Chapter 63:01 - Maritime Zones

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L.R.O. 1/2012
LAWS OF GUYANA
MARITIME ZONES ACT
CHAPTER 63:01
Act
18 of 2010
1 – 39 ... 1/2012 (inclusive) by L.R.O.
Pages Authorised
Current Authorised Pages
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Note
on
Subsidiary Legislation
This Chapter contains no subsidiary legislation.
Note
on
Repeal

This Act repealed the Maritime Boundaries Act 1977, No. 10 of 1977.
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CHAPTER 63:01
MARITIME ZONES ACT
ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS
SECTION
PART 1
PRELIMINARY

1. Short title and commencement.
2. Interpretation.
PART II
TERRITORIAL SEA

3. Limits of the territorial sea.
4. Rights over the territorial sea.
5. Baselines of the territorial sea.
6. Low-water line.
PART III
INTERNAL WATERS
7. Limits of the internal waters.
8. Rights over the internal waters.
9. Closing lines.
PART IV
INNOCENT PASSAGE
10. Right of innocent passage in the territorial sea.
11. Regulating innocent passage.
12. Non-innocent passage.
13. Security measures.
14. Foreign vessels carrying nuclear or other hazardous wastes.
15. Discharge of harmful substances and hazardous wastes.
16. Law applicable to rights of hot pursuit.

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SECTION
PART V
THE CONTIGUOUS ZONE
17. Limits of the contiguous zone.
18. Grounds for denial of entry into Guyana.
19. Commission of offences in the contiguous zone.
PART VI
THE CONTINENTAL SHELF
20. Limits of the continental shelf.
21. Rights in the continental shelf.
22. Licence or authority to explore or exploit resources.
23. Declaration of designated area.
24. Submarine cables and pipelines in the continental shelf.
25. Exercise of jurisdiction in the continental shelf.
PART VII
THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE
26. Limits of the exclusive economic zone.
27. Rights in the exclusive economic zone.
28. Rights of navigation and over flight.
29. Licence or authority to explore or exploit resources in the exclusive
economic zone.
30. Declaration of designated areas in the exclusive economic zone.
31. Exercise of jurisdiction in the exclusive economic zone.
32. Extension of norms to the exclusive economic zone.
33. Application of other rights not provided in this Act.
PART VIII
DELIMITATION OF MARITIME BOUNDARIES

34. Delimitation of the boundaries of the territorial sea.
35. Delimitation of the boundaries of the continental shelf and the exclusive
economic zone.
36. Settlement of disputes.
37. Publication of agreement.
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SECTION
PART IX
CHARTS AND GEOGRAPHICAL COORDINATES
38. Preparation of charts and geographical coordinates.
39. Publication of charts and list of geographical coordinates.
40. Evidence of charts or lists of geographical coordinates.
PART X
MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
41. Regulation of marine scientific research in the maritime zones.
PART XI
MARITIME CULTURAL AREA
42. Limits of the maritime cultural area.
43. Rights in the maritime cultural area.
44. Underwater cultural heritage.
PART XII
ECO-TOURISM, MARINE PARKS AND RESERVES AND
MARICULTURE
45. Eco-tourism, marine parks and reserves and mariculture operations.
46. Designated areas for eco-tourism, marine parks and reserves and
mariculture operations.
47. Establishment and regulation of eco-tourism, marine parks and reserves
and mariculture operations.
PART XIII
THE PROTECTION AND PRESERVATION OF THE MARINE
ENVIROMENT
48. Regulations for the protection and preservation of the marine
environment.
49. Measures to protect marine environment.

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SECTION
PART XIV
GENERAL
50. Maritime safety and security in the maritime zones.
51. Sovereign rights of self defence in the maritime zones.
52. Power to make subsidiary legislation.
53. Order to extend law.
54. Amendments and savings.
55. Repeal.
SCHEDULE – Amended Laws

__________________________
CHAPTER 63:01
MARITIME ZONES ACT
18 of 2010 An Act to repeal and replace the Maritime Boundaries Act
1977, to incorporate certain provisions of the United
Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and the
UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the
Underwater Cultural Heritage 2001, to provide for
marine scientific research, maritime cultural area, eco-
tourism, marine parks and reserves and mariculture,
the protection and preservation of the marine
environment and for related matters.

