AGREEMENT ON IMPLEMENTATION OF ARTICLE VI OF THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE
THE PARTIES TO THIS AGREEMENT (hereinafter referred to as "Parties"),
RECOGNIZING that anti-dumping practices should not constitute an unjustifiable impediment to international trade and that anti-dumping duties may be applied against dumping only if such dumping causes or threatens material injury to an established industry or materially retards the establishment of an industry;
CONSIDERING that it is desirable to provide for equitable and open procedures as the basis for a full examination of dumping cases;
TAKING into account the particular trade, development and financial needs of developing countries;
DESIRING to interpret the provisions of Article VI of the General Agreement on tariffs and trade, (hereinafter referred to as "General Agreement" or "GATT") and to elaborate rules for their application in order to provide greater uniformity and certainty in their implementation ; and
DESIRING to provide for the speedy, effective and equitable resolution of disputes arising under this Agreement;
HEREBY AGREE AS FOLLOWS:
PART I ANTI-DUMPING CODE
The imposition of an anti-dumping duty is a measure to be taken only under the circumstances provided for in Article VI of the General Agreement and pursuant to investigations initiated (1) and conducted in accordance with the provisions of this Code. The following provisions govern the application of Article VI of the General Agreement in so far as action is taken under anti-dumping legislation or regulations.
Determination of dumping
1. For the purpose of this Code a product is to be considered as being dumped, i.e. introduced into the commerce of another country at less than its normal value, if the export price of the product exported from one country to another is less than the comparable price, in the ordinary course of trade, for the like product when destined for consumption in the exporting country.
2. Throughout this Code the term "like product" ("produit similaire") shall be interpreted to mean a product which is identical, i.e. alike in all respects to the product under consideration, or in the absence of such a product, another product which, although not alike in all respects, has characteristics closely resembling those of the product under consideration.
3. In the case where products are not imported directly from the country of origin but are exported to the (1)The term "initiated" as used hereinafter means the procedural action by which a Party formally commences an investigation as provided in Article 6 (6).
country of importation from an intermediate country, the price at which the products are sold from the country of export to the country of importation shall normally be compared with the comparable price in the country of export. However, comparison may be made with the price in the country of origin, if, for example, the products are merely trans-shipped through the country of export, or such products are not produced in the country of export, or there is no comparable price for them in the country of export.
4. When there are no sales of the like product in the ordinary course of trade in the domestic market of the exporting country or when, because of the particular market situation, such sales do not permit a proper comparison, the margin of dumping shall be determined by comparison with a comparable price of the like product when exported to any third country which may be the highest such export price but should be a representative price, or with the cost of production in the country of origin plus a reasonable amount for administrative, selling and any other costs and for profits. As a general rule, the addition for profit shall not exceed the profit normally realized on sales of products of the same general category in the domestic market of the country of origin.
5. In cases where there is no export price or where it appears to the authorities (1) concerned that the export price is unreliable because of association or a compensatory arrangement between the exporter and the importer or a third party, the export price may be constructed on the basis of the price at which the imported products are first resold to an independent buyer, or if the products are not resold to an independent buyer, or not resold in the condition as imported, on such reasonable basis as the authorities may determine.
6. In order to effect a fair comparison between the export price and the domestic price in the exporting country (or the country of origin) or, if applicable, the price established pursuant to the provisions of Article VI (1) (b) of the General Agreement, the two prices shall be compared at the same level of trade, normally at the ex-factory level, and in respect of sales made at as nearly as possible the same time. Due allowance shall be made in each case, on its merits, for the differences in conditions and terms of sale, for the differences in taxation, and for the other differences affecting price comparability. In the cases referred to in Article 2 (5), allowance for costs, including duties and taxes, incurred between importation and resale, and for profits accruing, should also be made.
7. This Article is without prejudice to the second Supplementary Provision to Article VI (1) in Annex I to the General Agreement.
Determination of injury (2)
1. A determination of injury for purposes of Article VI of the General Agreement shall be based on positive evidence and involve an objective examination of both: (a) the volume of the dumped imports and their effect on prices in the domestic market for like products, and
(b) the consequent impact of these imports on domestic producers of such products.
