FINAL ACT Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations
Marrakesh, 15 April 1994
1. Having met in order to conclude the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, representatives of the governments and of the European Communities, members of the Trade Negotiations Committee, agree that the Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization (referred to in this Final Act as the 'WTO Agreement'), the Ministerial Declarations and Decisions, and the Understanding on Commitments in Financial Services, as annexed hereto, embody the results of their negotiations and form an integral part of this Final Act.
2. By signing the present Final Act, the representatives agree
(a) to submit, as appropriate, the WTO Agreement for the consideration of their respective competent authorities with a view to seeking approval of the Agreement in accordance with their procedures; and
(b) to adopt the Ministerial Declarations and Decisions.
3. The representatives agree on the desirability of acceptance of the WTO Agreement by all participants in the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations (hereinafter referred to as 'participants') with a view to its entry into force by 1 January 1995, or as early as possible thereafter. Not later than late 1994, Ministers will meet, in accordance with the final paragraph of the Punta del Este Ministerial Declaration, to decide on the international implementation of the results, including the timing of their entry into force.
4. The representatives agree that the WTO Agreement shall be open for acceptance as a whole, by signature or otherwise, by all participants pursuant to Article XIV thereof. The acceptance and entry into force of a Plurilateral Trade Agreement included in Annex 4 of the WTO Agreement shall be governed by the provisions of that Plurilateral Trade Agreement.
5. Before accepting the WTO Agreement, participants which are not contracting parties to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade must first have concluded negotiations for their accession to the General Agreement and become contracting parties thereto. For participants which are not contracting parties to the General Agreement as of the date of the Final Act, the Schedules are not definitive and shall be subsequently completed for the purpose of their accession to the General Agreement and acceptance of the WTO Agreement.
6. This Final Act and the texts annexed hereto shall be deposited with the Director-General to the CONTRACTING PARTIES to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade who shall promptly furnish to each participant a certified copy thereof.
Done at Marrakesh this fifteenth day of April one thousand nine hundred and ninety-four, in a single copy, in the English, French and Spanish languages, each text being authentic.
[List of signatures to be included in the treaty copy of the Final Act for signature]
DECISION ON MEASURES IN FAVOUR OF LEAST-DEVELOPED COUNTRIES
Recognizing the plight of the least-developed countries and the need to ensure their effective participation in the world trading system, and to take further measures to improve their trading opportunities;
Recognizing the specific needs of the least-developed countries in the area of market access where continued preferential access remains an essential means for improving their trading opportunities;
Reaffirming their commitment to implement fully the provisions concerning the least-developed countries contained in paragraphs 2(d), 6 and 8 of the Decision of 28 November 1979 on Differential and More Favourable Treatment, Reciprocity and Fuller Participation of Developing Countries;
Having regard to the commitment of the participants as set out in Section B (vii) of Part I of the Punta del Este Ministerial Declaration;
1. DECIDE THAT, if not already provided for in the instruments negotiated in the course of the Uruguay Round, notwithstanding their acceptance of these instruments, the least-developed countries, and for so long as they remain in that category, while complying with the general rules set out in the aforesaid instruments, will only be required to undertake commitments and concessions to the extent consistent with their individual development, financial and trade needs, or their administrative and institutional capabilities. The least-developed countries shall be given additional time of one year from 15 April 1994 to submit their schedules as required in Article XI of the Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization.
2. AGREE THAT:
(i) Expeditious implementation of all special and differential measures taken in favour of least-developed countries including those taken within the context of the Uruguay Round shall be ensured through inter alia regular reviews.
(ii) to the extent possible, MFN concessions on tariff and non-tariff measures agreed in the Uruguay Round on products of export interest to the least-developed countries may be implemented autonomously, in advance and without staging. Consideration shall be given to further improve GSP and other schemes for products of particular export interest to least-developed countries.
(iii) The rules set out in the various agreements and instruments and the transitional provisions in the Uruguay Round should be applied in a flexible and supportive manner for the least-developed countries. To this effect, sympathetic consideration shall be given to specific and motivated concerns raised by the least-developed countries in the appropriate Councils and Committees.