[16TH SEPTEMBER, 2010]
Short title.
PART 1
PRELIMINARY

1. This Act may be cited as the Maritime Zones Act.


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Interpretation.
2. In this Act –
(a) “artificial island” means any man made extension of the
seabed or a feature, whether or not the extension
breaks the surface of the superjacent waters;
(b) “baselines” means the baselines of the territorial sea
determined in accordance with section 5;
(c) “continental shelf” means the continental shelf of
Guyana as defined in section 20(1);
(d) “continental margin” means the continental margin of
Guyana as defined in section 20(3);
(e) “Convention” means the United Nations Convention on
the Law of the Sea signed on 10 December 1982, at
Montego Bay, Jamaica;
(f) “exclusive economic zone” means the exclusive economic
zone of Guyana established under section 26(1);
(g) “high seas” has the same meaning assigned to it in the
Convention;
(h) “installations” includes –
(i) a moored vessel;
(ii) a communication cable;
(iii) an oil pipeline;
(iv) a military surveillance installation;
(v) a pipeline which is used for the transfer of any
substance to or from a vessel, a research,
exploration or production platform, or the
coast of Guyana;
(vi) an exploration or production platform used in
the prospecting for or mining of any
substance;
(vii) an exploration or production vessel used in the
prospecting for or mining of any substance;
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(viii) a telecommunications line as defined in section
1 of the Posts and Telecommunications Act;
(ix) a vessel or equipment used for the exploration
or exploitation of the seabed;
(x) an area situated within the distance of 500
metres measured from any point on the
exterior side of an installation referred to in
subparagraph (i) or (ii) other than a pipeline;
(xi) an area situated under or above an installation
referred to in subparagraph (i) or (ii); or
(xii) any other structure whether permanent or
temporary within the maritime zone, which is
being or intended to be used for or in
connection with the exploration and
exploitation and conservation and
management of the natural resources;
(i) “internal waters” means the internal waters of Guyana as
defined in section 7;
(j) “island” means a naturally formed area of land,
surrounded by water, which is above water at
high tide;
(k) “lowest astronomical tide” means the mean height of
high water as marked on large scale maps
recognised by the Government;
(l) “maritime zones” means the internal waters, territorial
sea, contiguous zone, the continental shelf and the
exclusive economic zone;
(m) “master” includes every person lawfully having for the
time being, command or charge of any vessel or
submarine;
(n) “miles” means international nautical miles of 1,852
metres each;
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(o) “Minister” means the Minister of Foreign Affairs, unless
otherwise indicated;
(p) “natural resources” has the same meaning as assigned
to it under the Environmental Protection Act
1996;
(q) “nautical miles” has the same meaning as “miles”;
(r) “resources” means the living and non-living resources of
the seabed and its subsoil, and of the waters
superjacent to the seabed; as well as resources for
the production of energy from tides, currents and
winds;
(s) “right of innocent passage” means the right of innocent
passage referred to in section 10;
(t) “sea” means the water of the sea, as well as the seabed
and its subsoil;
(u) “submarine” includes any underwater vessel however
propelled;
(v) “straight line” means the shortest distance between two
points on a surface;
(w) “territorial sea” means the territorial sea of Guyana
referred to in section 3;
(x) “UNESCO” means the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organisation;
(y) “UNESCO Convention” means the UNESCO Convention
on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural
Heritage 2001;
(z) “vessel” includes ship, boat or any other mode of water
transport employed in navigation but does not
include a foreign warship;
(aa) “waste” includes any matter prescribed to be waste and
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any matter, whether liquid, solid, gaseous or
radioactive, which is discharged, emitted or
deposited in the environment in such volume,
composition or manner as to cause an adverse
effect.

Limits of the
territorial sea.
Rights over the
territorial sea.
Baselines of the
territorial sea.

Low-water
line.
PART II
TERRITORIAL SEA
3. (1) The territorial sea comprises those areas of the
sea having as their inner limits the baselines referred to in
section 5 and as their outer limits a line measured from the
baselines, every point of which is twelve nautical miles from
the nearest point of the baselines.
(2) For the purpose of delimiting the territorial sea,
the outermost permanent harbour works which form an
integral part of any harbour system shall be treated as
forming part of the coast, but for that purpose offshore
installations and artificial islands shall not be considered as
permanent harbour works.

4. (1) The sovereignty of Guyana extends to the
territorial sea, the seabed and its subsoil under and the
airspace over that sea.
(2) Guyana, in the exercise of its sovereignty, has
exclusive jurisdiction over the territorial sea subject to
international law and the Convention.
5. The baselines from which the territorial sea shall
be measured shall be the low-water line along the coast and,
where the coast line is broken by a river, a straight line
joining the two points where the low-water line on the coast
ends on either side of the river.

6. For the purposes of section 5, the low-water line
in any specified area is the lowest astronomical tide level on
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the coast of Guyana that can be predicted to occur under
average meteorological conditions and under any
combination of astronomical conditions.

Limits of the
internal waters.
Rights over the
internal waters.
Closing lines.
PART III
INTERNAL WATERS

7. The internal waters comprise –
(a) the areas of the sea that are on the landward
side of the baselines which form the inner
limits of the territorial sea; and
(b) all rivers, bays, historic bays, ports, harbours
and waters lying landward of the baselines.
8. (1) The sovereignty of Guyana extends beyond its
land territory to the internal waters, the seabed and its
subsoil under and the air space over the internal waters.
(2) Guyana, in the exercise of its sovereignty, has
exclusive jurisdiction over the internal waters.

9. (1) The Minister in consultation with the Minister
responsible for lands and surveys may, by regulations,
prescribe closing lines to delimit internal waters.
(2) In this section, “closing lines” means the straight
lines, drawn in accordance with the provisions of the
Convention, that –
(a) cross the mouth of a river;
(b) enclose a bay; or
(c) delimit the waters of a harbour.
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Right of
innocent
passage in the
territorial sea.
Regulating
innocent
passage.

PART IV
INNOCENT PASSAGE

10. (1) Subject to sections 11 and 12 and any other
relevant law, all foreign vessels shall enjoy the right of
innocent passage through the territorial sea.
(2) Innocent passage, to which subsection (1) refers,
shall be continuous and expeditious and not prejudicial to
the peace, good order or security of Guyana and includes
stopping and anchoring, but only in so far as they are
incidental to ordinary navigation or are rendered necessary
by force majeure or distress or for the purpose of rendering
assistance to persons, vessels or aircraft in danger or distress.
(3) For the purposes of this section, “innocent
passage” means navigation through the territorial sea for the
purpose of –
(a) crossing those waters without entering
the internal waters or calling at a
roadstead or port facility outside the
internal waters; or
(b) proceeding to or from the internal
waters or calling at a roadstead or port
facility outside the internal waters.
(4) In exercising the right of innocent passage, a
foreign vessel shall comply with the laws of Guyana, any
order, direction, licence or any other authority relating to the
exercise of innocent passage through the territorial sea.