2. With regard to volume of the dumped imports the investigating authorities shall consider whether there has been a significant increase in dumped imports, either in absolute terms or relative to production or consumption in the importing country. With regard to the effect of the dumped imports on prices, the investigating authorities shall consider whether there has been a significant price undercutting by the dumped imports as compared with the price of a like product of the importing country, or whether the effect of such imports is otherwise to depress prices to a significant degree or prevent price increases, which otherwise would have occurred, to a significant degree. No one or several of these factors can necessarily give decisive guidance.
3. The examination of the impact on the industry concerned shall include an evaluation of all relevant economic factors and indices having a bearing on the state of the industry such as actual and potential decline in output, sales, market share, profits, productivity, return on investments, or utilization of capacity ; factors affecting domestic prices ; actual and potential negative effects on cash flow, inventories, employment, wages, growth, ability to raise capital or investments. This list is not exhaustive, nor can one or several of these factors necessarily give decisive guidance. (1)When in this Code the term "authorities" is used, it shall be interpreted as meaning authorities at an appropriate, senior level. (2)Under this Code the term "injury" shall, unless otherwise specified, be taken to mean material injury to a domestic industry, threat of material injury to a domestic industry or material retardation of the establishment of such an industry and shall be interpreted in accordance with the provisions of this Article.
4. It must be demonstrated that the dumped imports are, through the effects (1) of dumping, causing injury within the meaning of this Code. There may be other factors (2) which at the same time are injuring the industry, and the injuries caused by other factors must not be attributed to the dumped imports.
5. The effect of the dumped imports shall be assessed in relation to the domestic production of the like product when available data permit the separate identification of production in terms of such criteria as : the production process, the producers' realizations, profits. When the domestic production of the like product has no separate identity in these terms the effects of the dumped imports shall be assessed by the examination of the production of the narrowest group or range of products, which includes the like product, for which the necessary information can be provided.
6. A determination of threat of injury shall be based on facts and not merely on allegation, conjecture or remote possibility. The change in circumstances which would create a situation in which the dumping would cause injury must be clearly foreseen and imminent (3).
7. With respect to cases where injury is threatened by dumped imports, the application of anti-dumping measures shall be studied and decided with special care.
Definition of industry
1. In determining injury the term "domestic industry" shall be interpreted as referring to the domestic producers as a whole of the like products or to those of them whose collective output of the products constitutes a major proportion of the total domestic production of those products, except that: (i) when producers are related (4) to the exporters or importers or are themselves importers of the allegedly dumped product, the industry may be interpreted as referring to the rest of the producers;
(ii) in exceptional circumstances the territory of a Party may, for the production in question, be divided into two or more competitive markets and the producers within each market may be regarded as a separate industry if : (a) the producers within such market sell all or almost all of their production of the product in question in that market ; and (b) the demand in that market is not to any substantial degree supplied by producers of the product in question located elsewhere in the territory. In such circumstances, injury may be found to exist even where a major portion of the total domestic industry is not injured provided there is a concentration of dumped imports into such an isolated market and provided further that the dumped imports are causing injury to the producers of all or almost all of the production within such market.
2. When the industry has been interpreted as referring to the producers in a certain area, i.e. a market as defined in paragraph 1 (ii), anti-dumping duties shall be levied (5) only on the products in question consigned for final consumption to that area. When the constitutional law of the importing country does not permit the levying of anti-dumping duties on such a basis, the importing Party may levy the anti-dumping duties without limitation only if : (a) the exporters shall have been given an opportunity to cease exporting at dumped prices to the area concerned or otherwise give assurances pursuant to Article 7 of this Code, and adequate assurances in this regard have not been promptly given ; and (b) such duties cannot be levied on specific producers which supply the area in question.
