the court before which enforcement of the award is sought—
(Amended 7 of 2013 s .10)
(a) may, if it thinks fit, adjourn the proceedings for the enforcement of the award; and
(b) may, on the application of the party seeking to enforce the award, order the person against whom the

enforcement is invoked to give security.
(5) A decision or order of the court under subsection (4) is not subject to appeal.

Part:
Division:

10
2

Enforcement of Convention awards E.R. 2 of 2014 10/04/2014





Section: 87 Enforcement of Convention awards E.R. 2 of 2014 10/04/2014


(1) A Convention award is, subject to this Division, enforceable in Hong Kong either—
(a) by action in the Court; or
(b) in the same manner as an award to which section 84 applies, and that section applies to a Convention award

accordingly as if a reference in that section to an award were a Convention award. (Amended 7 of 2013 s.
11)

(2) A Convention award which is enforceable as mentioned in subsection (1) is to be treated as binding for all
purposes on the parties, and may accordingly be relied on by any of them by way of defence, set off or otherwise
in any legal proceedings in Hong Kong. (Replaced 7 of 2013 s. 11)

(3) A reference in this Division to enforcement of a Convention award is to be construed as including reliance on a
Convention award.


Section: 88 Evidence to be produced for enforcement of Convention

awards
E.R. 2 of 2014 10/04/2014



The party seeking to enforce a Convention award must produce—
(a) the duly authenticated original award or a duly certified copy of it;
(b) the original arbitration agreement or a duly certified copy of it; and
(c) if the award or agreement is not in either or both of the official languages, a translation of it in either official

language certified by an official or sworn translator or by a diplomatic or consular agent. (Replaced 7 of
2013 s. 12)





Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 34

Section: 89 Refusal of enforcement of Convention awards E.R. 2 of 2014 10/04/2014


(1) Enforcement of a Convention award may not be refused except as mentioned in this section. (Amended 7 of
2013 s. 13)

(2) Enforcement of a Convention award may be refused if the person against whom it is invoked proves—
(a) that a party to the arbitration agreement was under some incapacity (under the law applicable to that party);

(Replaced 7 of 2013 s. 13)
(b) that the arbitration agreement was not valid—

(i) under the law to which the parties subjected it; or
(ii) (if there was no indication of the law to which the arbitration agreement was subjected) under the law

of the country where the award was made;
(c) that the person—

(i) was not given proper notice of the appointment of the arbitrator or of the arbitral proceedings; or
(ii) was otherwise unable to present the person’s case;

(d) subject to subsection (4), that the award—
(i) deals with a difference not contemplated by or not falling within the terms of the submission to

arbitration; or
(ii) contains decisions on matters beyond the scope of the submission to arbitration;

(e) that the composition of the arbitral authority or the arbitral procedure was not in accordance with—
(i) the agreement of the parties; or
(ii) (if there was no agreement) the law of the country where the arbitration took place; or

(f) that the award—
(i) has not yet become binding on the parties; or
(ii) has been set aside or suspended by a competent authority of the country in which, or under the law of

which, it was made.
(3) Enforcement of a Convention award may also be refused if—

(a) the award is in respect of a matter which is not capable of settlement by arbitration under the law of Hong
Kong; or

(b) it would be contrary to public policy to enforce the award.
(4) If a Convention award contains, apart from decisions on matters submitted to arbitration (arbitral decisions),

decisions on matters not submitted to arbitration (unrelated decisions), the award may be enforced only in so far
as it relates to the arbitral decisions that can be separated from the unrelated decisions. (Replaced 7 of 2013 s.
13)

(5) If an application for setting aside or suspending a Convention award has been made to a competent authority as
mentioned in subsection (2)(f), the court before which enforcement of the award is sought— (Amended 7 of
2013 s. 13)
(a) may, if it thinks fit, adjourn the proceedings for the enforcement of the award; and
(b) may, on the application of the party seeking to enforce the award, order the person against whom the

enforcement is invoked to give security.
(6) A decision or order of the court under subsection (5) is not subject to appeal.

Section: 90 Order for declaring party to New York Convention E.R. 2 of 2014 10/04/2014


(1) The Chief Executive in Council may, by order in the Gazette, declare that any State or territory that—
(a) is a party to the New York Convention; and
(b) is specified in the order,
is a party to that Convention.

(2) An order under subsection (1), while in force, is conclusive evidence that the State or territory specified in it is a
party to the New York Convention.

(3) Subsections (1) and (2) do not affect any other method of proving that a State or territory is a party to the New
York Convention.





Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 35

Section: 91 Saving of rights to enforce Convention awards E.R. 2 of 2014 10/04/2014


This Division does not affect any right to enforce or rely on a Convention award otherwise than under this Division.

Part:
Division:

10
3

Enforcement of Mainland awards E.R. 2 of 2014 10/04/2014





Section: 92 Enforcement of Mainland awards E.R. 2 of 2014 10/04/2014


(1) A Mainland award is, subject to this Division, enforceable in Hong Kong either—
(a) by action in the Court; or
(b) in the same manner as an award to which section 84 applies, and that section applies to a Mainland award

accordingly as if a reference in that section to an award were a Mainland award. (Amended 7 of 2013 s. 14)
(2) A Mainland award which is enforceable as mentioned in subsection (1) is to be treated as binding for all

purposes on the parties, and may accordingly be relied on by any of them by way of defence, set off or otherwise
in any legal proceedings in Hong Kong. (Replaced 7 of 2013 s. 14)

(3) A reference in this Division to enforcement of a Mainland award is to be construed as including reliance on a
Mainland award.


Section: 93 Restrictions on enforcement of Mainland awards E.R. 2 of 2014 10/04/2014


(1) A Mainland award is not, subject to subsection (2), enforceable under this Division if an application has been
made on the Mainland for enforcement of the award.

(2) If a Mainland award is not fully satisfied by way of enforcement proceedings taken in the Mainland, or in any
other place other than Hong Kong, that part of the award which is not satisfied in those proceedings is
enforceable under this Division. (Replaced 7 of 2013 s. 15)


Section: 94 Evidence to be produced for enforcement of Mainland

awards
E.R. 2 of 2014 10/04/2014



The party seeking to enforce a Mainland award must produce—
(a) the duly authenticated original award or a duly certified copy of it;
(b) the original arbitration agreement or a duly certified copy of it; and
(c) if the award or agreement is not in either or both of the official languages, a translation of it in either official

language certified by an official or sworn translator or by a diplomatic or consular agent. (Replaced 7 of
2013 s. 16)


Section: 95 Refusal of enforcement of Mainland awards E.R. 2 of 2014 10/04/2014


(1) Enforcement of a Mainland award may not be refused except as mentioned in this section. (Amended 7 of 2013
s. 17)

(2) Enforcement of a Mainland award may be refused if the person against whom it is invoked proves—
(a) that a party to the arbitration agreement was under some incapacity (under the law applicable to that party);

(Replaced 7 of 2013 s. 17)
(b) that the arbitration agreement was not valid—

(i) under the law to which the parties subjected it; or
(ii) (if there was no indication of the law to which the arbitration agreement was subjected) under the law

of the Mainland;
(c) that the person—

(i) was not given proper notice of the appointment of the arbitrator or of the arbitral proceedings; or
(ii) was otherwise unable to present the person’s case;

(d) subject to subsection (4), that the award—



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 36

(i) deals with a difference not contemplated by or not falling within the terms of the submission to
arbitration; or

(ii) contains decisions on matters beyond the scope of the submission to arbitration;
(e) that the composition of the arbitral authority or the arbitral procedure was not in accordance with—

(i) the agreement of the parties; or
(ii) (if there was no agreement) the law of the Mainland; or

(f) that the award—
(i) has not yet become binding on the parties; or
(ii) has been set aside or suspended by a competent authority of the Mainland or under the law of the

Mainland.
(3) Enforcement of a Mainland award may also be refused if—

(a) the award is in respect of a matter which is not capable of settlement by arbitration under the law of Hong
Kong; or

(b) it would be contrary to public policy to enforce the award.
(4) If a Mainland award contains, apart from decisions on matters submitted to arbitration (arbitral decisions),

decisions on matters not submitted to arbitration (unrelated decisions), the award may be enforced only in so far
as it relates to the arbitral decisions that can be separated from the unrelated decisions. (Replaced 7 of 2013 s.
17)


Section: 96 Mainland awards to which certain provisions of this

Division do not apply
E.R. 2 of 2014 10/04/2014



Expanded Cross Reference:

92, 93, 94, 95



(1) Subject to subsection (2), this Division has effect with respect to the enforcement of Mainland awards.
(2) If—

(a) a Mainland award was at any time before 1 July 1997 a Convention award within the meaning of Part IV of
the repealed Ordinance as then in force; and

(b) the enforcement of that award had been refused at any time before the commencement of section 5 of the
Arbitration (Amendment) Ordinance 2000 (2 of 2000) under section 44 of the repealed Ordinance as then in
force,

then sections 92 to 95 have no effect with respect to the enforcement of that award.