11. (1) A foreign warship, including a submarine
and any other underwater vessel of war, may enter or pass
through the territorial sea after giving prior notice to the
President.
(2) A submarine or any other underwater vessel,
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Non-innocent
passage.

whether or not a vessel of war, exercising the right of
innocent passage through the territorial sea shall navigate on
the surface and show its flag while passing through the
territorial sea.
(3) The Minister responsible for transport and
harbours may by order designate sea lanes and prescribe
traffic separation schemes for the regulation of the passage of
vessels through the internal waters and territorial sea and in
the interest of safety of navigation.
(4) A master of a submarine, not being a vessel of
war, who contravenes subsection (2) commits an offence and
is liable on conviction on indictment to a fine of five million
dollars and to imprisonment for five years, and in addition
the Court may order the forfeiture of the submarine.

12. (1) The passage of a foreign vessel is prejudicial
to the peace, good order or security of Guyana, that is to say,
the passage is not innocent if, while in the territorial sea, the
vessel engages in –
(a) any threat or use of force against the
sovereignty, territorial integrity or
political independence of Guyana or
act in any other manner in violation of
the principles of international law;
(b) any exercise or practice with weapons
of any kind;
(c) any act, in contemplation of collecting
information, which would be
prejudicial to the defence or security of
Guyana;
(d) any act of propaganda calculated to
affect the defence or security of
Guyana;
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(e) the launching of, landing on or taking
on board of any aircraft or military
device;
(f) the loading or unloading of any
commodity, currency or person
contrary to any laws relating to
customs, excise, immigration or
sanitation;
(g) the wilful discharge of any substance
which causes pollution, in
contravention of the Convention;
(h) any fishing activities;
(i) the carrying out of research or
surveying activities;
(j) any act designed to interfere with any
system of communication or any other
facility or installation in Guyana; or
(k) any other activity not directly related to
its passage.
(2) The master of a foreign vessel or submarine,
not being a vessel of war, who takes part in or causes the
vessel or submarine to be engaged in, and any other person
on board who takes part in, any activity specified in
subsection (1) –
(a) each commits an offence and is liable
on conviction on indictment to a fine
of not less than one million dollars nor
more than ten million dollars and to
imprisonment for five years; and

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Security
measures.
Foreign vessels
carrying
nuclear or
other
hazardous
wastes.
(b) where the offence is continued after
conviction, the master and the other
person who were convicted, each
commits a further offence and is liable
on conviction to a fine of three
hundred thousand dollars for each
day on which the offence is continued,
and in addition the Court may order the forfeiture of the
vessel or submarine.
13. The President may make orders and exercise
powers and take measures in relation to the territorial sea as
is necessary in the interest of the peace, good order or
security of Guyana or any part of Guyana, and the measures
may include the suspension, whether absolutely or subject to
any exceptions and qualifications as the President thinks fit,
of the right of innocent passage of all or any class of foreign
vessels through any area of the territorial sea.

14. (1) A master of a foreign vessel shall not store,
transport or permit to store or transport any nuclear or other
inherently dangerous or noxious substances, harmful
substances and hazardous wastes in the internal waters and
territorial sea except with the prior written permission,
agreement or consent of, and prior notification to, the
Minister responsible for the environment.
(2) Where any foreign nuclear-powered vessel or
foreign vessel carries nuclear or other inherently dangerous
or noxious substances while exercising the right of innocent
passage through the territorial sea, the master of the vessel
shall, in relation to the vessel and substances, carry the
necessary documents and shall observe the precautionary
measures that are established for those vessels by any
international agreement applicable to the carrying of those
substances or any law for the time being in force.
(3) A vessel carrying radioactive materials shall
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Discharge of
harmful
substances and
hazardous
wastes.
not pass through any part of the internal waters or territorial
sea unless prior notification of intended passage and the
route to be taken by the vessel through those waters or the
sea has been given in accordance with regulations that may
be prescribed.

(4) In this section, “radioactive materials” means
waste that, as a result of being radioactive, is subject to an
international control system or international instrument
applying specifically to radioactive materials.
(5) A vessel to which subsections (2) and (3) refer
may be required to confine its passage to such sea lanes as
may be prescribed.
(6) A master of a vessel who contravenes this section
commits an offence and is liable on summary conviction to a
fine of not less than ten million dollars nor more than twenty
million dollars and to imprisonment for not less than seven
years nor more than twenty-five years.
(7) The Minister in consultation with the Minister
responsible for the environment may make regulations
regulating the passage of vessels carrying hazardous waste,
and nuclear and radioactive materials through all or any part
of the internal waters and territorial sea.
(8) Regulations made under this section shall
provide for the action that may be taken, including stopping
and boarding vessels, to ensure compliance with the
regulations.

15. (1) A master of a foreign vessel shall not
discharge or permit to discharge any nuclear or other
inherently dangerous or noxious substances, harmful
substances and hazardous wastes in the internal waters and
territorial sea except with the prior written permission,
agreement or consent of, and prior notification to, the
Minister responsible for the environment.
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Laws
applicable to
rights of hot
pursuit.