(iv) In the application of import relief measures and other measures referred to in paragraph 3(c) of Article XXXVII of GATT 1947 and the corresponding provision of GATT 1994, special consideration shall be given to the export interests of least-developed countries.
(v) Least-developed countries shall be accorded substantially increased technical assistance in the development, strengthening and diversification of their production and export bases including those of services, as well as in trade promotion, to enable them to maximize the benefits from liberalized access to markets.
3. AGREE to keep under review the specific needs of the least-developed countries and to continue to seek the adoption of positive measures which facilitate the expansion of trading opportunities in favour of these countries.
DECLARATION ON THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION TO ACHIEVING GREATER COHERENCE IN GLOBAL ECONOMIC POLICY-MAKING
1. Ministers recognize that the globalization of the world economy has led to ever-growing interactions between the economic policies pursued by individual countries, including interactions between the structural, macro-economic, trade, financial and development aspects of economic policy-making. The task of achieving harmony between these policies falls primarily on governments at the national level, but their coherence internationally is an important and valuable element in increasing the effectiveness of these policies at national level. The Agreement reached in the Uruguay Round show that all the participating governments recognize the contribution that liberal trading policies can make to the healthy growth and development of their own economies and of the world economy as a whole.
2. Successful operation in each area of economic policy contributes to progress in other areas. Greater exchange rate stability, based on more orderly underlying economic and financial conditions, should contribute towards the expansion of trade, sustainable growth and development, and the correction of external imbalances. There is also a need for an adequate and timely flow of concessional and non-concessional financial and real investment resources to developing countries and for further efforts to address debt problems, to help ensure economic growth and development. Trade liberalization forms an increasingly important component in the success of the adjustment programmes that many countries are undertaking, often involving significant transitional social costs. In this connection, Ministers note the role of the World Bank and the IMF in supporting adjustment to trade liberalization, including support to net food-importing developing countries facing short-term costs arising from agricultural trade reforms.
3. The positive outcome of the Uruguay Round is a major contribution towards more coherent and complementary international economic policies. The results of the Uruguay Round ensure an expansion of market access to the benefit of all countries, as well as a framework of strengthened multilateral disciplines for trade. They also guarantee that trade policy will be conducted in a more transparent manner and with greater awareness of the benefits for domestic competitiveness of an open trading environment. The strengthened multilateral trading system emerging from the Uruguay Round has the capacity to provide an improved forum for liberalization, to contribute to more effective surveillance, and to ensure strict observance of multilaterally agreed rules and disciplines. These improvements mean that trade policy can in the future play a more substantial role in ensuring the coherence of global economic policy-making.
4. Ministers recognize, however, that difficulties the origins of which lie outside the trade field cannot be redressed through measures taken in the trade field alone. This underscores the importance of efforts to improve other elements of global economic policy-making to complement the effective implementation of the results achieved in the Uruguay Round.
5. The interlinkages between the different aspects of economic policy require that the international institutions with responsibilities in each of these areas follow consistent and mutually supportive policies. The World Trade Organization should therefore pursue and develop cooperation with the international organizations responsible for monetary and financial matters, while respecting the mandate, the confidentiality requirements and the necessary autonomy in decision-making procedures of each institution, and avoiding the imposition on governments of cross-conditionality or additional conditions. Ministers further invite the Director-General of the WTO to review with the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund and the President of the World Bank, the implications of the WTO's responsibilities for its cooperation with the Bretton Woods institutions, as well as the forms such cooperation might take, with a view to achieving greater coherence in global economic policy-making.
DECISION ON NOTIFICATION PROCEDURES
Ministers decide to recommend adoption by the Ministerial Conference of the decision on improvement and review of notification procedures set out below.
Desiring to improve the operation of notification procedures under the Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization (hereinafter referred to as the 'WTO Agreement'), and thereby to contribute to the transparency of Members' trade policies and to the effectiveness of surveillance arrangements established to that end;
Recalling obligations under the WTO Agreement to publish and notify, including obligations assumed under the terms of specific protocols of accession, waivers, and other agreements entered into by Members;
AGREE AS FOLLOWS:
I. General obligation to notify
Members affirm their commitment to obligations under the Multilateral Trade Agreements and, where applicable, the Plurilateral Trade Agreements, regarding publication and notification.