3. Where two or more countries have reached under the provisions of Article XXIV (8) (a) of the General Agreement such a level of integration that they have the characteristics of a single, unified market, the industry in the entire area of integration shall be taken to be the industry referred to in paragraph 1 above. (1)As set forth in paragraphs 2 and 3 of this Article. (2)Such factors include inter alia the volume and prices of imports not sold at dumping prices, contraction in demand or changes in the patterns of consumption, trade restrictive practices of and competition between the foreign and domestic producers, developments in technology and the export performance and productivity of the domestic industry. (3)One example, though not an exclusive one, is that there is convincing reason to believe that there will be, in the immediate future, substantially increased importations of the product at dumped prices. (4)An understanding among Parties should be developed defining the word "related" as used in this Code. (5)As used in this Code "levy" shall mean the definitive or final legal assessment or collection of a duty or tax.
4. The provisions of Article 3 (5) shall be applicable to this Article.
Initiation and subsequent investigation
1. An investigation to determine the existence, degree and effect of any alleged dumping shall normally be initiated upon a written request by or on behalf of the industry (1) affected. The request shall include sufficient evidence of the existence of: (a) dumping;
(b) injury within the meaning of Article VI of the General Agreement as interpreted by this Code ; and
(c) a causal link between the dumped imports and the alleged injury.
If in special circumstances the authorities concerned decide to initiate an investigation without having received such a request, they shall proceed only if they have sufficient evidence on all points under (a) to (c) above.
2. Upon initiation of an investigation and thereafter, the evidence of both dumping and injury caused thereby should be considered simultaneously. In any event the evidence of both dumping and injury shall be considered simultaneously: (a) in the decision whether or not to initiate an investigation, and
(b) thereafter, during the course of the investigation, starting on a date not later than the earliest date on which in accordance with the provisions of this Code provisional measures may be applied, except in the cases provided for in paragraph 3 of Article 10 in which the authorities accept the request of the exporters.
3. An application shall be rejected and an investigation shall be terminated promptly as soon as the authorities concerned are satisfied that there is not sufficient evidence of either dumping or of injury to justify proceeding with the case. There should be immediate termination in cases where the margin of dumping or the volume of dumped imports, actual or potential, or the injury is negligible.
4. An anti-dumping proceeding shall not hinder the procedures of customs clearance.
5. Investigations shall, except in special circumstances, be concluded within one year after their initiation.
1. The foreign suppliers and all other interested parties shall be given ample opportunity to present in writing all evidence that they consider useful in respect to the anti-dumping investigation in question. They shall also have the right, on justification, to present evidence orally.
2. The authorities concerned shall provide opportunities for the complainant and the importers and exporters known to be concerned and the governments of the exporting countries, to see all information that is relevant to the presentation of their cases, that is not confidential as defined in paragraph 3 below, and that is used by the authorities in an anti-dumping investigation, and to prepare presentations on the basis of this information.
3. Any information which is by nature confidential (for example, because its disclosure would be of significant competitive advantage to a competitor or because its disclosure would have a significantly adverse effect upon a person supplying the information or upon a person from whom he acquired the information) or which is provided on a confidential basis by parties to an anti-dumping investigation shall, upon cause shown, be treated as such by the investigating authorities. Such information shall not be disclosed without specific permission of the party submitting it (2). Parties providing confidential information may be requested to furnish non-confidential summaries thereof. In the event that such parties indicate that such information is not susceptible of summary, a statement of the reasons why summarization is not possible must be provided.
4. However, if the authorities concerned find that a request for confidentiality is not warranted and if the supplier is either unwilling to make the information public or to authorize its disclosure in generalized or summary form, the authorities would be free to disregard such information unless it can be demonstrated to their satisfaction from appropriate sources that the information is correct (3).
5. In order to verify information provided or to obtain further details the authorities may carry out (1)As defined in Article 4. (2)Parties are aware that in the territory of certain Parties disclosure pursuant to a narrowly drawn protective order may be required. (3)Parties agree that requests for confidentiality should not be arbitrarily rejected.
investigations in other countries as required, provided they obtain the agreement of the firms concerned and provided they notify the representatives of the government of the country in question and unless the latter object to the investigation.
6. When the competent authorities are satisfied that there is sufficient evidence to justify initiating an anti-dumping investigation pursuant to Article 5, the Party or Parties the products of which are subject to such investigation and the exporters and importers known to the investigating authorities to have an interest therein and the complainants shall be notified and a public notice shall be given.