(2) A master of a vessel who contravenes this section
commits an offence and is liable on summary conviction to a
fine of not less than twenty million dollars nor more than
forty million dollars and to imprisonment for not less than
ten years nor more than twenty-five years.
16. (1) The laws of Guyana shall apply with respect
to the execution of official and defence duties by Guyanese
public officials and defence forces in relation to hot pursuit
from within the internal waters, territorial sea, contiguous
zone, exclusive economic zone and continental shelf,
including safety zones around continental shelf installations,
undertaken in accordance with Article 111 of the Convention
and the conduct obstructing such execution.
(2) A person who does any act in pursuance or
intended pursuance of the functions conferred on him by or
under this Act shall not be subject to any civil or criminal
liability in respect of such act, whether on the ground of
want of jurisdiction, mistake of law or fact or on any other
ground, unless that person has acted or omitted to act, in bad
faith.
Limits of the
contiguous
zone.
Grounds for
denial of entry
into Guyana.
PART V
THE CONTIGUOUS ZONE
17. The contiguous zone comprises the area of the
sea that has as its inner limit the outer limit of the territorial
sea and as its outer limit the line every point of which is a
distance of twenty-four nautical miles from the nearest points
of the baselines of the territorial sea.

18. Where the Minister has reasonable grounds to
believe that a person in the contiguous zone would, if that
person were to enter Guyana, commit an offence in relation to
a customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary law, the Minister
may, subject to Guyana’s international obligations, deny that
person entry into Guyana.
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Commission of
offences in the
contiguous
zone.
19. (1) Subject to subsection (2), where there is
reasonable ground to believe that a person has committed an
offence in the contiguous zone in respect of any customs,
fiscal, immigration or sanitary law, every power of arrest,
entry, search or seizure or other power that could be exercised
in Guyana in respect of that offence may also be exercised in
the contiguous zone.
(2) A power of arrest shall not be exercised in the
contiguous zone on board any vessel registered outside
Guyana without the consent of the Attorney General of
Guyana.
(3) Without limiting subsections (1) and (2), the
Minister may exercise other powers and take measures in or
in relation to the contiguous zone as the Minister considers
necessary for the security of Guyana.
(4) Any person who commits an offence in Guyana
from the contiguous zone or enters Guyana having
committed an offence in the contiguous zone is liable on
conviction on indictment to a fine of seven million dollars and
to imprisonment for seven years.
(5) Guyana has, and may exercise in respect of the
contiguous zone, such powers and authority as may be
necessary to prevent or punish the infringement within
Guyana, including its internal waters and territorial sea, of
any written law with respect to customs, fiscal, immigration
or sanitation.
(6) The Minister may make regulations that permit,
in the contiguous zone, the exercise of controls necessary to –
(a) prevent infringement of any customs,
fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws
within Guyana, its internal waters and
territorial sea; and
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(b) punish the infringement of those laws
committed within Guyana, its internal
waters and territorial sea.

Limits of the
continental
shelf.
PART VI
THE CONTINENTAL SHELF
20. (1) The continental shelf comprises the seabed
and its subsoil of the submarine areas that extend beyond and
adjacent to the territorial sea throughout the natural
prolongation of Guyana’s land territory –
(a) subject to Article 76(2) of the Convention,
to the outer edge of the continental
margin; or
(b) to a distance of two hundred nautical
miles from the baselines of the territorial
sea where the outer edge of the
continental margin does not extend up to
that distance.
(2) Where the outer edge of the continental margin
extends beyond two hundred nautical miles from the
baselines, the President may, by regulation, establish the
outer limits of the continental shelf having regard to the
principles and methods of delineation of the continental shelf
beyond that point specified in Article 76 of the Convention.
(3) For the purposes of subsections (1) and (2), the
continental margin comprises the submerged prolongation of
the land mass of Guyana consisting of the seabed and its
subsoil, the slope and the rise of the continental shelf, but
does not include the deep ocean floor with its oceanic ridges
or its subsoil.

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Rights in the
continental
shelf.
Licence or
authority to
explore or
exploit
21. (1) In the continental shelf there is vested in
Guyana –
(a) sovereign and exclusive rights for the
purpose of exploring, exploiting,
conserving and managing its natural
resources;
(b) exclusive rights and jurisdiction for the
authorisation and regulation of the
construction, operation, maintenance
and use of artificial islands, off-shore
terminals, installations and other
structures and devices necessary for the
exploration and exploitation of the
resources of the continental shelf or for
the convenience of shipping or for any
other economic purpose;
(c) exclusive right to authorize and
regulate drilling for any purposes;
(d) jurisdiction to authorise, regulate and
control marine scientific research; and
(e) jurisdiction to preserve and protect the
marine environment and to prevent
and control marine pollution.
(2) The natural resources to which subsection
(1)(a) refers consist of the mineral and other non-living
resources of the seabed and subsoil together with living
organisms belonging to sedentary species, that is to say,
organisms which, at the harvestable stage, either are
immobile on or under the seabed or are unable to move
except in constant physical contact with the seabed or subsoil.
22. (1) A person, including a foreign government
and an international organization, shall not, in the continental
shelf, except under and in accordance with the terms of a
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resources.
Declaration of
designated
area.
licence or a letter of authority granted by the President –
(a) explore or exploit its resources;
(b) carry out any search or excavation or
conduct any research; or
(c) drill or construct, maintain or operate
any artificial island, off-shore
terminal, installation or other
structure or device for any purpose.
(2) Any person who contravenes subsection (1)
commits an offence and is liable on summary conviction to a
fine of three million dollars and on conviction on indictment
to a fine of five million dollars, and in addition the court
before which the person was convicted may order the
forfeiture of any vessel and equipment used in the
commission of the offence.