Members recall their undertakings set out in the Understanding Regarding Notification, Consultation, Dispute Settlement and Surveillance adopted on 28 November 1979 (BISD 26S/210). With regard to their undertaking therein to notify, to the maximum extent possible, their adoption of trade measures affecting the operation of GATT 1994, such notification itself being without prejudice to views on the consistency of measures with or their relevance to rights and obligations under the Multilateral Trade Agreements and, where applicable, the Plurilateral Trade Agreements, Members agree to be guided, as appropriate, by the annexed list of measures. Members therefore agree that the introduction or modification of such measures is subject to the notification requirements of the 1979 Understanding.
II. Central registry of notifications
A central registry of notifications shall be established under the responsibility of the Secretariat. While Members will continue to follow existing notification procedures, the Secretariat shall ensure that the central registry records such elements of the information provided on the measure by the Member concerned as its purpose, its trade coverage, and the requirement under which it has been notified. The central registry shall cross-reference its records of notifications by Member and obligation.
The central registry shall inform each Member annually of the regular notification obligations to which that Member will be expected to respond in the course of the following year.
The central registry shall draw the attention of individual Members to regular notification requirements which remain unfulfilled.
Information in the central registry regarding individual notifications shall be made available on request to any Member entitled to receive the notification concerned.
III. Review of notification obligations and procedures
The Council for Trade in Goods will undertake a review of notification obligations and procedures under the Agreements in Annex 1A of the WTO Agreement. The review will be carried out by a working group, membership in which will be open to all Members. The group will be established immediately after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement.
The terms of reference of the working group will be:
- to undertake a thorough review of all existing notification obligations of Members established under the Agreements in Annex 1A of the WTO Agreement, with a view to simplifying, standardizing and consolidating these obligations to the greatest extent practicable, as well as to improving compliance with these obligations, bearing in mind the overall objective of improving the transparency of the trade policies of Members and the effectiveness of surveillance arrangements established to this end, and also bearing in mind the possible need of some developing country Members for assistance in meeting their notification obligations;
- to make recommendations to the Council for Trade in Goods not later than two years after the entry into force of the WTO Agreement.
INDICATIVE LIST (1) OF NOTIFIABLE MEASURES
Tariffs (including range and scope of bindings, GSP provisions, rates applied to members of free-trade areas/customs unions, other preferences)
Tariff quotas and surcharges
Quantitative restrictions, including voluntary export restraints and orderly marketing arrangements affecting imports
Other non-tariff measures such as licensing and mixing requirements; variable levies
Rules of origin
Export subsidies, tax exemptions and concessionary export financing
Free-trade zones, including in-bond manufacturing
Export restrictions, including voluntary export restraints and orderly marketing arrangements
Other government assistance, including subsidies, tax exemptions
Role of State-trading enterprises
Foreign exchange controls related to imports and exports
Any other measure covered by the Multilateral Trade Agreements in Annex 1A to the WTO Agreement
DECLARATION ON THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION WITH THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND
Noting the close relationship between the CONTRACTING PARTIES to the GATT 1947 and the International Monetary Fund, and the provisions of the GATT 1947 governing that relationship, in particular Article XV of the GATT 1947;
Recognizing the desire of participants to base the relationship of the World Trade Organization with the International Monetary Fund, with regard to the areas covered by the Multilateral Trade Agreements in Annex 1A of the WTO Agreement, on the provisions that have governed the relationship of the CONTRACTING PARTIES to the GATT 1947 with the International Monetary Fund;
Hereby reaffirm that, unless otherwise provided for in the Final Act, the relationship of the WTO with the International Monetary Fund, with regard to the areas covered by the Multilateral Trade Agreements in Annex 1A of the WTO Agreement, will be based on the provisions that have governed the relationship of the CONTRACTING PARTIES to the GATT 1947 with the International Monetary Fund.
DECISION ON MEASURES CONCERNING THE POSSIBLE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF THE REFORM PROGRAMME ON LEAST-DEVELOPED AND NET FOOD-IMPORTING DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
1. Ministers recognize that the progressive implementation of the results of the Uruguay Round as a whole will generate increasing opportunities for trade expansion and economic growth to the benefit of all participants.