7. Throughout the anti-dumping investigation all parties shall have a full opportunity for the defence of their interests. To this end, the authorities concerned shall, on request, provide opportunities for all directly interested parties to meet those parties with adverse interests, so that opposing views may be presented and rebuttal arguments offered. Provision of such opportunities must take account of the need to preserve confidentiality and of the convenience to the parties. There shall be no obligation on any party to attend a meeting and failure to do so shall not be prejudicial to that party's case.
8. In cases in which any interested party refuses access to, or otherwise does not provide, necessary information within a reasonable period or significantly impedes the investigation, preliminary and final findings (1), affirmative or negative, may be made on the basis of the facts available.
9. The provisions of this Article are not intended to prevent the authorities of a Party from proceeding expeditiously with regard to initiating an investigation, reaching preliminary or final findings, whether affirmative or negative, or from applying provisional or final measures, in accordance with the relevant provisions of this Code.
1. Proceedings may (2) be suspended or terminated without the imposition of provisional measures or anti-dumping duties upon receipt of satisfactory voluntary undertakings from any exporter to revise its prices or to cease exports to the area in question at dumped prices so that the authorities are satisfied that the injurious effect of the dumping is eliminated. Price increases under such undertakings shall not be higher than necessary to eliminate the margin of dumping.
2. Price undertakings shall not be sought or accepted from exporters unless the authorities of the importing country have initiated an investigation in accordance with the provisions of Article 5 of this Code. Undertakings offered need not be accepted if the authorities consider their acceptance impractical, for example, if the number of actual of potential exporters is too great, or for other reasons.
3. If the undertakings are accepted, the investigation of injury shall nevertheless be completed if the exporter so desires or the authorities so decide. In such a case, if a determination of no injury or threat thereof is made, the undertaking shall automatically lapse except in cases where a determination of no threat of injury is due in large part to the existence of a price undertaking. In such cases the authorities concerned may require that an undertaking be maintained for a reasonable period consistent with the provisions of this Code.
4. Price undertakings may be suggested by the authorities of the importing country, but no exporter shall be forced to enter into such an undertaking. The fact that exporters do not offer such undertakings, or do not accept an invitation to do so, shall in no way prejudice the consideration of the case. However, the authorities are free to determine that a threat of injury is more. likely to be realized if the dumped imports continue.
5. Authorities of an importing country may require any exporter from whom undertakings have been accepted to provide periodically information relevant to (1)Because different terms are used under the different systems in the various countries, the term "finding" is hereinafter used to mean a decision or formal determination. (2)The word "may" shall not be interpreted to allow the simultaneous continuation of proceedings with the implementation of price undertakings except as provided in paragraph 3.
the fulfilment of such undertakings, and to permit verification of pertinent data. In case of violation of undertakings, the authorities of the importing country may take, under this Code in conformity with its provisions, expeditious actions which may constitute immediate application of provisional measures using the best information available. In such cases definitive duties may be levied in accordance with this Code on goods entered for consumption not more than 90 days before the application of such provisional measures, except that any such retroactive assessment shall not apply to imports entered before the violation of the undertaking.
6. Undertakings shall not remain in force any longer than anti-dumping duties could remain in force under this Code. The authorities of an importing country shall review the need for the continuation of any price undertaking, where warranted, on their own initiative or if interested exporters or importers of the product in question so request and submit positive information substantiating the need for such review.
7. Whenever an anti-dumping investigation is suspended or terminated pursuant to the provisions of paragraph 1 above and whenever an undertaking is terminated, this fact shall be officially notified and must be published. Such notices shall set forth at least the basic conclusions and a summary of the reasons therefor.
Imposition and collection of anti-dumping duties
1. The decision whether or not to impose an anti-dumping duty in cases where all requirements for the imposition have been fulfilled and the decision whether the amount of the anti-dumping duty to be imposed shall be the full margin of dumping or less, are decisions to be made by the authorities of the importing country or customs territory. It is desirable that the imposition be permissive in all countries or customs territories Parties to this Agreement, and that the duty be less than the margin, if such lesser duty would be adequate to remove the injury to the domestic industry.