23. The President may by order –
(a) declare any area of the continental shelf
and its superjacent waters to be a
designated area for any purpose; and
(b) make any provisions as the President
considers necessary with respect to –
(i) the exploration, exploitation
and protection of the resources
of the continental shelf within
the designated area;
(ii) the safety and protection of
artificial islands, off-shore
terminals, installations, and
other structures and devices in
the designated area;
(iii) the preservation and protection
of the marine environment of
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Submarine
cables and
pipelines in the
continental
shelf.
Exercise of
jurisdiction in
the continental
shelf.

the designated area;
(iv) customs and other fiscal matters
in relation to the designated area;
(v) the entry into and passage
through the designated area by
foreign vessels by the
establishment of fairways, sea
lanes, traffic separation schemes
or any other mode of ensuring
freedom of navigation which is
not prejudicial to the interests of
Guyana; and
(vi) the conduct of marine scientific
research in the designated area.

24. Without limiting the provisions of section 23
and subject to any measures that may be necessary for
protecting the interests of Guyana, the Government shall not
impede the laying or maintenance of any submarine cables or
pipelines on the continental shelf by other States except that
the consent of the Minister shall be necessary for the
delineation of the course for the laying of the cables or
pipelines.

25. (1) Guyana has jurisdiction with regard to
customs, fiscal, health, security and immigration laws in
relation to the continental shelf.
(2) (a) To enable Guyana to exercise the sovereign
rights and jurisdiction it has in the
continental shelf, there is extended to the
continental shelf, to the extent recognised
by international law, the laws of Guyana.
(b) In particular, the laws of Guyana shall
apply to artificial islands, installations and
structures on the continental shelf as if
they were in the territorial sea.
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(3) The rights enjoyed by Guyana in the continental
shelf and the continental margin that are not stipulated in this
Act shall be exercised in accordance with the Convention,
international law and the laws of Guyana.

(4) In exercising its rights and performing its duties
in the continental shelf, Guyana shall have due regard to the
rights and duties of other States and shall act in a manner
compatible with international law.
Limits of the
exclusive
economic zone.
Rights in the
exclusive
economic zone.

PART VII
THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE
26. (1) The exclusive economic zone comprises an
area of the sea beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea
extending to a line every point of which is a distance of two
hundred nautical miles from the nearest points of the
baselines of the territorial sea and is so designated as the
exclusive economic zone of Guyana.
(2) The Minister may by regulations, prescribe the
line of the outer limit of the exclusive economic zone.
27. In the exclusive economic zone, there is vested
in Guyana –
(a) sovereign rights for the purpose of
exploration, exploitation, conservation
and management of the natural
resources, both living and non-living as
well as for producing energy from
tides, currents and winds;
(b) exclusive rights and jurisdiction for the
construction, maintenance or operation
of artificial islands, off-shore terminals,
installations and other structures and
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Rights of
navigation and
over flight.
Licence or
authority to
explore or
exploit
resources in
the exclusive
economic zone.
devices necessary for the exploration
and exploitation of the resources of the
zone or for the convenience of shipping
or for any other purpose;
(c) jurisdiction to authorise, regulate and
control marine scientific research;
(d) jurisdiction to preserve and protect the
marine environment and to prevent
and control marine pollution;
(e) jurisdiction with regard to customs,
fiscal, health, security and immigration
laws; and
(f) any other rights that are recognised by
international law.
28. In the exclusive economic zone and the air space
over the zone, every State shall, subject to the exercise by
Guyana of its rights within the zone, enjoy freedom of
navigation and over flight.

29. (1) A person, including a foreign government
and an international organization, shall not, in the exclusive
economic zone, except under and in accordance with the
terms of any written agreement with the Government of
Guyana or of a licence or letter of authority granted by the
President –
(a) explore or exploit any resources;
(b) carry out any search or excavation or
conduct any research; or
(c) drill or construct, maintain or operate
any artificial island, off-shore terminal,
installation or other structure or device
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Declaration of
designated
areas in the
exclusive
economic zone.
for any purpose.
(2) Nothing in this section shall apply in relation to
fishing by a citizen of Guyana.
(3) Any person who contravenes subsection (1)
commits an offence and is liable on summary conviction to a
fine of three million dollars and on conviction on indictment
to a fine of five million dollars, and in addition the court
before which the person was convicted may order the
forfeiture of any vessel and equipment used in the
commission of the offence.
30. The President may by order –
(a) declare any area of the exclusive
economic zone to be a designated area
for any purpose; and
(b) make provisions as the President
considers necessary with respect to –
(i) the exploration, exploitation and
protection of the resources of
the designated area;
(ii) any other activities for the
economic exploitation and
exploration of the designated
area such as the production of
energy from tides, currents and
winds;
(iii) the safety and protection of
artificial islands, off-shore
terminals, installations and any
other structure and devices in
the designated area;
(iv) the protection of the marine
environment of the designated
area;
(v) customs and other fiscal matters
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Exercise of
jurisdiction in
the exclusive
economic zone.

Extension of
norms to the
exclusive
economic zone.
Application of
other rights not
provided in
this Act.
in relation to the designated
area; or
(vi) entry into and passage through
the designated area of foreign
vessels by the establishment of
fairways, sea lanes, traffic
separation schemes or any
other mode of ensuring
freedom of navigation which is
not prejudicial to the interests
of Guyana.