Section: 97 Publication of list of recognized Mainland arbitral

authorities
E.R. 2 of 2014 10/04/2014



(1) The Secretary for Justice must, by notice in the Gazette, publish a list of recognized Mainland arbitral authorities
supplied from time to time to the Government by the Legislative Affairs Office of the State Council of the
People’s Republic of China through the Hong Kong and Macao Affairs Office of the State Council.

(2) A list published under subsection (1) is not subsidiary legislation.

Section: 98 Saving of certain Mainland awards E.R. 2 of 2014 10/04/2014


Despite the fact that enforcement of a Mainland award had been refused in Hong Kong at any time during the period
between 1 July 1997 and the commencement of section 5 of the Arbitration (Amendment) Ordinance 2000 (2 of 2000)
under the repealed Ordinance as then in force, the award is, subject to section 96(2), enforceable under this Division as
if enforcement of the award had not previously been so refused.

Part:
Division:

10
4

Enforcement of Macao Awards L.N. 153 of 2013 16/12/2013



(Division 4 added 7 of 2013 s. 18)



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 37



Section: 98A Enforcement of Macao awards L.N. 153 of 2013 16/12/2013


(1) A Macao award is, subject to this Division, enforceable in Hong Kong either—
(a) by action in the Court; or
(b) in the same manner as an award to which section 84 applies, and that section applies to a Macao award

accordingly as if a reference in that section to an award were a Macao award.
(2) A Macao award which is enforceable as mentioned in subsection (1) is to be treated as binding for all purposes

on the parties, and may accordingly be relied on by any of them by way of defence, set off or otherwise in any
legal proceedings in Hong Kong.

(3) A reference in this Division to enforcement of a Macao award is to be construed as including reliance on a
Macao award.


Section: 98B Enforcement of Macao awards partially satisfied L.N. 153 of 2013 16/12/2013


If a Macao award is not fully satisfied by way of enforcement proceedings taken in Macao, or in any other place other
than Hong Kong, that part of the award which is not satisfied in those proceedings is enforceable under this Division.

Section: 98C Evidence to be produced for enforcement of Macao awards L.N. 153 of 2013 16/12/2013


The party seeking to enforce a Macao award must produce—
(a) the duly authenticated original award or a duly certified copy of it;
(b) the original arbitration agreement or a duly certified copy of it; and
(c) if the award or agreement is not in either or both of the official languages, a translation of it in either official

language certified by an official or sworn translator or by a diplomatic or consular agent.

Section: 98D Refusal of enforcement of Macao awards L.N. 153 of 2013 16/12/2013


(1) Enforcement of a Macao award may not be refused except as mentioned in this section.
(2) Enforcement of a Macao award may be refused if the person against whom it is invoked proves—

(a) that a party to the arbitration agreement was under some incapacity (under the law applicable to that party);
(b) that the arbitration agreement was not valid—

(i) under the law to which the parties subjected it; or
(ii) (if there was no indication of the law to which the arbitration agreement was subjected) under the law

of Macao;
(c) that the person—

(i) was not given proper notice of the appointment of the arbitrator or of the arbitral proceedings; or
(ii) was otherwise unable to present the person’s case;

(d) subject to subsection (4), that the award—
(i) deals with a difference not contemplated by or not falling within the terms of the submission to

arbitration; or
(ii) contains decisions on matters beyond the scope of the submission to arbitration;

(e) that the composition of the arbitral authority or the arbitral procedure was not in accordance with—
(i) the agreement of the parties; or
(ii) (if there was no agreement) the law of Macao; or

(f) that the award—
(i) has not yet become binding on the parties; or
(ii) has been set aside or suspended by a competent authority of Macao or under the law of Macao.

(3) Enforcement of a Macao award may also be refused if—
(a) the award is in respect of a matter which is not capable of settlement by arbitration under the law of Hong

Kong; or
(b) it would be contrary to public policy to enforce the award.



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 38

(4) If a Macao award contains, apart from decisions on matters submitted to arbitration (arbitral decisions),
decisions on matters not submitted to arbitration (unrelated decisions), the award may be enforced only in so far
as it relates to the arbitral decisions that can be separated from the unrelated decisions.

(5) If an application for setting aside or suspending a Macao award has been made to a competent authority as
mentioned in subsection (2)(f), the court before which enforcement of the award is sought—
(a) may, if it thinks fit, adjourn the proceedings for the enforcement of the award; and
(b) may, on the application of the party seeking to enforce the award, order the person against whom the

enforcement is invoked to give security.
(6) A decision or order of the court under subsection (5) is not subject to appeal.

Part: 11 Provisions that may be Expressly Opted for or

Automatically Apply
E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015



(*Format changes—E.R. 3 of 2015)
_______________________________________________________________________________
Note:
* The format of Part 11 has been updated to the current legislative styles.

Section: 99 Arbitration agreements may provide expressly for opt-in

provisions
E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015



An arbitration agreement may provide expressly that any or all of the following provisions are to apply—
(a) section 1 of Schedule 2;
(b) section 2 of Schedule 2;
(c) section 3 of Schedule 2;
(d) sections 4 and 7 of Schedule 2;
(e) sections 5, 6 and 7 of Schedule 2.


Section: 100 Opt-in provisions automatically apply in certain cases E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015


All the provisions in Schedule 2 apply, subject to section 102, to—
(a) an arbitration agreement entered into before the commencement of this Ordinance which has provided that

arbitration under the agreement is a domestic arbitration; or
(b) an arbitration agreement entered into at any time within a period of 6 years after the commencement of this

Ordinance which provides that arbitration under the agreement is a domestic arbitration.

Section: 101 Opt-in provisions that automatically apply under section

100 deemed to apply to Hong Kong construction
subcontracting cases

E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015



(1) If—
(a) all the provisions in Schedule 2 apply under section 100(a) or (b) to an arbitration agreement, in any form

referred to in section 19, included in a construction contract;
(b) the whole or any part of the construction operations to be carried out under the construction contract

(relevant operation) is subcontracted to any person under another construction contract (subcontract); and
(c) that subcontract also includes an arbitration agreement (subcontracting parties’ arbitration agreement) in

any form referred to in section 19,
then all the provisions in Schedule 2 also apply, subject to section 102, to the subcontracting parties’
arbitration agreement.

(2) Unless the subcontracting parties’ arbitration agreement is an arbitration agreement referred to in section
100(a) or (b), subsection (1) does not apply if—
(a) the person to whom the whole or any part of the relevant operation is subcontracted under the subcontract is





Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 39

(i) a natural person who is ordinarily resident outside Hong Kong;
(ii) a body corporate—

(A) incorporated under the law of a place outside Hong Kong; or
(B) the central management and control of which is exercised outside Hong Kong; or

(iii) an association—
(A) formed under the law of a place outside Hong Kong; or
(B) the central management and control of which is exercised outside Hong Kong;

(b) the person to whom the whole or any part of the relevant operation is subcontracted under the subcontract
has no place of business in Hong Kong; or

(c) a substantial part of the relevant operation which is subcontracted under the subcontract is to be performed
outside Hong Kong.

(3) If—
(a) all the provisions in Schedule 2 apply to a subcontracting parties’ arbitration agreement under subsection

(1);
(b) the whole or any part of the relevant operation that is subcontracted under the subcontract is further

subcontracted to another person under a further construction contract (further subcontract); and
(c) that further subcontract also includes an arbitration agreement in any form referred to in section 19,
subsection (1) has effect subject to subsection (2), and all the provisions in Schedule 2 apply, subject to section
102, to the arbitration agreement so included in that further subcontract as if that further subcontract were a
subcontract under subsection (1).

(4) In this section—
construction contract (建造合約) has the meaning given to it by section 2(1) of the Construction Industry Council

Ordinance (Cap 587);
construction operations (建造工程) has the meaning given to it by Schedule 1 to the Construction Industry Council

Ordinance (Cap 587).

Section: 102 Circumstances under which opt-in provisions not

automatically apply
E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015



(1) Sections 100 and 101 do not apply if— (Amended 11 of 2015 s. 4)
(a) the parties to the arbitration agreement concerned so agree in writing; or
(b) the arbitration agreement concerned has provided expressly that—

(i) section 100 or 101 does not apply; or
(ii) section 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 of Schedule 2 applies or does not apply. (Amended 11 of 2015 s. 4)

(2) Subsection (1)(b)(ii) does not derogate from the operation of section 99. (Added 11 of 2015 s. 4)

Section: 103 Application of provisions under this Part E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015


If there is any conflict or inconsistency between any provision that applies under this Part and any other provision of
this Ordinance, the first-mentioned provision prevails, to the extent of the conflict or inconsistency, over that other
provision.

Part: 12 Miscellaneous E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015


(*Format changes—E.R. 3 of 2015)
_______________________________________________________________________________
Note:
* The format of Part 12 has been updated to the current legislative styles.