2. When an anti-dumping duty is imposed in respect of any product, such anti-dumping duty shall be collected in the appropriate amounts in each case, on a non-discriminatory basis on imports of such product from all sources found to be dumped and causing injury, except as to imports from those sources, from which price undertakings under the terms of this Code have been accepted. The authorities shall name the supplier or suppliers of the product concerned. If, however, several suppliers from the same country are involved, and it is impracticable to name all these suppliers, the authorities may name the supplying country concerned. If several suppliers from more than one country are involved, the authorities may name either all the suppliers involved, or, if this is impracticable, all the supplying countries involved.
3. The amount of the anti-dumping duty must not exceed the margin of dumping as established under Article 2. Therefore, if subsequent to the application of the anti-dumping duty it is found that the duty so collected exceeds the actual dumping margin the amount in excess of the margin shall be reimbursed as quickly as possible.
4. Within a basic price system the following rules shall apply provided that their application is consistent with the other provisions of this Code:
If several suppliers from one or more countries are involved, anti-dumping duties may be imposed on imports of the product in question found to have been dumped and to be causing injury from the country or countries concerned, the duty being equivalent to the amount by which the export price is less than the basic price established for this purpose, not exceeding the lowest normal price in the supplying country or countries where normal conditions of competition are prevailing. It is understood that, for products which are sold below this already established basic price, a new anti-dumping investigation shall be carried out in each particular case, when so demanded by the interested parties and the demand is supported by relevant evidence. In cases where no dumping is found, anti-dumping duties collected shall be reimbursed as quickly as possible. Furthermore, if it can be found that the duty so collected exceeds the actual dumping margin, the amount in excess of the margin shall be reimbursed as quickly as possible.
5. Public notice shall be given of any preliminary or final finding whether affirmative or negative and of the revocation of a finding. In the case of affirmative finding each such notice shall set forth the findings and conclusions reached on all issues of fact and law considered material by the investigating authorities, and the reasons and basis therefor. In the case of a negative finding, each notice shall set forth at least the basic conclusions and a summary of the reasons therefor. All notices of finding shall be forwarded to the Party or Parties the products of which are subject to such finding and to the exporters known to have an interest therein.
Duration of anti-dumping duties
1. An anti-dumping duty shall remain in force only as long as, and to the extent necessary to counteract dumping which is causing injury.
2. The investigating authorities shall review the need for the continued imposition of the duty, where warranted, on their own initiative or if any interested party so requests and submits positive information substantiating the need for review.
1. Provisional measures may be taken only after a preliminary affirmative finding has been made that there is dumping and that there is sufficient evidence of injury, as provided for in Article 5 (1) (a) to (c). Provisional measures shall not be applied unless the authorities concerned judge that they are necessary to prevent injury being caused during the period of investigation.
2. Provisional measures may take the form of a provisional duty or, preferably, a security - by cash deposit or bond - equal to the amount of the anti-dumping duty provisionally estimated, being not greater than the provisionally estimated margin of dumping. Withholding of appraisement is an appropriate provisional measure, provided that the normal duty and the estimated amount of the anti-dumping duty be indicated and as long as the withholding of appraisement is subject to the same conditions as other provisional measures.
3. The imposition of provisional measures shall be limited to as short a period as possible, not exceeding four months or, on decision of the authorities concerned, upon request by exporters representing a significant percentage of the trade involved to a period not exceeding six months.
4. The relevant provisions of Article 8 shall be followed in the application of provisional measures.
1. Anti-dumping duties and provisional measures shall only be applied to products which enter for consumption after the time when the decision taken under Article 8 (1) and Article 10 (1), respectively, enters into force, except that in cases: (i) Where a final finding of injury (but not of a threat thereof or of a material retardation of the establishment of an industry) is made or, in the case of a final finding of threat of injury, where the effect of the dumped imports would, in the absence of the provisional measures, have led to a finding of injury, anti-dumping duties may be levied retroactively for the period for which provisional measures, if any, have been applied.
If the anti-dumping duty fixed in the final decision is higher than the provisionally paid duty, the difference shall not be collected. If the duty fixed in the final decision is lower than the provisionally paid duty or the amount estimated for the purpose of the security, the difference shall be reimbursed or the duty recalculated, as the case may be.