31. (1) To enable Guyana to exercise the sovereign
rights and jurisdiction it has in the exclusive economic zone,
there is extended to that zone, to the extent recognised by
international law, the laws of Guyana.
(2) In particular, the laws of Guyana shall apply to
artificial islands, installations and structures in the exclusive
economic zone as if they were in the territorial sea.
(3) In exercising its rights and performing its duties
in the exclusive economic zone, Guyana shall have due regard
to the rights and duties of any other state and shall act in a
manner compatible with international law.

32. The norms, regulations and measures for the
prevention, reduction and control of pollution from vessels,
aircraft, artificial islands, scientific research stations,
installations and structures which are in effect within the
limits of the internal waters, territorial sea and the contiguous
zone shall extend to the exclusive economic zone, taking into
account international rules and standards, international
treaties and conventions to which Guyana is a party.
33. Rights enjoyed by Guyana in the exclusive
economic zone that are not stipulated in this Act shall be
exercised in accordance with the Convention, international
law and the laws of Guyana.
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Delimitation of
the boundaries
of the territorial
sea.

Delimitation of
the boundaries
of the
continental
shelf and the
exclusive
economic zone.
Settlement of
disputes.

Publication of
agreement.
PART VIII
DELIMITATION OF MARITIME BOUNDARIES
34. (1) In accordance with Article 15 of the Convention
and international law, delimitation of the boundaries of the
territorial sea between Guyana and any State opposite or adjacent
shall be by agreement between Guyana and that State and failing
agreement the territorial sea shall not be extended beyond the
median line every point of which is equidistant from the nearest
points on the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea
of each of the two States is measured.
(2) Subsection (1) shall not apply where it is necessary
by reason of historic title or other special circumstances to delimit
the territorial sea of Guyana in a way which is at variance with
subsection (1).
35. Delimitation of the boundaries of the continental shelf
and the exclusive economic zone between Guyana and any State
opposite or adjacent to Guyana shall be by agreement on the basis
of international law, as referred to in Article 38 of the Statute of the
International Court of Justice, in order to achieve an equitable
solution.
36. If no agreement can be reached under sections 34 and
35, Guyana shall resort to the procedures provided for in Part XV of
the Convention.

37. Every agreement entered into under sections 34 and
35 shall, as soon as after it is entered into, be published in the
Gazette.

Preparation of
charts and
PART IX
CHARTS AND GEOGRAPHICAL COORDINATES
38. (1) The Minister responsible for lands and
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geographical
coordinates.
Publication of
charts and
geographical
coordinates.

Evidence of
charts or lists of
geographical
coordinates.
surveys shall, in consultation with competent authorities,
prepare charts of an adequate scale for ascertaining the
positions of the following matters –
(a) the baselines of the territorial sea;
(b) the outer limit lines of the territorial sea,
the continental shelf and the exclusive
economic zone;
(c) the lines of delimitation of the territorial
sea, the continental shelf and the
exclusive economic zone;
(d) sea lanes or traffic separation schemes.
(2) A list of geographical coordinates of points
specifying the geodetic datum for the baselines, outer limit
lines or lines of delimitation may be substituted for a chart
under subsection (1).

39. The Minister responsible for lands and surveys
shall –
(a) in consultation with the Guyana Lands
and Surveys Commission, publish the
charts and lists of geographical
coordinates prepared; and
(b) provide a copy of each chart and list of
geographical coordinates to be
deposited with the Secretary-General of
the United Nations.

40. (1) The Minister responsible for lands and surveys
may issue charts or lists of geographical coordinates prepared
under section 38 on payment of the prescribed fees.
(2) A document, certified by the Minister responsible
for lands and surveys to be a true copy of a chart or list of
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geographical coordinates, shall be accepted in any
proceedings as evidence of any matter shown in the
document, but without prejudice to the right to adduce
evidence in rebuttal.
(3) In any proceedings in any court a certificate
purporting to be signed by the Minister responsible for lands
and surveys or any person authorised by the Minister that the
chart is for the time being an authorised and accurate chart
shall be admissible as conclusive evidence of the matter stated
in the certificate.
(4) A person other than the Minister responsible for
lands and surveys, referred to in subsection (3), who signs the
certificate shall, in the absence of proof to the contrary, be
presumed to be duly authorised to sign it.

Regulation
of marine
scientific
research in the
maritime
zones.
PART X
MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

41. (1) Guyana has sovereign rights, as provided by
international law and in particular Article 245 of the Convention to
regulate, authorise and conduct marine scientific research in the
territorial sea.
(2) Guyana, in the exercise of its jurisdiction, has the right,
as provided for by international law and in particular Article 246 of
the Convention, to regulate, authorise and conduct marine scientific
research in the exclusive economic zone and on the continental shelf
in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention.
(3) Without limiting the generality of subsections (1) and
(2), the Minister, in consultation with the Minister responsible for
the environment may make regulations regulating the conduct of
marine scientific research in conformity with Articles 245 to 253 of
the Convention so far as they relate to any proposed marine
scientific research.