Section: 104 Arbitral tribunal or mediator to be liable for certain acts

and omissions
E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015



(1) An arbitral tribunal or mediator is liable in law for an act done or omitted to be done by—



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 40

(a) the tribunal or mediator; or
(b) an employee or agent of the tribunal or mediator,
in relation to the exercise or performance, or the purported exercise or performance, of the tribunal’s arbitral
functions or the mediator’s functions only if it is proved that the act was done or omitted to be done
dishonestly.

(2) An employee or agent of an arbitral tribunal or mediator is liable in law for an act done or omitted to be done by
the employee or agent in relation to the exercise or performance, or the purported exercise or performance, of the
tribunal’s arbitral functions or the mediator’s functions only if it is proved that the act was done or omitted to
be done dishonestly.

(3) In this section, mediator (調解員) means a mediator appointed under section 32 or referred to in section 33.

Section: 105 Appointors and administrators to be liable only for certain

acts and omissions
E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015



(1) A person—
(a) who appoints an arbitral tribunal or mediator; or
(b) who exercises or performs any other function of an
administrative nature in connection with arbitral or mediation proceedings,
is liable in law for the consequences of doing or omitting to do an act in the exercise or performance, or the
purported exercise or performance, of the function only if it is proved that the act was done or omitted to be done
dishonestly.

(2) Subsection (1) does not apply to an act done or omitted to be done by—
(a) a party to the arbitral or mediation proceedings; or
(b) a legal representative or adviser of the party,
in the exercise or performance, or the purported exercise or performance, of a function of an administrative
nature in connection with those proceedings.

(3) An employee or agent of a person who has done or omitted to do an act referred to in subsection (1) is liable in
law for the consequence of the act done or omission made only if it is proved that—
(a) the act was done or omission was made dishonestly; and
(b) the employee or agent was a party to the dishonesty.

(4) Neither a person referred to in subsection (1) nor an employee or agent of the person is liable in law for the
consequences of any act done or omission made by—
(a) the arbitral tribunal or mediator concerned; or
(b) an employee or agent of the tribunal or mediator,
in the exercise or performance, or the purported exercise or performance, of the tribunal’s arbitral functions or
the mediator’s functions merely because the person, employee or agent has exercised or performed a function
referred to in that subsection.

(5) In this section—
appoint (委任) includes nominate and designate;
mediator (調解員) has the same meaning as in section 104, and mediation proceedings (調解程序) is to be

construed accordingly.

Section: 106 Rules of court E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015


(1) The power to make rules of court under section 54 (Rules of court) of the High Court Ordinance (Cap 4)
includes power to make rules of court for—
(a) the making of an application for an interim measure under section 45(2) or an order under section 60(1); or
(b) the service out of the jurisdiction of an application for the interim measure or order.

(2) Any rules made by virtue of this section may include the incidental, supplementary and consequential provisions
that the authority making the rules considers necessary or expedient.





Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 41

Section: 107 Making an application, etc. under this Ordinance E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015


An application, request or appeal to the court under this Ordinance is, unless otherwise expressed, to be made in
accordance with the Rules of the High Court (Cap 4 sub. leg. A).

Section: 108 Decision, etc. of Court under this Ordinance E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015


A decision, determination, direction or award of the Court under this Ordinance is to be treated as a judgment of the
Court for the purposes of section 14 (Appeals in civil matters) of the High Court Ordinance (Cap 4).

Part: 13 Repeal, Savings and Transitional Provisions E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015


(*Format changes—E.R. 3 of 2015)
_______________________________________________________________________________
Note:
* The format of Part 13 has been updated to the current legislative styles.

Section: 109 (Omitted as spent—E.R. 3 of 2015) E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015




Section: 110 Effect of repeal on subsidiary legislation E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015


Any subsidiary legislation made under the repealed Ordinance and in force at the commencement of this Ordinance,
so far as it is not inconsistent with this Ordinance, continues in force and has the like effect for all purposes as if made
under this Ordinance.

Section: 111 Savings and transitional provisions E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015


(1) Part 1 of Schedule 3 provides for the savings and transitional arrangements that apply on, or relate to, the
commencement of this Ordinance. (Amended 11 of 2015 s. 5)

(2) Part 2 of Schedule 3 provides for the savings and transitional arrangements that apply on, or relate to, the
commencement* of the Arbitration (Amendment) Ordinance 2015 (11 of 2015). (Added 11 of 2015 s. 5)

_________________________________________________________________________________________
Note:
* Commencement date: 17 July 2015.

Part: 14 (Omitted as spent—E.R. 3 of 2015) E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015




Section: 112 (Omitted as spent—E.R. 3 of 2015) E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015




Schedule: 1 UNCITRAL MODEL LAW ON INTERNATIONAL
COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION

L.N. 38 of 2011 01/06/2011



[section 2]


(As adopted by the United Nations Commission on
International Trade Law on 21 June 1985, and

as amended by the United Nations
Commission on International
Trade Law on 7 July 2006)


CHAPTER I. GENERAL PROVISIONS



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 42


Article 1. Scope of application*


(1) This Law applies to international commercial** arbitration, subject to any agreement in force between this State
and any other State or States.

(2) The provisions of this Law, except articles 8, 9, 17H, 17I, 17J, 35 and 36, apply only if the place of arbitration is
in the territory of this State.

(Article 1(2) has been amended by the Commission at its thirty-ninth session, in 2006)

(3) An arbitration is international if:

(a) the parties to an arbitration agreement have, at the time of the conclusion of that agreement, their places of
business in different States; or

(b) one of the following places is situated outside the State in which the parties have their places of business:
(i) the place of arbitration if determined in, or pursuant to, the arbitration agreement;
(ii) any place where a substantial part of the obligations of the commercial relationship is to be performed

or the place with which the subject-matter of the dispute is most closely connected; or
(c) the parties have expressly agreed that the subject-matter of the arbitration agreement relates to more than one

country.


(4) For the purposes of paragraph (3) of this article:
(a) if a party has more than one place of business, the place of business is that which has the closest relationship

to the arbitration agreement;
(b) if a party does not have a place of business, reference is to be made to his habitual residence.

(5) This Law shall not affect any other law of this State by virtue of which certain disputes may not be submitted to
arbitration or may be submitted to arbitration only according to provisions other than those of this Law.

[Note: Section 5 has effect in substitution for article 1—see section 7.]


Article 2. Definitions and rules of interpretation
For the purposes of this Law:

(a) “arbitration” means any arbitration whether or not administered by a permanent arbitral institution;
(b) “arbitral tribunal” means a sole arbitrator or a panel of arbitrators;
(c) “court” means a body or organ of the judicial system of a State;
(d) where a provision of this Law, except article 28, leaves the parties free to determine a certain issue, such

freedom includes the right of the parties to authorize a third party, including an institution, to make that determination;
(e) where a provision of this Law refers to the fact that the parties have agreed or that they may agree or in any

other way refers to an agreement of the parties, such agreement includes any arbitration rules referred to in that
agreement;

(f) where a provision of this Law, other than in articles 25(a) and 32(2)(a), refers to a claim, it also applies to a
counter-claim, and where it refers to a defence, it also applies to a defence to such counter-claim.


[Note: Section 2 has effect in substitution for article 2—see section 8.]


Article 2A. International origin and general principles
(As adopted by the Commission at its thirty-ninth session, in 2006)


(1) In the interpretation of this Law, regard is to be had to its international origin and to the need to promote
uniformity in its application and the observance of good faith.

(2) Questions concerning matters governed by this Law which are not expressly settled in it are to be settled in
conformity with the general principles on which this Law is based.

[Note: See section 9.]




Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 43

Article 3. Receipt of written communications

(1) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties:

(a) any written communication is deemed to have been received if it is delivered to the addressee personally or
if it is delivered at his place of business, habitual residence or mailing address; if none of these can be found after
making a reasonable inquiry, a written communication is deemed to have been received if it is sent to the addressee’s
last-known place of business, habitual residence or mailing address by registered letter or any other means which
provides a record of the attempt to deliver it;

(b) the communication is deemed to have been received on the day it is so delivered.


(2) The provisions of this article do not apply to communications in court proceedings.

[Note: See section 10.]


Article 4. Waiver of right to object


A party who knows that any provision of this Law from which the parties may derogate or any requirement under the
arbitration agreement has not been complied with and yet proceeds with the arbitration without stating his objection to
such non-compliance without undue delay or, if a time-limit is provided therefor, within such period of time, shall be
deemed to have waived his right to object.

[Note: See section 11.]


Article 5. Extent of court intervention


In matters governed by this Law, no court shall intervene except where so provided in this Law.

[Note: See section 12.]


Article 6. Court or other authority for certain functions of
arbitration assistance and supervision


The functions referred to in articles 11(3), 11(4), 13(3), 14, 16(3) and 34(2) shall be performed by ... [Each State
enacting this model law specifies the court, courts or, where referred to therein, other authority competent to perform
these functions.]

[Note: Section 13(2) to (6) has effect in substitution for article 6—see section 13.]