(ii) Where for the dumped product in question the authorities determine: (a) either that there is a history of dumping which caused injury or that the importer was, or should have been, aware that the exporter practices dumping and that such dumping would cause injury, and
(b) that the injury is caused by sporadic dumping (massive dumped imports of a product in a relatively short period) to such an extent that, in order to preclude it recurring, it appears necessary to levy an anti-dumping duty retroactively on those imports,
the duty may be levied on products which were entered for consumption not more than 90 days prior to the date of application of provisional measures.
2. Except as provided in paragraph 1 above where a finding of threat of injury or material retardation is made (but no injury has yet occurred) a definitive anti-dumping duty may be imposed only from the date of the finding of threat of injury or material retardation and any cash deposit made during the period of the application of provisional measures shall be refunded and any bonds released in an expeditious manner.
3. Where a final finding is negative any cash deposit made during the period of the application of provisional measures shall be refunded and any bonds released in an expeditious manner.
Anti-dumping action on behalf of a third country
1. An application for anti-dumping action on behalf of a third country shall be made by the authorities of the third country requesting action.
2. Such an application shall be supported by price information to show that the imports are being dumped and by detailed information to show that the alleged dumping is causing injury to the domestic industry concerned in the third country. The government of the third country shall afford all assistance to the authorities of the importing country to obtain any further information which the latter may require.
3. The authorities of the importing country in considering such an application shall consider the effects of the alleged dumping on the industry concerned as a whole in the third country ; that is to say, the injury shall not be assessed in relation only to the effect of the alleged dumping on the industry's exports to the importing country or even on the industry's total exports.
4. The decision whether or not to proceed with a case shall rest with the importing country. If the importing country decides that it is prepared to take action, the initiation of the approach to the Contracting Parties seeking their approval for such action shall rest with the importing country.
It is recognized that special regard must be given by developed countries to the special situation of developing countries when considering the application of anti-dumping measures under this Code. Possibilities of constructive remedies provided for by this Code shall be explored before applying anti-dumping duties where they would affect the essential interests of developing countries.
Committee on Anti-Dumping Practices
1. There shall be established under this Agreement a Committee on Anti-Dumping Practices (hereinafter referred to as "the Committee") composed of representatives from each of the Parties to this Agreement. The Committee shall elect its own chairman and shall meet not less than twice a year and otherwise as envisaged by relevant provisions of this Agreement at the request of any Party. The Committee shall carry out responsibilities as assigned to it under this Agreement or by the Parties and it shall afford Parties the opportunity of consulting on any matters relating to the operation of the Agreement or the furtherance of its objectives. The GATT secretariat shall act as the secretariat to the Committee.
2. The Committee may set up subsidiary bodies as appropriate.
3. In carrying out their functions, the Committee and any subsidiary bodies may consult with and seek information from any source they deem appropriate. However, before the Committee or a subsidiary body seeks such information from a source within the jurisdiction of a Party, it shall inform the Party involved. It shall obtain the consent of the Party and any firm to be consulted.
4. Parties shall report without delay to the Committee all preliminary or final anti-dumping actions taken. such reports will be available in the GATT secretariat for inspection by government representatives. The Parties shall also submit, on a semi-annual basis, reports of any anti-dumping actions taken within the preceding six months.
Article 15 (1)
Consultation, conciliation and dispute settlement
1. Each Party shall afford sympathetic consideration to, and shall afford adequate opportunity for (1)If disputes arise between Parties relating to rights and obligations under this Agreement, Parties should complete the dispute settlement procedures under this Agreement before availing themselves of any rights which they have under the GATT.
consultation regarding, representations made by another Party with respect to any matter affecting the operation of this Agreement.
2. If any Party considers that any benefit accruing to it, directly or indirectly, under this Agreement is being nullified or impaired, or that the achievement of any objective of the Agreement is being impeded by another Party or Parties, it may, with a view to reaching a mutually satisfactory resolution of the matter, request in writing consultations with the Party or Parties in question. Each Party shall afford sympathetic consideration to any request from another Party for consultation. The Parties concerned shall initiate consultation promptly.