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(4) A person, entity, foreign government or international
organisation carrying out any marine scientific research under this
section shall, in accordance with Articles 245 to 253 of the
Convention, make available to Guyana preliminary reports as soon
as practicable, and full reports after the completion of the research
consisting of any research results, all data, samples and specimen
derived from the research or any other requirement as may be
prescribed.
(5) Any person who contravenes subsection (4) commits
an offence and is liable on summary conviction to a fine of five
million dollars and in addition the court may order the forfeiture of
any vessel and equipment used in the commission of the offence.
Limits of the
maritime
cultural area.
Rights in the
maritime
cultural area.
Underwater
cultural
heritage.
PART XI
MARITIME CULTURAL AREA
42. The Minister may by order declare an area within the
territorial sea and the contiguous zone to be known as the maritime
cultural area.
43. (1) Guyana has sovereign rights and exclusive
jurisdiction in its maritime cultural area.
(2) Subject to any other law or international treaty to which
Guyana is a party, Guyana has, in respect of objects of an
archaeological or historical nature found in the maritime cultural
area, the same rights and powers as it has in respect of its internal
waters and territorial sea.
44. (1) The Minister responsible for culture may authorise
activities directed at underwater cultural heritage within the
territorial sea and contiguous zone.
(2) A person, entity, foreign government or international
organisation shall not engage in any underwater cultural heritage
activity within the territorial sea or contiguous zone, except under
and in accordance with the terms of a licence or letter of authority
granted by the Minister responsible for culture or of any written
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agreement of the Government of Guyana.

(3) A person, entity, foreign government or international
organisation shall not engage in any commercial exploitation of
underwater cultural heritage for trade or speculation or its
irretrievable dispersal within the territorial sea or contiguous zone.
(4) A person who contravenes subsection (2) or (3) commits
an offence and is liable on summary conviction to a fine of five
million dollars and in addition the court may order the forfeiture of
any vessel and equipment used in the commission of the offence.
(5) The Minister in consultation with the Minister
responsible for culture may make regulations to regulate and
authorise activities directed at underwater cultural heritage within
the territorial sea and contiguous zone in accordance with Articles 7
and 8 of the UNESCO Convention.
(6) The regulations made under subsection (5) shall, in
particular ensure that the Rules Concerning Activities Directed at
the Underwater Cultural Heritage set out in the Annex to the
UNESCO Convention are applied.
(7) The Minister responsible for culture may by order
provide for the protection, management, ownership, preservation,
collection, custody and for other matters incidental to cultural
maritime heritage, historic wrecks, sites of interests and objects of
archaeological and historic nature found at sea and its specific sites
in the maritime cultural area.

Eco-tourism,
marine parks
and reserves
and
mariculture
PART XII
ECO-TOURISM, MARINE PARKS AND RESERVES AND
MARICULTURE
45. (1) A person shall not establish or operate any
eco-tourism, marine parks and reserves, and mariculture
operations within any of the maritime zones except with a
permit issued by the Minister responsible for transport and
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operations.
Designated
areas for eco-
tourism,
marine parks
and reserves
and
mariculture
operations.
harbours.
(2) A person shall not operate any eco-tourism,
marine parks and reserves and mariculture operations in such
a way as to have any significant adverse effects on any of the
marine species.
(3) A person who contravenes subsection (1) or
(2) commits an offence and is liable on summary conviction to
a fine of five million dollars, and in addition the court may
order the forfeiture of any vessel and equipment used in the
commission of the offence.
46. The Minister may by order designate –
(a) any area of any maritime zone for the
establishment or creation of eco-
tourism operations;
(b) any area of any maritime zone for the
establishment or creation of marine
park operations or temporary marine
protected areas;
(c) any area of any maritime zone or any
island within any maritime zone for the
establishment or creation of marine
reserve operations; and
(d) any area of any maritime zone for the
establishment or creation of
mariculture operations.

47. (1) The Minister in collaboration with the relevant
ministries and agencies may make regulations for any of the
operations referred to section 46.
(2) Regulations providing for mariculture operations
shall apply – operations.
mariculture
and
and reserves
marine parks
of eco-tourism
and regulation
Establishment
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(a) to all mariculture boats of Guyana, and
activities done with those boats and
their crews wherever they may be; and
(b) to all foreign mariculture boats and
activities done with those boats and their
crews, in waters within the mariculture
area.

Regulations for
the protection
and
preservation of
the marine
environment.

PART XIII
THE PROTECTION AND PRESERVATION OF THE
MARINE ENVIRONMENT
48. The Minister in consultation with the Minister
responsible for the environment may make regulations for the
protection and preservation of the marine environment
including regulations for –
(a) the prevention, reduction and control of
pollution of the marine environment –
(i) from land-based sources,
including rivers, estuaries,
pipelines and outfall structures;
(ii) from or in connection with
seabed activities subject to
Guyana’s jurisdiction;
(iii) from artificial islands,
installations and structures
under Guyana’s jurisdiction in
accordance with Articles 60 and
80 of the Convention;
(iv) from dumping;
(v) from or through the atmosphere,
applicable to the air space
under Guyana’s sovereignty;
and
(vi) from vessels flying Guyana’s
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Measures to
protect marine
environment.
flag or vessels or aircraft under
its registry;
(b) regulating conduct in, and safeguarding
the maritime zones;
(c) environmental assessment of economic
and other activities in the maritime
zones;
(d) environmental control in the maritime
zones;
(e) monitoring of the condition of the
maritime zones;
(f) protection and preservation of areas
used as eco-tourism areas, marine
reserves, marine parks, mariculture
areas and scientific research areas; and
(g) any other matters relating to the
protection and preservation of the
marine environment.