CHAPTER II. ARBITRATION AGREEMENT

Option I


Article 7. Definition and form of arbitration agreement
(As adopted by the Commission at its thirty-ninth session, in 2006)


(1) “Arbitration agreement” is an agreement by the parties to submit to arbitration all or certain disputes which
have arisen or which may arise between them in respect of a defined legal relationship, whether contractual or not. An
arbitration agreement may be in the form of an arbitration clause in a contract or in the form of a separate agreement.

(2) The arbitration agreement shall be in writing.

(3) An arbitration agreement is in writing if its content is recorded in any form, whether or not the arbitration
agreement or contract has been concluded orally, by conduct, or by other means.

(4) The requirement that an arbitration agreement be in writing is met by an electronic communication if the



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 44

information contained therein is accessible so as to be useable for subsequent reference; “ electronic
communication” means any communication that the parties make by means of data messages; “data message”
means information generated, sent, received or stored by electronic, magnetic, optical or similar means, including, but
not limited to, electronic data interchange (EDI), electronic mail, telegram, telex or telecopy.

(5) Furthermore, an arbitration agreement is in writing if it is contained in an exchange of statements of claim and
defence in which the existence of an agreement is alleged by one party and not denied by the other.

(6) The reference in a contract to any document containing an arbitration clause constitutes an arbitration agreement
in writing, provided that the reference is such as to make that clause part of the contract.

Option II


Article 7. Definition of arbitration agreement
(As adopted by the Commission at its thirty-ninth session, in 2006)


“Arbitration agreement” is an agreement by the parties to submit to arbitration all or certain disputes which have
arisen or which may arise between them in respect of a defined legal relationship, whether contractual or not.

[Note: See section 19. Option I of this article is adopted.]


Article 8. Arbitration agreement and substantive
claim before court


(1) A court before which an action is brought in a matter which is the subject of an arbitration agreement shall, if a
party so requests not later than when submitting his first statement on the substance of the dispute, refer the parties to
arbitration unless it finds that the agreement is null and void, inoperative or incapable of being performed.

(2) Where an action referred to in paragraph (1) of this article has been brought, arbitral proceedings may
nevertheless be commenced or continued, and an award may be made, while the issue is pending before the court.

[Note: See section 20.]


Article 9. Arbitration agreement and interim measures by court

It is not incompatible with an arbitration agreement for a party to request, before or during arbitral proceedings, from a
court an interim measure of protection and for a court to grant such measure.

[Note: See section 21.]


CHAPTER III. COMPOSITION OF ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL


Article 10. Number of arbitrators

(1) The parties are free to determine the number of arbitrators.

(2) Failing such determination, the number of arbitrators shall be three.

[Note: Article 10(2) is not applicable—see section 23.]


Article 11. Appointment of arbitrators

(1) No person shall be precluded by reason of his nationality from acting as an arbitrator, unless otherwise agreed by
the parties.




Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 45

(2) The parties are free to agree on a procedure of appointing the arbitrator or arbitrators, subject to the provisions of
paragraphs (4) and (5) of this article.

(3) Failing such agreement,

(a) in an arbitration with three arbitrators, each party shall appoint one arbitrator, and the two arbitrators thus
appointed shall appoint the third arbitrator; if a party fails to appoint the arbitrator within thirty days of receipt of a
request to do so from the other party, or if the two arbitrators fail to agree on the third arbitrator within thirty days of
their appointment, the appointment shall be made, upon request of a party, by the court or other authority specified in
article 6;

(b) in an arbitration with a sole arbitrator, if the parties are unable to agree on the arbitrator, he shall be
appointed, upon request of a party, by the court or other authority specified in article 6.

(4) Where, under an appointment procedure agreed upon by the parties,

(a) a party fails to act as required under such procedure, or
(b) the parties, or two arbitrators, are unable to reach an agreement expected of them under such procedure, or
(c) a third party, including an institution, fails to perform any function entrusted to it under such procedure,

any party may request the court or other authority specified in article 6 to take the necessary measure, unless the
agreement on the appointment procedure provides other means for securing the appointment.

(5) A decision on a matter entrusted by paragraph (3) or (4) of this article to the court or other authority specified in
article 6 shall be subject to no appeal. The court or other authority, in appointing an arbitrator, shall have due regard to
any qualifications required of the arbitrator by the agreement of the parties and to such considerations as are likely to
secure the appointment of an independent and impartial arbitrator and, in the case of a sole or third arbitrator, shall
take into account as well the advisability of appointing an arbitrator of a nationality other than those of the parties.

[Note: See section 24.]


Article 12. Grounds for challenge

(1) When a person is approached in connection with his possible appointment as an arbitrator, he shall disclose any
circumstances likely to give rise to justifiable doubts as to his impartiality or independence. An arbitrator, from the
time of his appointment and throughout the arbitral proceedings, shall without delay disclose any such circumstances
to the parties unless they have already been informed of them by him.

(2) An arbitrator may be challenged only if circumstances exist that give rise to justifiable doubts as to his
impartiality or independence, or if he does not possess qualifications agreed to by the parties. A party may challenge
an arbitrator appointed by him, or in whose appointment he has participated, only for reasons of which he becomes
aware after the appointment has been made.

[Note: See section 25.]


Article 13. Challenge procedure

(1) The parties are free to agree on a procedure for challenging an arbitrator, subject to the provisions of paragraph
(3) of this article.

(2) Failing such agreement, a party who intends to challenge an arbitrator shall, within fifteen days after becoming
aware of the constitution of the arbitral tribunal or after becoming aware of any circumstance referred to in article
12(2), send a written statement of the reasons for the challenge to the arbitral tribunal. Unless the challenged arbitrator
withdraws from his office or the other party agrees to the challenge, the arbitral tribunal shall decide on the challenge.

(3) If a challenge under any procedure agreed upon by the parties or under the procedure of paragraph (2) of this
article is not successful, the challenging party may request, within thirty days after having received notice of the
decision rejecting the challenge, the court or other authority specified in article 6 to decide on the challenge, which
decision shall be subject to no appeal; while such a request is pending, the arbitral tribunal, including the challenged



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 46

arbitrator, may continue the arbitral proceedings and make an award.

[Note: See section 26.]


Article 14. Failure or impossibility to act

(1) If an arbitrator becomes de jure or de facto unable to perform his functions or for other reasons fails to act
without undue delay, his mandate terminates if he withdraws from his office or if the parties agree on the termination.
Otherwise, if a controversy remains concerning any of these grounds, any party may request the court or other
authority specified in article 6 to decide on the termination of the mandate, which decision shall be subject to no
appeal.

(2) If, under this article or article 13(2), an arbitrator withdraws from his office or a party agrees to the termination
of the mandate of an arbitrator, this does not imply acceptance of the validity of any ground referred to in this article
or article 12(2).

[Note: See section 27.]


Article 15. Appointment of substitute arbitrator

Where the mandate of an arbitrator terminates under article 13 or 14 or because of his withdrawal from office for any
other reason or because of the revocation of his mandate by agreement of the parties or in any other case of
termination of his mandate, a substitute arbitrator shall be appointed according to the rules that were applicable to the
appointment of the arbitrator being replaced.

[Note: See section 28.]


CHAPTER IV. JURISDICTION OF ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL


Article 16. Competence of arbitral tribunal to rule
on its jurisdiction


(1) The arbitral tribunal may rule on its own jurisdiction, including any objections with respect to the existence or
validity of the arbitration agreement. For that purpose, an arbitration clause which forms part of a contract shall be
treated as an agreement independent of the other terms of the contract. A decision by the arbitral tribunal that the
contract is null and void shall not entail ipso jure the invalidity of the arbitration clause.

(2) A plea that the arbitral tribunal does not have jurisdiction shall be raised not later than the submission of the
statement of defence. A party is not precluded from raising such a plea by the fact that he has appointed, or
participated in the appointment of, an arbitrator. A plea that the arbitral tribunal is exceeding the scope of its authority
shall be raised as soon as the matter alleged to be beyond the scope of its authority is raised during the arbitral
proceedings. The arbitral tribunal may, in either case, admit a later plea if it considers the delay justified.

(3) The arbitral tribunal may rule on a plea referred to in paragraph (2) of this article either as a preliminary question
or in an award on the merits. If the arbitral tribunal rules as a preliminary question that it has jurisdiction, any party
may request, within thirty days after having received notice of that ruling, the court specified in article 6 to decide the
matter, which decision shall be subject to no appeal; while such a request is pending, the arbitral tribunal may continue
the arbitral proceedings and make an award.

[Note: See section 34.]


CHAPTER IVA. INTERIM MEASURES AND PRELIMINARY
ORDERS

(As adopted by the Commission at its thirty-ninth session, in 2006)




Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 47

Section 1. Interim measures


Article 17. Power of arbitral tribunal to order interim measures


(1) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the arbitral tribunal may, at the request of a party, grant interim
measures.