2. Ministers recognize that during the reform programme leading to greater liberalization of trade in agriculture least-developed and net food-importing developing countries may experience negative effects in terms of the availability of adequate supplies of basic foodstuffs from external sources on reasonable terms and conditions, including short-term difficulties in financing normal levels of commercial imports of basic foodstuffs.
3. Ministers accordingly agree to establish appropriate mechanisms to ensure that the implementation of the results of the Uruguay Round on trade in agriculture does not adversely affect the availability of food aid at a level which is sufficient to continue to provide assistance in meeting the food needs of developing countries, especially least-developed and net food-importing developing countries. To this end Ministers agree:
(i) to review the level of food aid established periodically by the Committee on Food Aid under the Food Aid Convention 1986 and to initiate negotiations in the appropriate forum to establish a level of food aid commitments sufficient to meet the legitimate needs of developing countries during the reform programme;
(ii) to adopt guidelines to ensure that an increasing proportion of basic foodstuffs is provided to least-developed and net food-importing developing countries in fully grant form and/or on appropriate concessional terms in line with Article IV of the Food Aid Convention 1986;
(iii) to give full consideration in the context of their aid programmes to requests for the provision of technical and financial assistance to least-developed and net food-importing developing countries to improve their agricultural productivity and infrastructure.
4. Ministers further agree to ensure that any agreement relating to agricultural export credits makes appropriate provision for differential treatment in favour of least-developed and net food-importing developing countries.
5. Ministers recognize that as a result of the Uruguay Round certain developing countries may experience short-term difficulties in financing normal levels of commercial imports and that these countries may be eligible to draw on the resources of international financial institutions under existing facilities, or such facilities as may be established, in the context of adjustment programmes, in order to address such financing difficulties. In this regard Ministers take note of paragraph 37 of the report of the Director-General to the CONTRACTING PARTIES to GATT 1947 on his consultations with the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund and the President of the World Bank (MTN.GNG/NG14/W/35).
6. The provisions of this Decision will be subject to regular review by the Ministerial Conference, and the follow-up to this Decision shall be monitored, as appropriate, by the Committee on Agriculture.
DECISION ON NOTIFICATION OF FIRST INTEGRATOIN UNDER ARTICLE 2.6 OF THE AGREEMENT ON TEXTILES AND CLOTHING
Ministers agree that the participants maintaining restrictions falling under paragraph 1 of Article 2 of the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing shall notify full details of the actions to be taken pursuant to paragraph 6 of Article 2 of that Agreement to the GATT Secretariat not later than 1 October 1994. The GATT Secretariat shall promptly circulate these notifications to the other participants for information. These notifications will be made available to the Textiles Monitoring Body, when established, for the purposes of paragraph 21 of Article 2 of the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing.
DECISION ON PROPOSED UNDERSTANDING IN WTO-ISO STANDARDS INFORMATION SYSTEM
Ministers decide to recommend that the Secretariat of the World Trade Organization reach an understanding with the International Organization for Standardization ('ISO') to establish an information system under which:
1. Isonet members shall transmit to the ISO/IEC Information Centre in Geneva the notifications referred to in paragraphs C and J of the Code of Good Practice for the Preparation, Adoption and Application of Standards in Annex 3 to the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade, in the manner indicated there;
2. the following (alpha)numeric classification systems shall be used in the work programmes referred to in paragraph J:
(a) a standards classification system which would allow standardizing bodies to give for each standard mentioned in the work programme an (alpha)numeric indication of the subject matter;
(b) a stage code system which would allow standardizing bodies to give for each standard mentioned in the work programme an (alpha)numeric indication of the stage of development of the standard; for this purpose, at least five stages of development should be distinguished: (1) the stage at which the decision to develop a standard has been taken, but technical work has not yet begun; (2) the stage at which technical work has begun, but the period for the submissoin of comments has not yet started; (3) the stage at which the period for the submission of comments has started, but has not yet been completed; (4) the stage at which the period for the submission of comments has been completed, but the standard has not yet been adopted; and (5) the stage at which the standard hs been adopted;
(c) an identification system covering all international standards which would allow standardizing bodies to give for each standard mentioned in the work programme an (alpha)numeric indication of the international standard(s) used as a basis;
3. the ISO/IEC Information Centre shall promptly convey to the Secretariat copies of any notifications referred to in paragraph C of the Code of Good Practice;
4. the ISO/IEC Information Centre shall regularly publish the information received in the notifications made to it under paragraphs C and J of the Code of Good Practice; this publication, for which a reasonable fee may be charged, shall be available to Isonet members and through the Secretariat to the Members of the WTO.