3. If any Party considers that the consultation pursuant to paragraph 2 has failed to achieve a mutually agreed solution and final action has been taken by the administering authorities of the importing country to levy definitive anti-dumping duties or to accept price undertakings, it may refer the matter to the Committee for conciliation. When a provisional measure has a significant impact and the Party considers the measure was taken contrary to the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article 10 of this Agreement, a Party may also refer such matter to the Committee for conciliation. In cases where matters are referred to the Committee for conciliation the Committee shall meet within 30 days to review the matter, and, through its good offices, shall encourage the Parties involved to develop a mutually acceptable solution (1).
4. Parties shall make their best efforts to reach a mutually satisfactory solution throughout the period of conciliation.
5. If no mutually agreed solution has been reached after detailed examination by the Committee under paragraph 3 within three months, the Committee shall, at the request of any party to the dispute, establish a panel to examine the matter, based upon: (a) a written statement of the Party making the request indicating how a benefit accruing to it, directly or indirectly, under this Agreement has been nullified or impaired, or that the achieving of the objectives of the Agreement is being impeded, and
(b) the facts made available in conformity with appropriate domestic procedures to the authorities of the importing country.
6. Confidential information provided to the panel shall not be revealed without formal authorization from the person or authority providing the information. Where such information is requested from the panel but release of such information by the panel is not authorized, a non-confidential summary of the information, authorized by the authority or person providing the information, will be provided.
7. Further to paragraphs 1 to 6 the settlement of disputes shall mutatis mutandis be governed by the provisions of the understanding regarding notification, consultation, dispute settlement and surveillance. Panel members shall have relevant experience and be selected from the Parties not parties to the dispute.
1. No specific action against dumping of exports from another Party can be taken except in accordance with the provisions of the General Agreement, as interpreted by this Agreement (2).
Acceptance and accession
2. (a) This Agreement shall be open for acceptance by signature or otherwise, by Government Contracting Parties to the GATT and by the European Economic Community.
(b) This Agreement shall be open for acceptance by signature or otherwise by governments having provisionally acceded to the GATT, on terms related to the effective application of rights and obligations under this Agreement, which take into account rights and obligations in the instruments providing for their provisional accession. (1)In this connection the Committee may draw Parties' attention to those cases in which, in its view, there are no reasonable bases supporting the allegations made. (2)This is not intended to preclude action under other relevant provisions of the General Agreement, as appropriate.
(c) This Agreement shall be open to accession by any other government on terms, related to the effective application of rights and obligations under this Agreement, to be agreed between that government and the Parties, by the deposit with the Director-General to the Contracting Parties to the GATT of an instrument of accession which states the terms so agreed.
(d) In regard to acceptance, the provisions of Article XXVI (5) (a) and (b) of the General Agreement would be applicable.
3. Reservations may not be entered in respect of any of the provisions of this Agreement without the consent of the other Parties.
Entry into force
4. This Agreement shall enter into force on 1 January 1980 for the governments (1) which have accepted or acceded to it by that date. For each other government it shall enter into force on the 30th day following the date of its acceptance or accession to this Agreement.
Denunciation of the 1967 Agreement
5. Acceptance of this Agreement shall carry denunciation of the Agreement on Implementation of Article VI of the General Agreement on tariffs and trade, done at Geneva on 30 June 1967, which entered into force on 1 July 1968, for Parties to the 1967 Agreement. Such denunciation shall take effect for each Party to this Agreement on the date of entry into force of this Agreement for each such Party.
6. (a) Each government accepting or acceding to this Agreement shall take all necessary steps, of a general or particular character, to ensure, not later than the date of entry into force of this Agreement for it, the conformity of its laws, regulations and administrative procedures with the provisions of this Agreement as they may apply for the Party in question.
(b) Each Party shall inform the Committee of any changes in its laws and regulations relevant to this Agreement and in the administration of such laws and regulations.
7. The Committee shall review annually the implementation and operation of this Agreement taking into account the objectives thereof. The Committee shall annually inform the Contracting Parties to the GATT of developments during the period covered by such reviews.