(2) An interim measure is any temporary measure, whether in the form of an award or in another form, by which, at
any time prior to the issuance of the award by which the dispute is finally decided, the arbitral tribunal orders a party
to:

(a) Maintain or restore the status quo pending determination of the dispute;
(b) Take action that would prevent, or refrain from taking action that is likely to cause, current or imminent

harm or prejudice to the arbitral process itself;
(c) Provide a means of preserving assets out of which a subsequent award may be satisfied; or
(d) Preserve evidence that may be relevant and material to the resolution of the dispute.


[Note: See section 35.]


Article 17A. Conditions for granting interim measures

(1) The party requesting an interim measure under article 17(2)(a), (b) and (c) shall satisfy the arbitral tribunal that:

(a) Harm not adequately reparable by an award of damages is likely to result if the measure is not ordered, and
such harm substantially outweighs the harm that is likely to result to the party against whom the measure is directed if
the measure is granted; and

(b) There is a reasonable possibility that the requesting party will succeed on the merits of the claim. The
determination on this possibility shall not affect the discretion of the arbitral tribunal in making any subsequent
determination.


(2) With regard to a request for an interim measure under article 17(2)(d ), the requirements in paragraphs (1)(a) and
(b) of this article shall apply only to the extent the arbitral tribunal considers appropriate.

[Note: See section 36.]


Section 2. Preliminary orders


Article 17B. Applications for preliminary orders and conditions
for granting preliminary orders


(1) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, a party may, without notice to any other party, make a request for an
interim measure together with an application for a preliminary order directing a party not to frustrate the purpose of
the interim measure requested.

(2) The arbitral tribunal may grant a preliminary order provided it considers that prior disclosure of the request for
the interim measure to the party against whom it is directed risks frustrating the purpose of the measure.

(3) The conditions defined under article 17A apply to any preliminary order, provided that the harm to be assessed
under article 17A(1)(a), is the harm likely to result from the order being granted or not.

[Note: See section 37.]


Article 17C. Specific regime for preliminary orders

(1) Immediately after the arbitral tribunal has made a determination in respect of an application for a preliminary
order, the arbitral tribunal shall give notice to all parties of the request for the interim measure, the application for the
preliminary order, the preliminary order, if any, and all other communications, including by indicating the content of



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 48

any oral communication, between any party and the arbitral tribunal in relation thereto.

(2) At the same time, the arbitral tribunal shall give an opportunity to any party against whom a preliminary order is
directed to present its case at the earliest practicable time.

(3) The arbitral tribunal shall decide promptly on any objection to the preliminary order.

(4) A preliminary order shall expire after twenty days from the date on which it was issued by the arbitral tribunal.
However, the arbitral tribunal may issue an interim measure adopting or modifying the preliminary order, after the
party against whom the preliminary order is directed has been given notice and an opportunity to present its case.

(5) A preliminary order shall be binding on the parties but shall not be subject to enforcement by a court. Such a
preliminary order does not constitute an award.

[Note: See section 38.]


Section 3. Provisions applicable to interim measures and
preliminary orders


Article 17D. Modification, suspension, termination


The arbitral tribunal may modify, suspend or terminate an interim measure or a preliminary order it has granted, upon
application of any party or, in exceptional circumstances and upon prior notice to the parties, on the arbitral tribunal’
s own initiative.

[Note: See section 39.]


Article 17E. Provision of security

(1) The arbitral tribunal may require the party requesting an interim measure to provide appropriate security in
connection with the measure.

(2) The arbitral tribunal shall require the party applying for a preliminary order to provide security in connection
with the order unless the arbitral tribunal considers it inappropriate or unnecessary to do so.

[Note: See section 40.]


Article 17F. Disclosure

(1) The arbitral tribunal may require any party promptly to disclose any material change in the circumstances on the
basis of which the measure was requested or granted.

(2) The party applying for a preliminary order shall disclose to the arbitral tribunal all circumstances that are likely
to be relevant to the arbitral tribunal’s determination whether to grant or maintain the order, and such obligation shall
continue until the party against whom the order has been requested has had an opportunity to present its case.
Thereafter, paragraph (1) of this article shall apply.

[Note: See section 41.]


Article 17G. Costs and damages


The party requesting an interim measure or applying for a preliminary order shall be liable for any costs and damages
caused by the measure or the order to any party if the arbitral tribunal later determines that, in the circumstances, the
measure or the order should not have been granted..The arbitral tribunal may award such costs and damages at any
point during the proceedings.



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 49


[Note: See section 42.]


Section 4. Recognition and enforcement of interim measures


Article 17H. Recognition and enforcement


(1) An interim measure issued by an arbitral tribunal shall be recognized as binding and, unless otherwise provided
by the arbitral tribunal, enforced upon application to the competent court, irrespective of the country in which it was
issued, subject to the provisions of article 17I.

(2) The party who is seeking or has obtained recognition or enforcement of an interim measure shall promptly inform
the court of any termination, suspension or modification of that interim measure.

(3) The court of the State where recognition or enforcement is sought may, if it considers it proper, order the
requesting party to provide appropriate security if the arbitral tribunal has not already made a determination with
respect to security or where such a decision is necessary to protect the rights of third parties.

[Note: Section 61 has effect in substitution for article 17H—see section 43.]


Article 17I. Grounds for refusing recognition or enforcement***

(1) Recognition or enforcement of an interim measure may be refused only:

(a) At the request of the party against whom it is invoked if the court is satisfied that:
(i) Such refusal is warranted on the grounds set forth in article 36(1)(a)(i), (ii), (iii) or (iv); or
(ii) The arbitral tribunal’s decision with respect to the provision of security in connection with the

interim measure issued by the arbitral tribunal has not been complied with; or
(iii) The interim measure has been terminated or suspended by the arbitral tribunal or, where so

empowered, by the court of the State in which the arbitration takes place or under the law of which that
interim measure was granted; or

(b) If the court finds that:
(i) The interim measure is incompatible with the powers conferred upon the court unless the court decides

to reformulate the interim measure to the extent necessary to adapt it to its own powers and procedures
for the purposes of enforcing that interim measure and without modifying its substance; or

(ii) Any of the grounds set forth in article 36(1)(b)(i) or (ii), apply to the recognition and enforcement of
the interim measure.


(2) Any determination made by the court on any ground in paragraph (1) of this article shall be effective only for the
purposes of the application to recognize and enforce the interim measure. The court where recognition or enforcement
is sought shall not, in making that determination, undertake a review of the substance of the interim measure.

[Note: Article 17I does not have effect—see section 44.]


Section 5. Court-ordered interim measures


Article 17J. Court-ordered interim measures


A court shall have the same power of issuing an interim measure in relation to arbitration proceedings, irrespective of
whether their place is in the territory of this State, as it has in relation to proceedings in courts. The court shall exercise
such power in accordance with its own procedures in consideration of the specific features of international arbitration.

[Note: Article 17J does not have effect—see section 45.]


CHAPTER V. CONDUCT OF ARBITRAL PROCEEDINGS



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 50


Article 18. Equal treatment of parties


The parties shall be treated with equality and each party shall be given a full opportunity of presenting his case.

[Note: Section 46(2) and (3) has effect in substitution for article 18—see section 46.]


Article 19. Determination of rules of procedure

(1) Subject to the provisions of this Law, the parties are free to agree on the procedure to be followed by the arbitral
tribunal in conducting the proceedings.

(2) Failing such agreement, the arbitral tribunal may, subject to the provisions of this Law, conduct the arbitration in
such manner as it considers appropriate. The power conferred upon the arbitral tribunal includes the power to
determine the admissibility, relevance, materiality and weight of any evidence.

[Note: Article 19(2) is not applicable—see section 47.]


Article 20. Place of arbitration

(1) The parties are free to agree on the place of arbitration. Failing such agreement, the place of arbitration shall be
determined by the arbitral tribunal having regard to the circumstances of the case, including the convenience of the
parties.

(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of this article, the arbitral tribunal may, unless otherwise agreed
by the parties, meet at any place it considers appropriate for consultation among its members, for hearing witnesses,
experts or the parties, or for inspection of goods, other property or documents.

[Note: See section 48.]


Article 21. Commencement of arbitral proceedings

Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the arbitral proceedings in respect of a particular dispute commence on the
date on which a request for that dispute to be referred to arbitration is received by the respondent.

[Note: See section 49.]


Article 22. Language


(1) The parties are free to agree on the language or languages to be used in the arbitral proceedings. Failing such
agreement, the arbitral tribunal shall determine the language or languages to be used in the proceedings. This
agreement or determination, unless otherwise specified therein, shall apply to any written statement by a party, any
hearing and any award, decision or other communication by the arbitral tribunal.

(2) The arbitral tribunal may order that any documentary evidence shall be accompanied by a translation into the
language or languages agreed upon by the parties or determined by the arbitral tribunal.

[Note: See section 50.]