DECISION ON REVIEW OF THE ISO/IEC INFORMATION CENTRE PUBLICATION
Ministers decide that in conformity with paragraph 1 of Article 13 of the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade in Annex 1A of the Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, the Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade established thereunder shall, without prejudice to provisions on consultation and dispute settlement, at least once a year review the publication provided by the ISO/IEC Information Centre on information received according to the Code of Good Practice for the Preparation, Adoption and Application of Standards in Annex 3 of the Agreement, for the purpose of affording Members opportunity of discussing any matters relating to the operation of that Code.
In order to facilitate this discussion, the Secretariat shall provide a list by Member of all standardizing bodies that have accepted the Code, as well as a list of those standardizing bodies that have accepted or withdrawn from the Code since the previous review.
The Secretariat shall also distribute promptly to the Members copies of the notifications it receives from the ISO/IEC Information Centre.
DECISION ON ANTI-CIRCUMVENTION
Noting that while the problem of circumvention of anti-dumping duty measures formed part of the negotiations which preceded the Agreement on Implementation of Article VI of GATT 1994, negotiators were unable to agree on specific text,
Mindful of the desirability of the applicability of uniform rules in this area as soon as possible,
decide to refer this matter to the Committee on Anti-Dumping Practices established under that Agreement for resolution.
DECISION ON REVIEW OF ARTICLE 17.6 OF THE AGREEMENT ON IMPLEMENTATION OF ARTICLE VI OF THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE 1994
Ministers decide as follows:
The standard of review in paragraph 6 of Article 17 of the Agreement on Implementation of Article VI of GATT 1994 shall be reviewed after a period of three years with a view to considering the question of whether it is capable of general application.
DECLARATION ON DISPUTE SETTLEMENT PURSUANT TO THE AGREEMENT ON IMPLEMENTATION OF ARTICLE VI OF THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE 1994 OR PART V OF THE AGREEMENT ON SUBSIDIES AND COUNTERVAILING MEASURES
Ministers recognize, with respect to dispute settlement pursuant to the Agreement on Implementation of Article VI of GATT 1994 or Part V of the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, the need for the consistent resolution of disputes arising from anti-dumping and countervailing duty measures.
DECISION REGARDING CASES WHERE CUSTOMS ADMINISTRATIONS HAVE REASONS TO DOUBT THE TRUTH OR ACCURACY OF THE DECLARED VALUE
Ministers invite the Committee on Customs Valuation established under the Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of GATT 1994 to take the following decision:
THE COMMITTEE ON CUSTOMS VALUATION,
Reaffirming that the transaction value is the primary basis of valuation under the Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of GATT 1994 (hereinafter referred to as the 'Agreement');
Recognizing that the customs administration may have to address cases where it has reason to doubt the truth or accuracy of the particulars or of documents produced by traders in support of a declared value;
Emphasizing that in so doing the customs administration should not prejudice the legitimate commercial interests of traders;
Taking into account Article 17 of the Agreement, paragraph 6 of Annex III to the Agreement, and the relevant decisions of the Technical Committee on Customs Valuation;
DECIDES AS FOLLOWS:
1. When a declaration has been presented and were the customs administration has reason to doubt the truth or accuracy of the particulars or of documents produced in support of this declaration, the customs administration may ask the importer to provide further explanation, including documents or other evidence, that the declared value represents the total amount actually paid or payable for the imported goods, adjusted in accordance with the provisions of Article 8. If, after receiving further information, or in the absence of a response, the customs administration still has reasonable doubts about the truth or accuracy of the declared value, it may, bearing in mind the provisions of Article 11, be deemed that the customs value of the imported goods cannot be determined under the provisions of Article 1. Before taking a final decision, the customs administration shall communicate to the importer, in writing if requested, its grounds for doubting the truth or accuracy of the particulars or documents produced and the importer shall be given a reasonable opportunity to respond. When a final decision is made, the customs administration shall communicate to the importer in writing its decision and the grounds therefor.