8. The Parties may amend this Agreement having regard inter alia to the experience gained in its implementation. Such an amendment, once the Parties have concurred in accordance with procedures established by the Committee, shall not come into force for any Party until it has been accepted by such Party.
9. Any Party may withdraw from this Agreement. The withdrawal shall take effect upon the expiration of 60 days from the day on which written notice of withdrawal is received by the Director-General to the Contracting Parties to the GATT. Any Party may upon such notification request an immediate meeting of the Committee.
Non-application of this Agreement between particular Parties
10. This Agreement shall not apply as between any two Parties if either of the Parties, at the time either accepts or accedes to this Agreement, does not consent to such application.
11. This Agreement shall be serviced by the GATT secretariat. (1)The term "government" is deemed to include the competent authorities of the European Economic Community.
12. This Agreement shall be deposited with the Director-General to the Contracting Parties to the GATT, who shall promptly furnish to each Party and each Contracting Party to the GATT a certified copy thereof and of each amendment thereto pursuant to paragraph 8, and a notification of each acceptance thereof or accession thereto pursuant to paragraph 2, and of each withdrawal therefrom pursuant to paragraph 9 of this Article.
13. This Agreement shall be registered in accordance with the provisions of Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.
Done at Geneva this twelfth day of April nineteen hundred and seventy-nine in a single copy, in the English, French and Spanish languages, each text being authentic.
ADDENDUM 1 to Agreement on implementation of Article VI of the General Agreement on tariffs and trade
The following statement is circulated at the request of the delegations of Austria, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, European Communities, Egypt, Finland, Japan, Norway, Romania, Sweden, Switzerland and United States.
With regard to the Agreement on implementation of Article VI of the General Agreement on tariffs and trade, the above-noted delegations, cognizant of the commitment in Article 13 of the Agreement that special regard must be given by developed countries to the special situation of developing countries when considering the application of anti-dumping measures under this Code, agree that: 1. In developing countries, governments play a large role in promoting economic growth and development in accordance with their national priorities, and their economic regimes for the export sector can be different from those relating to their domestic sectors resulting inter alia in different cost structures. This Agreement is not intended to prevent developing countries from adopting measures in this context, including measures in the export sector, as long as they are used in a manner which is consistent with the provisions of the General Agreement on tariffs and trade, as applicable to these countries.
2. In the case of imports from a developing country, the fact that the export price may be lower than the comparable price for the like product when destined for domestic consumption in the exporting country does not per se justify an investigation or the determination of dumping unless the other factors mentioned in Article 5 (1) are also present. Due consideration should be given to all cases where, because special economic conditions affect prices in the home market, these prices do not provide a commercially realistic basis for dumping calculations. In such cases the normal value for the purposes of ascertaining whether the goods are being dumped shall be determined by methods such as a comparison of the export price with the comparable price of the like product when exported to any third country or with the cost of production of the exported goods in the country of origin plus a reasonable amount for administrative, selling and any other costs and for profits.
In view of the foregoing, it would be the understanding of the above-noted delegations that the proposal for an amendment to the text of the Agreement on the implementation of Article VI of the General Agreement on tariffs and trade is no longer maintained.
ADDENDUM 2 to Agreement on implementation of Article VI of the General Agreement on tariffs and trade
The following statement is circulated at the request of the delegations of Austria, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, European Communities, Egypt, Finland, Japan, Norway, Romania, Sweden, Switzerland and United States.
It is recognized that developing countries may face special problems initially in adapting their legislation to the requirements of the Code, including administrative and infrastructural problems, in carrying out anti-dumping investigations initiated by them. Accordingly, the Committee on Anti-Dumping Practices may grant, upon specific request and on conditions to be negotiated on a case-by-case basis, time-limited exceptions in whole or in part from obligations which relate to investigations undertaken by a developing country under this Agreement.
Developed countries Parties to this Agreement shall endeavour to furnish, upon request and on terms to be agreed, technical assistance to developing countries Parties to this Agreement, with regard to the implementation of this Agreement, including training of personnel, and the supplying of information on methods, techniques and other aspects of conducting investigations on dumping practices.