Article 23. Statements of claim and defence


(1) Within the period of time agreed by the parties or determined by the arbitral tribunal, the claimant shall state the
facts supporting his claim, the points at issue and the relief or remedy sought, and the respondent shall state his
defence in respect of these particulars, unless the parties have otherwise agreed as to the required elements of such
statements. The parties may submit with their statements all documents they consider to be relevant or may add a



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 51

reference to the documents or other evidence they will submit.

(2) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, either party may amend or supplement his claim or defence during the
course of the arbitral proceedings, unless the arbitral tribunal considers it inappropriate to allow such amendment
having regard to the delay in making it.

[Note: See section 51.]


Article 24. Hearings and written proceedings

(1) Subject to any contrary agreement by the parties, the arbitral tribunal shall decide whether to hold oral hearings
for the presentation of evidence or for oral argument, or whether the proceedings shall be conducted on the basis of
documents and other materials. However, unless the parties have agreed that no hearings shall be held, the arbitral
tribunal shall hold such hearings at an appropriate stage of the proceedings, if so requested by a party.

(2) The parties shall be given sufficient advance notice of any hearing and of any meeting of the arbitral tribunal for
the purposes of inspection of goods, other property or documents.

(3) All statements, documents or other information supplied to the arbitral tribunal by one party shall be
communicated to the other party. Also any expert report or evidentiary document on which the arbitral tribunal may
rely in making its decision shall be communicated to the parties.

[Note: See section 52.]


Article 25. Default of a party

Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, if, without showing sufficient cause,

(a) the claimant fails to communicate his statement of claim in accordance with article 23(1), the arbitral
tribunal shall terminate the proceedings;

(b) the respondent fails to communicate his statement of defence in accordance with article 23(1), the arbitral
tribunal shall continue the proceedings without treating such failure in itself as an admission of the claimant’s
allegations;

(c) any party fails to appear at a hearing or to produce documentary evidence, the arbitral tribunal may continue
the proceedings and make the award on the evidence before it.


[Note: See section 53.]


Article 26. Expert appointed by arbitral tribunal

(1) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the arbitral tribunal

(a) may appoint one or more experts to report to it on specific issues to be determined by the arbitral tribunal;
(b) may require a party to give the expert any relevant information or to produce, or to provide access to, any

relevant documents, goods or other property for his inspection.
(2) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, if a party so requests or if the arbitral tribunal considers it necessary, the
expert shall, after delivery of his written or oral report, participate in a hearing where the parties have the opportunity
to put questions to him and to present expert witnesses in order to testify on the points at issue.

[Note: See section 54.]


Article 27. Court assistance in taking evidence

The arbitral tribunal or a party with the approval of the arbitral tribunal may request from a competent court of this
State assistance in taking evidence. The court may execute the request within its competence and according to its rules
on taking evidence.




Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 52

[Note: See section 55.]


CHAPTER VI. MAKING OF AWARD AND TERMINATION
OF PROCEEDINGS


Article 28. Rules applicable to substance of dispute


(1) The arbitral tribunal shall decide the dispute in accordance with such rules of law as are chosen by the parties as
applicable to the substance of the dispute. Any designation of the law or legal system of a given State shall be
construed, unless otherwise expressed, as directly referring to the substantive law of that State and not to its conflict of
laws rules.

(2) Failing any designation by the parties, the arbitral tribunal shall apply the law determined by the conflict of laws
rules which it considers applicable.

(3) The arbitral tribunal shall decide ex aequo et bono or as amiable compositeur only if the parties have expressly
authorized it to do so.

(4) In all cases, the arbitral tribunal shall decide in accordance with the terms of the contract and shall take into
account the usages of the trade applicable to the transaction.

[Note: See section 64.]


Article 29. Decision-making by panel of arbitrators

In arbitral proceedings with more than one arbitrator, any decision of the arbitral tribunal shall be made, unless
otherwise agreed by the parties, by a majority of all its members. However, questions of procedure may be decided by
a presiding arbitrator, if so authorized by the parties or all members of the arbitral tribunal.

[Note: See section 65.]


Article 30. Settlement


(1) If, during arbitral proceedings, the parties settle the dispute, the arbitral tribunal shall terminate the proceedings
and, if requested by the parties and not objected to by the arbitral tribunal, record the settlement in the form of an
arbitral award on agreed terms.

(2) An award on agreed terms shall be made in accordance with the provisions of article 31 and shall state that it is
an award. Such an award has the same status and effect as any other award on the merits of the case.

[Note: See section 66.]

Article 31. Form and contents of award

(1) The award shall be made in writing and shall be signed by the arbitrator or arbitrators. In arbitral proceedings
with more than one arbitrator, the signatures of the majority of all members of the arbitral tribunal shall suffice,
provided that the reason for any omitted signature is stated.

(2) The award shall state the reasons upon which it is based, unless the parties have agreed that no reasons are to be
given or the award is an award on agreed terms under article 30.

(3) The award shall state its date and the place of arbitration as determined in accordance with article 20(1). The
award shall be deemed to have been made at that place.

(4) After the award is made, a copy signed by the arbitrators in accordance with paragraph (1) of this article shall be
delivered to each party.



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 53


[Note: See section 67.]


Article 32. Termination of proceedings

(1) The arbitral proceedings are terminated by the final award or by an order of the arbitral tribunal in accordance
with paragraph (2) of this article.

(2) The arbitral tribunal shall issue an order for the termination of the arbitral proceedings when:

(a) the claimant withdraws his claim, unless the respondent objects thereto and the arbitral tribunal recognizes a
legitimate interest on his part in obtaining a final settlement of the dispute;

(b) the parties agree on the termination of the proceedings;
(c) the arbitral tribunal finds that the continuation of the proceedings has for any other reason become

unnecessary or impossible.

(3) The mandate of the arbitral tribunal terminates with the termination of the arbitral proceedings, subject to the
provisions of articles 33 and 34(4).

[Note: See section 68.]


Article 33. Correction and interpretation of award;
additional award


(1) Within thirty days of receipt of the award, unless another period of time has been agreed upon by the parties:

(a) a party, with notice to the other party, may request the arbitral tribunal to correct in the award any errors in
computation, any clerical or typographical errors or any errors of similar nature;

(b) if so agreed by the parties, a party, with notice to the other party, may request the arbitral tribunal to give an
interpretation of a specific point or part of the award.


If the arbitral tribunal considers the request to be justified, it shall make the correction or give the interpretation within
thirty days of receipt of the request. The interpretation shall form part of the award.

(2) The arbitral tribunal may correct any error of the type referred to in paragraph (1)(a) of this article on its own
initiative within thirty days of the date of the award.

(3) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, a party, with notice to the other party, may request, within thirty days of
receipt of the award, the arbitral tribunal to make an additional award as to claims presented in the arbitral proceedings
but omitted from the award. If the arbitral tribunal considers the request to be justified, it shall make the additional
award within sixty days.

(4) The arbitral tribunal may extend, if necessary, the period of time within which it shall make a correction,
interpretation or an additional award under paragraph (1) or (3) of this article.

(5) The provisions of article 31 shall apply to a correction or interpretation of the award or to an additional award.

[Note: See section 69.]


CHAPTER VII. RECOURSE AGAINST AWARD


Article 34. Application for setting aside as exclusive recourse
against arbitral award


(1) Recourse to a court against an arbitral award may be made only by an application for setting aside in accordance
with paragraphs (2) and (3) of this article.




Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 54

(2) An arbitral award may be set aside by the court specified in article 6 only if:
(a) the party making the application furnishes proof that:

(i) a party to the arbitration agreement referred to in article 7 was under some incapacity; or the said
agreement is not valid under the law to which the parties have subjected it or, failing any indication
thereon, under the law of this State; or

(ii) the party making the application was not given proper notice of the appointment of an arbitrator or of
the arbitral proceedings or was otherwise unable to present his case; or

(iii) the award deals with a dispute not contemplated by or not falling within the terms of the submission to
arbitration, or contains decisions on matters beyond the scope of the submission to arbitration,
provided that, if the decisions on matters submitted to arbitration can be separated from those not so
submitted, only that part of the award which contains decisions on matters not submitted to arbitration
may be set aside; or

(iv) the composition of the arbitral tribunal or the arbitral procedure was not in accordance with the
agreement of the parties, unless such agreement was in conflict with a provision of this Law from
which the parties cannot derogate, or, failing such agreement, was not in accordance with this Law; or

(b) the court finds that:
(i) the subject-matter of the dispute is not capable of settlement by arbitration under the law of this State;

or
(ii) the award is in conflict with the public policy of this State.


(3) An application for setting aside may not be made after three months have elapsed from the date on which the
party making that application had received the award or, if a request had been made under article 33, from the date on
which that request had been disposed of by the arbitral tribunal.

(4) The court, when asked to set aside an award, may, where appropriate and so requested by a party, suspend the
setting aside proceedings for a period of time determined by it in order to give the arbitral tribunal an opportunity to
resume the arbitral proceedings or to take such other action as in the arbitral tribunal’s opinion will eliminate the
grounds for setting aside.

[Note: See section 81.]