2. It is entirely appropriate in applying the Agreement for one Member to assist another Member on mutually agreed terms.
DECISION ON TEXTS RELATING TO MINIMUM VALUES AND IMPORTS BY SOLE AGENTS, SOLE DISTRIBUTORS AND SOLE CONCESSIONAIRES
Ministers decide to refer the following texts to the Committee on Customs Valuation established under the Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of GATT 1994, for adoption.
Where a developing country makes a reservation to retain officially established minimum values within the terms of paragraph 2 of Annex III and shows good cause, the Committee shall give the request for the reservation sympathetic consideration.
Where a reservation is consented to, the terms and conditions referred to in paragraph 2 of Annex III shall take full account of the development, financial and trade needs of the developing country concerned.
1. A number of developing countries have a concern that problems may exist in the valuation of imports by sole agents, sole distributors and sole concessionaries. Under paragraph 1 of Article 20, developing country Members have a period of delay of up to five years prior to the application of the Agreement. In this context, developing country Members availing themselves of this provision could use the period to conduct appropriate studies and to take such other actions as are necessary to facilitate application.
2. In consideration of this, the Committee recommends that the Customs Cooperation Council assist developing country Members, in accordance with the provisions of Annex II, to formulate and conduct studies in areas identified as being of potential concern, including those relating to importations by sole agents, sole distribuors and sole concessionaires.
DECISION ON INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TRADE IN SERVICES
Ministers decide to recommend that the Council for Trade in Services at its first meeting adopt the decision on subsidiary bodies set out below.
THE COUNCIL FOR TRADE IN SERVICES,
Acting pursuant to Article XXIV with a view to facilitating the operation and furthering the objectives of the General Agreement on Trade in Services,
DECIDES AS FOLLOWS:
1. Any subsidiary bodies that the Council may establish shall report to the Council annually or more often as necessary. Each such body shall establish its own rules of procedure, and may set up its own subsidiary bodies as appropriate.
2. Any sectoral committee shall carry out responsibilities as assigned to it by the Council, and shall afford Members the opportunity to consult on any matters relating to trade in services in the sector concerned and the operation of the sectoral annex to which it may pertain. Such responsibilities shall include:
(a) to keep under continuous review and surveillance the application of the Agreement with respect to the sector concerned;
(b) to formulate proposals or recommendations for consideration by the Council in connection with any matter relating to trade in the sector concerned;
(c) if there is an annex pertaining to the sector, to consider proposals for amendment of that sectoral annex, and to make appropriate recommendations to the Council;
(d) to provide a forum for technical discussions, to conduct studies on measures of Members and to conduct examinations of any other technical matters affecting trade in services in the sector concerned;
(e) to provide technical assistance to developing country Members and developing countries negotiating accession to the Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization in respect of the application of obligations or other matters affecting trade in services in the sector concerned; and
(f) to cooperate with any other subsidiary bodies established under the General Agreement on Trade in Services or any international organizations active in any sector concerned.
3. There is hereby established a Committee on Trade in Financial Services which will have the responsibilities listed in paragraph 2.
DECISION ON CERTAIN DISPUTE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES FOR THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TRADE IN SERVICES
Ministers decide to recommend that the Council for Trade in Services at its first meeting adopt the decision set out below.
THE COUNCIL FOR TRADE IN SERVICES,
Taking into account the specific nature of the obligations and specific commitments of the Agreement, and of trade in services, with respect to dispute settlement under Articles XXII and XXIII,
DECIDES AS FOLLOWS:
1. A roster of panelists shall be established to assist in the selection of panelists.
2. To this end, Members may suggest names of individuals possessing the qualifications referred to in paragraph 3 for inclusion on the roster, and shall provide a curriculum vitae of their qualifications including, if applicable, indication of sector-specific expertise.