49. (1) Any person who engages in any activity that
results in pollution of the marine environment commits an
offence and is liable on summary conviction to a fine of
twenty million dollars and to imprisonment for ten years.

(2) Notwithstanding anything in this Act or any other
law, the Minister responsible for the environment may by
order prescribe any measure necessary to be taken against
any vessel or aircraft in any area of the sea or the airspace
above the sea, in order to protect the coastline of Guyana or
related interests, including fishing, from pollution or any
threat of pollution resulting from a maritime casualty or an
act or omission relating to such casualty and which may
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reasonably be expected to result in any major harmful
consequences.
Maritime
safety and
security in the
maritime
zones.

Sovereign
rights of self
defence in the
maritime
zones.
Power to make
subsidiary
legislation.
PART XIV
GENERAL
50. (1) The President may take any action that is
necessary in the internal waters, territorial sea or contiguous
zone to preserve and maintain security in accordance with
any obligations under international law.
(2) The President may establish safety zones
around the artificial islands, installations and structures in the
exclusive economic zone and continental shelf in which
appropriate measures may be taken to ensure the safety of
navigation, of the artificial islands, installations and
structures.
51. Notwithstanding any other law, the President
may take any action in any area of the sea or in the airspace
above the sea, as is necessary to maintain national sovereignty
and territorial integrity in the exercise of the principle of self
defence contained in Article 51 of the Charter of the United
Nations.

52. (1) The Minister may make regulations for the
purpose of giving effect to the provisions of this Act, and, in
particular but without limiting the general power, may make
regulations for –
(a) providing the manner of giving prior
notification of intended passage and of
the route to be taken by vessels
carrying radioactive materials through
the internal waters or territorial sea;
(b) permitting the exercise of controls
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necessary to prevent or punish the
infringement of the customs, fiscal,
immigration or sanitary laws within
Guyana, its internal waters and
territorial sea;
(c) establishing the outer limits of the
continental shelf and exclusive
economic zone;
(d) fees in relation to licences and letters of
authority referred to in sections 22 (1)
and 29(1) or for any other purposes;
(e) regulating the conduct of any person in
the maritime zones;
(f) regulating the exploration and
exploitation, conservation and
management of the resources of the
continental shelf and the exclusive
economic zone;
(g) regulating the construction, maintenance
and operation of artificial islands, off-
shore terminals, installations and other
structures and devices of the
continental shelf and the exclusive
economic zone;

(h) regulating and authorising activities
directed at underwater cultural
heritage within the contiguous zone;
(i) establishing or creating and regulating
the conduct of, and safeguarding any of
the operations referred to in section 47,
including regulations with respect to
the identification and markings of the
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Order to extend
law.
Amendments,
transitional
and savings.
boundaries of the operations, boats and
gear;
(j) preserving and protecting the marine
environment and prevention and
control of marine pollution including
any of the related matters referred to in
section 49(2);
(k) authorising, regulating and controlling
the conduct of scientific research.
(2) The powers under subsection (1) are in
addition to those conferred on the Minister to make other
subsidiary legislation under the other provisions of this Act.

(3) In making any subsidiary legislation with
respect to provisions under this Act, the Minister vested with
the authority to do so may prescribe offences and penalties
that may be imposed in respect of those offences that are
necessary for giving full effect to those provisions under this
Act.

53. The President may by order extend, with
exceptions and modifications as may be specified in the order,
the application of any law in force in Guyana or any part of
the law to the continental shelf and the exclusive economic
zone (including any area declared to be a designated area)
and make provisions as the President may consider necessary
for facilitating the enforcement of the law and the law, so
extended, shall have effect in relation to the continental shelf
and the exclusive economic zone as if those maritime zones to
which it had been extended are parts of the territory of
Guyana.

54. (1) The laws referred to in the first column of the
Schedule are amended to the extent set out in the second
column of the Schedule.

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No. 10 of 1977
No. 10 of 1977
No. 10 of 1977
(2) Any reference to the internal waters, contiguous
zone, territorial sea, exclusive economic zone and continental
shelf in any law shall, in relation to any period after the
commencement of this Act, be construed as reference to those
waters and zones referred to in this Act.
(3) Any reference to the fishery or fishing zone in
this Act or in any other law in relation to conservation,
management or exploitation of living marine resources shall
be construed as reference to the exclusive economic zone
referred to in this Act.
(4) Any reference to fishery or fishing zone in any
other law in relation to fiscal matters or matters concerning
customs, emigration, immigration or sanitation shall be
construed as reference to the contiguous zone referred to in
this Act.
(5) With effect from the commencement of this Act,
any reference to any provision of the Maritime Boundaries
Act 1977 in any law shall be construed with such
modifications, adaptations, qualifications and exceptions as
may be necessary to bring them into conformity with this Act.
(6) Until other baselines are determined in
accordance with this Act, the baselines, the territorial sea, the
continental shelf and the exclusive economic zone shall, for
the purposes of this Act, be taken to be those that existed
under the Maritime Boundaries Act 1977 immediately before
the commencement of this Act.
(7) Notwithstanding section 55, any agreement or
subsidiary legislation made for the purposes of the Maritime
Boundaries Act 1977 and in force immediately before the
commencement of this Act shall continue in force as if made
under this Act to the extent the agreement or subsidiary
legislation are not inconsistent with this Act, and may be
repealed or replaced in accordance with this Act.
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Repealed.
No. 10 of 1977
55. The Maritime Boundaries Act 1977 is repealed.
_____________________________

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