CHAPTER VIII. RECOGNITION AND ENFORCEMENT OF AWARDS


Article 35. Recognition and enforcement

(1) An arbitral award, irrespective of the country in which it was made, shall be recognized as binding and, upon
application in writing to the competent court, shall be enforced subject to the provisions of this article and of article
36.

(2) The party relying on an award or applying for its enforcement shall supply the original award or a copy thereof. If
the award is not made in an official language of this State, the court may request the party to supply a translation
thereof into such language.****
(Article 35(2) has been amended by the Commission at its thirty-ninth session, in 2006)

[Note: Article 35 does not have effect—see section 82.]


Article 36. Grounds for refusing recognition or enforcement

(1) Recognition or enforcement of an arbitral award, irrespective of the country in which it was made, may be
refused only:

(a) at the request of the party against whom it is invoked, if that party furnishes to the competent court where
recognition or enforcement is sought proof that:

(i) a party to the arbitration agreement referred to in article 7 was under some incapacity; or the said
agreement is not valid under the law to which the parties have subjected it or, failing any indication
thereon, under the law of the country where the award was made; or



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 55

(ii) the party against whom the award is invoked was not given proper notice of the appointment of an
arbitrator or of the arbitral proceedings or was otherwise unable to present his case; or

(iii) the award deals with a dispute not contemplated by or not falling within the terms of the submission to
arbitration, or it contains decisions on matters beyond the scope of the submission to arbitration,
provided that, if the decisions on matters submitted to arbitration can be separated from those not so
submitted, that part of the award which contains decisions on matters submitted to arbitration may be
recognized and enforced; or

(iv) the composition of the arbitral tribunal or the arbitral procedure was not in accordance with the
agreement of the parties or, failing such agreement, was not in accordance with the law of the country
where the arbitration took place; or

(v) the award has not yet become binding on the parties or has been set aside or suspended by a court of the
country in which, or under the law of which, that award was made; or

(b) if the court finds that:
(i) the subject-matter of the dispute is not capable of settlement by arbitration under the law of this State;

or
(ii) the recognition or enforcement of the award would be contrary to the public policy of this State.


(2) If an application for setting aside or suspension of an award has been made to a court referred to in paragraph
(1)(a)(v) of this article, the court where recognition or enforcement is sought may, if it considers it proper, adjourn its
decision and may also, on the application of the party claiming recognition or enforcement of the award, order the
other party to provide appropriate security.

[Note: Article 36 does not have effect—see section 83.]
___________________________________________
* Article headings are for reference purposes only and are not to be used for purposes of interpretation.

** The term “commercial” should be given a wide interpretation so as to cover matters arising from all
relationships of a commercial nature, whether contractual or not. Relationships of a commercial nature include, but are
not limited to, the following transactions: any trade transaction for the supply or exchange of goods or services;
distribution agreement; commercial representation or agency; factoring; leasing; construction of works; consulting;
engineering; licensing; investment; financing; banking; insurance; exploitation agreement or concession; joint venture
and other forms of industrial or business cooperation; carriage of goods or passengers by air, sea, rail or road.

*** The conditions set forth in article 17I are intended to limit the number of circumstances in which the court may
refuse to enforce an interim measure. It would not be contrary to the level of harmonization sought to be achieved by
these model provisions if a State were to adopt fewer circumstances in which enforcement may be refused.

**** The conditions set forth in this paragraph are intended to set maximum standards. It would, thus, not be contrary
to the harmonization to be achieved by the model law if a State retained even less onerous conditions.

Note: The full text of the UNCITRAL Model Law is reproduced in this Schedule for information only. Provisions

which are not applicable under this Ordinance are underlined. A note is added after each article to indicate the
provision in this Ordinance which makes direct reference to that article. However, substituting provisions and
other supplemental provisions to which the UNCITRAL Model Law are subject have not been shown in this
Schedule. Reference has to be made therefore to this Ordinance which determines the extent to which the
UNCITRAL Model Law applies.


Schedule: 2 Provisions that may be Expressly Opted for or

Automatically Apply
E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015



[sections 2, 5, 23, 73, 81,
99, 100, 101 & 102]


1. Sole arbitrator



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 56


If the parties to an arbitration agreement fail to agree on the number of arbitrators, any dispute arising between
the parties is to be submitted to a sole arbitrator for arbitration.

(Amended 11 of 2015 s. 6)

2. Consolidation of arbitrations


(1) If, in relation to 2 or more arbitral proceedings, it appears to the Court—
(a) that a common question of law or fact arises in both or all of them;
(b) that the rights to relief claimed in those arbitral proceedings are in respect of or arise out of the same

transaction or series of transactions; or
(c) that for any other reason it is desirable to make an order under this section,
the Court may, on the application of any party to those arbitral proceedings—
(d) order those arbitral proceedings—

(i) to be consolidated on such terms as it thinks just; or
(ii) to be heard at the same time or one immediately after another; or

(e) order any of those arbitral proceedings to be stayed until after the determination of any other of them.
(2) If the Court orders arbitral proceedings to be consolidated under subsection (1)(d)(i) or to be heard at the

same time or one immediately after another under subsection (1)(d)(ii), the Court has the power—
(a) to make consequential directions as to the payment of costs in those arbitral proceedings; and
(b) if—

(i) all parties to those arbitral proceedings are in agreement as to the choice of arbitrator for those
arbitral proceedings, to appoint that arbitrator; or

(ii) the parties cannot agree as to the choice of arbitrator for those arbitral proceedings, to appoint an
arbitrator for those arbitral proceedings (and, in the case of arbitral proceedings to be heard at the
same time or one immediately after another, to appoint the same arbitrator for those arbitral
proceedings).

(3) If the Court makes an appointment of an arbitrator under subsection (2) for the arbitral proceedings to be
consolidated or to be heard at the same time or one immediately after another, any appointment of any other
arbitrator that has been made for any of those arbitral proceedings ceases to have effect for all purposes on
and from the appointment under subsection (2).

(4) The arbitral tribunal hearing the arbitral proceedings that are consolidated under subsection (1)(d)(i) has the
power under sections 74 and 75 in relation to the costs of those arbitral proceedings.

(5) If 2 or more arbitral proceedings are heard at the same time or one immediately after another under
subsection (1)(d)(ii), the arbitral tribunal—
(a) has the power under sections 74 and 75 only in relation to the costs of those arbitral proceedings that

are heard by it; and
(b) accordingly, does not have the power to order a party to any of those arbitral proceedings that are

heard at the same time or one immediately after another to pay the costs of a party to any other of those
proceedings unless the arbitral tribunal is the same tribunal hearing all of those arbitral proceedings.

(6) An order, direction or decision of the Court under this section is not subject to appeal.

3. Decision of preliminary question of law by Court


(1) The Court may, on the application of any party to arbitral proceedings, decide any question of law arising in
the course of the arbitral proceedings.

(2) An application under subsection (1) may not be made except—
(a) with the agreement in writing of all the other parties to the arbitral proceedings; or
(b) with the permission in writing of the arbitral tribunal.

(3) The application must—
(a) identify the question of law to be decided; and
(b) state the grounds on which it is said that the question should be decided by the Court.

(4) The Court must not entertain an application under subsection (1) unless it is satisfied that the decision of the
question of law might produce substantial savings in costs to the parties.



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 57

(5) The leave of the Court or the Court of Appeal is required for any appeal from a decision of the Court under
subsection (1).


4. Challenging arbitral award on ground of serious irregularity


(1) A party to arbitral proceedings may apply to the Court challenging an award in the arbitral proceedings on

the ground of serious irregularity affecting the tribunal, the arbitral proceedings or the award.
(2) Serious irregularity means an irregularity of one or more of the following kinds which the Court considers

has caused or will cause substantial injustice to the applicant—
(a) failure by the arbitral tribunal to comply with section 46;
(b) the arbitral tribunal exceeding its powers (otherwise than by exceeding its jurisdiction);
(c) failure by the arbitral tribunal to conduct the arbitral proceedings in accordance with the procedure

agreed by the parties;
(d) failure by the arbitral tribunal to deal with all the issues that were put to it;
(e) any arbitral or other institution or person vested by the parties with powers in relation to the arbitral

proceedings or the award exceeding its powers;
(f) failure by the arbitral tribunal to give, under section 69, an interpretation of the award the effect of

which is uncertain or ambiguous;
(g) the award being obtained by fraud, or the award or the way in which it was procured being contrary to

public policy;
(h) failure to comply with the requirements as to the form of the award; or
(i) any irregularity in the conduct of the arbitral proceedings, or in the award which is admitted by the

arbitral tribunal or by any arbitral or other institution or person vested by the parties with powers in
relation to the arbitral proceedings or the award.

(3) If there is shown to be serious irregularity affecting the arbitral tribunal, the arbitral proceedings or the
award, the Court may by order—
(a) remit the award to the arbitral tribunal, in whole or in part, for reconsideration;
(b) set aside the award, in whole or in part; or
(c) declare the award to be of no effect, in whole or in part.

(4) If the award is remitted to the arbitral tribunal, in whole or in part, for reconsideration, the tribunal must
make a fresh award in respect of the matters remitted—
(a) within 3 months of the date of the order for remission; or
(b) within a longer or shorter period that the Court may direct.

(5) The Court must not exercise its power to set aside an award or to declare an award to be of no effect, in
whole or in part, unless it is satisfied that it would be inappropriate to remit the matters in question to the
arbitral tribunal for reconsideration.

(6) The leave of the Court or the Court of Appeal is required for any appeal from a decision, order or direction
of the Court under this section.

(7) Section 7 of this Schedule also applies to an application or appeal under this section.

5. Appeal against arbitral award on question of law


(1) Subject to section 6 of this Schedule, a party to arbitral proceedings may appeal to the Court on a question
of law arising out of an award made in the arbitral proceedings.

(2) An agreement to dispense with the reasons for an arbitral tribunal’s award is to be treated as an agreement
to exclude the Court’s jurisdiction under this section.

(3) The Court must decide the question of law which is the subject of the appeal on the basis of the findings of
fact in the award.

(4) The Court must not consider any of the criteria set out in section 6(4)(c)(i) or (ii) of this Schedule when it
decides the question of law under subsection (3).

(5) On hearing an appeal under this section, the Court may by order—
(a) confirm the award;
(b) vary the award;
(c) remit the award to the arbitral tribunal, in whole or in part, for reconsideration in the light of the



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 58

Court’s decision; or
(d) set aside the award, in whole or in part.

(6) If the award is remitted to the arbitral tribunal, in whole or in part, for reconsideration, the tribunal must
make a fresh award in respect of the matters remitted—
(a) within 3 months of the date of the order for remission; or
(b) within a longer or shorter period that the Court may direct.

(7) The Court must not exercise its power to set aside an award, in whole or in part, unless it is satisfied that it
would be inappropriate to remit the matters in question to the arbitral tribunal for reconsideration.

(8) The leave of the Court or the Court of Appeal is required for any further appeal from an order of the Court
under subsection (5).

(9) Leave to further appeal must not be granted unless—
(a) the question is one of general importance; or
(b) the question is one which, for some other special reason, should be considered by the Court of Appeal.

(10) Sections 6 and 7 of this Schedule also apply to an appeal or further appeal under this section.

6. Application for leave to appeal against arbitral award on question of law


(1) An appeal under section 5 of this Schedule on a question of law may not be brought by a party to arbitral
proceedings except—
(a) with the agreement of all the other parties to the arbitral proceedings; or
(b) with the leave of the Court.

(2) An application for leave to appeal must—
(a) identify the question of law to be decided; and
(b) state the grounds on which it is said that leave to appeal should be granted.

(3) The Court must determine an application for leave to appeal without a hearing unless it appears to the Court
that a hearing is required.

(4) Leave to appeal is to be granted only if the Court is satisfied—
(a) that the decision of the question will substantially affect the rights of one or more of the parties;
(b) that the question is one which the arbitral tribunal was asked to decide; and
(c) that, on the basis of the findings of fact in the award—

(i) the decision of the arbitral tribunal on the question is obviously wrong; or
(ii) the question is one of general importance and the decision of the arbitral tribunal is at least open

to serious doubt.
(5) The leave of the Court or the Court of Appeal is required for any appeal from a decision of the Court to

grant or refuse leave to appeal.
(6) Leave to appeal from such a decision of the Court must not be granted unless—

(a) the question is one of general importance; or
(b) the question is one which, for some other special reason, should be considered by the Court.


7. Supplementary provisions on challenge to or appeal against arbitral award

(1) An application or appeal under section 4, 5 or 6 of this Schedule may not be brought if the applicant or

appellant has not first exhausted—
(a) any available recourse under section 69; and
(b) any available arbitral process of appeal or review.

(2) If, on an application or appeal, it appears to the Court that the award—
(a) does not contain the arbitral tribunal’s reasons for the award; or
(b) does not set out the arbitral tribunal’s reasons for the award in sufficient detail to enable the Court

properly to consider the application or appeal,
the Court may order the tribunal to state the reasons for the award in sufficient detail for that purpose.

(3) If the Court makes an order under subsection (2), it may make a further order that it thinks fit with respect
to any additional costs of the arbitration resulting from its order.

(4) The Court—



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 59

(a) may order the applicant or appellant to give security for the costs of the application or appeal; and
(b) may, if the order is not complied with, direct that the application or appeal is to be dismissed.

(5) The power to order security for costs must not be exercised only on the ground that the applicant or
appellant is—
(a) a natural person who is ordinarily resident outside Hong Kong;
(b) a body corporate—

(i) incorporated under the law of a place outside Hong Kong; or
(ii) the central management and control of which is exercised outside Hong Kong; or

(c) an association—
(i) formed under the law of a place outside Hong Kong; or
(ii) the central management and control of which is exercised outside Hong Kong.

(6) The Court—
(a) may order that any money payable under the award is to be paid into the Court or otherwise secured

pending the determination of the application or appeal; and
(b) may, if the order is not complied with, direct that the application or appeal is to be dismissed.

(7) The Court or the Court of Appeal may impose conditions to the same or similar effect as an order under
subsection (4) or (6) on granting leave to appeal under section 4, 5 or 6 of this Schedule.

(8) Subsection (7) does not affect the general discretion of the Court or the Court of Appeal to grant leave
subject to conditions.

(9) An order, direction or decision of the Court or the Court of Appeal under this section is not subject to
appeal.

(Format changes—E.R. 3 of 2015)

Schedule: 3 Savings and Transitional Provisions E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015


[section 111]


Part 1


Savings and Transitional Provisions Relating to Commencement of this Ordinance
(Added 11 of 2015 s. 7)


1. Conduct of arbitral and related proceedings


(1) If an arbitration—

(a) has commenced under article 21 of the UNCITRAL Model Law as defined in section 2(1) of the
repealed Ordinance before the commencement of this Ordinance; or

(b) has been deemed to be commenced under section 31(1) of the repealed Ordinance before the
commencement of this Ordinance,

that arbitration and all related proceedings, including (where the award made in that arbitration has been set
aside) arbitral proceedings resumed after the setting aside of the award, are to be governed by the repealed
Ordinance as if this Ordinance had not been enacted.

(2) If an arbitration has commenced under any other Ordinance amended by this Ordinance before the
commencement of this Ordinance, that arbitration and all related proceedings, including (where the award
made in that arbitration has been set aside) arbitral proceedings resumed after the setting aside of the award,
are to be governed by that other Ordinance in force immediately before the commencement of this
Ordinance as if this Ordinance had not been enacted.


2. Appointment of arbitrators


(1) Subject to subsection (2), the appointment of an arbitrator made before the commencement of this

Ordinance is, after the commencement of this Ordinance, to continue to have effect as if this Ordinance had
not been enacted.

(2) The enactment of this Ordinance does not revive the appointment of any arbitrator whose mandate has



Cap 609 - Arbitration Ordinance 60

terminated before the commencement of this Ordinance.


3. Settlement agreements


If the parties to an arbitration agreement have entered into a settlement agreement under section 2C of the
repealed Ordinance before the commencement of this Ordinance, that settlement agreement may be enforced in
accordance with that section as if this Ordinance had not been enacted.


4. Appointment of members of the Appointment Advisory Board


The appointment of a member of the Appointment Advisory Board established under rule 3 of the Arbitration
(Appointment of Arbitrators and Umpires) Rules (Cap 341 sub. leg. B)* made before the commencement of this
Ordinance is, after the commencement of this Ordinance, to continue to have effect until the expiry of the term
of that appointment as if this Ordinance had not been enacted.


Part 2


Savings and Transitional Provisions Relating to Commencement of Arbitration (Amendment) Ordinance 2015

1. Conduct of arbitral and related proceedings


(1) If an arbitration has commenced under article 21 of the UNCITRAL Model Law before the commencement
date, that arbitration and all related proceedings are to be governed by the pre-amended Ordinance as if the
Arbitration (Amendment) Ordinance 2015 (11 of 2015) had not been enacted.

(2) In subsection (1)—
all related proceedings (所有相關程序) includes arbitral proceedings resumed after the setting aside of the

award made in the arbitration;
article 21 of the UNCITRAL Model Law (《貿法委示範法》第21條) means article 21 of the UNCITRAL

Model Law as given effect to by section 49(1);
#commencement date (生效日期) means the day on which the Arbitration (Amendment) Ordinance 2015 (11

of 2015) comes into operation;
pre-amended Ordinance (《原本條例》 ) means this Ordinance as in force immediately before the

commencement date.
(Part 2 added 11 of 2015 s. 7)

(Format changes—E.R. 3 of 2015)
________________________________________________________________________________
Note:
* Now Cap 609 sub. leg. B

# Commencement date: 17 July 2015.

Schedule: 4 (Omitted as spent—E.R. 3 of 2015) E.R. 3 of 2015 12/11/2015

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