3. Panels shall be composed of well-qualified governmental and/or non-governmental individuals who have experience in issues related to the General Agreement on Trade in Services and/or trade in services, including associated regulatory matters. Panelists shall serve in their individual capacities and not as representatives of any government or organization.
4. Panels for disputes regarding sectoral matters shall have the necessary expertise relevant to the specific services sectors which the dispute concerns.
5. The Secretariat shall maintain the roster and shall develop procedures for its administration in consultation with the Chairman of the Council.
DECISION ON TRADE IN SERVICES AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Ministers decide to recommend that the Council for Trade in Services at its first meeting adopt the decision set out below.
THE COUNCIL FOR TRADE IN SERVICES,
Acknowledging that measures necessary to protect the environment may conflict with the provisions of the Agreement; and
Noting that since measures necessary to protect the environment typically have as their objective the protection of human, animal or plant life or health, it is not clear that there is a need to provide for more than is contained in paragraph (b) of Article XIV;
DECIDES AS FOLLOWS:
1. In order to determine whether any modification of Article XIV of the Agreement is required to take account of such measures, to request the Committee on Trade and Environment to examine and report, with recommendations if any, on the relationship between services trade and the environment including the issue of sustainable development. The Committee shall also examine the relevance of inter-governmental agreements on the environment and their relationship to the Agreement.
2. The Committee shall report the results of its work to the first biennial meeting of the Ministerial Conference after the entry into force of the Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization.
DECISION ON NEGOTIATIONS ON MOVEMENT OF NATURAL PERSONS
Noting the commitments resulting from the Uruguay Round negotiations on the movement of natural persons for the purpose of supplying services;
Mindful of the objectives of the General Agreement on Trade in Services, including the increasing participation of developing countries in trade in services and the expansion of their service exports;
Recognizing the importance of achieving higher levels of commitments on the movement of natural persons, in order to provide for a balance of benefits under the General Agreement on Trade in Services;
DECIDE AS FOLLOWS:
1. Negotiations on further liberalization of movement of natural persons for the purpose of supplying services shall continue beyond the conclusion of the Uruguay Round, with a view to allowing the achievement of higher levels of commitments by participants under the General Agreement on Trade in Services.
2. A Negotiating Group on Movement of Natural Persons is established to carry out the negotiations. The group shall establish its own procedures and shall report periodically to the Council on Trade in Services.
3. The negotiating group shall hold its first negotiating session no later than 16 May 1994. It shall conclude these negotiations and produce a final report no later than six months after the entry into force of the Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization.
4. Commitments resulting from these negotiations shall be inscribed in Members' Schedules of specific commitments.
DECISION ON FINANCIAL SERVICES
Noting that commitments scheduled by participants on financial services at the conclusion of the Uruguay Round shall enter into force on an MFN basis at the same time as the Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization (hereinafter referred to as the 'WTO Agreement'),
DECIDE AS FOLLOWS:
1. At the conclusion of a period ending no later than six months after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, Members shall be free to improve, modify or withdraw all or part of their commitments in this sector without offering compensation, notwithstanding the provisions of Article XXI of the General Agreement on Trade in Services. At the same time Members shall finalize their positions relating to MFN exemptions in this sector, notwithstanding the provisions of the Annex on Article II Exemptions. From the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement and until the end of the period referred to above, exemptions listed in the Annex on Article II Exemptions which are conditional upon the level of commitments undertaken by other participants or upon exemptions by other participants will not be applied.
2. The Committee on Trade in Financial Services shall monitor the progress of any negotiations undertaken under the terms of this Decision and shall report thereon to the Council for Trade in Services no later than four months after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement.
DECISION ON NEGOTIATIONS ON MARITIME TRANSPORT SERVICES
Noting that commitments scheduled by participants on maritime transport services at the conclusion of the Uruguay Round shall enter into force on an MFN basis at the same time as the Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization (hereinafter referred to as the 'WTO Agreement'),
DECIDE AS FOLLOWS:
1. Negotiations shall be entered into on a voluntary basis in the sector of maritime transport services within the framework of the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The negotiations shall be comprehensive in scope, aiming at commitments in international shipping, auxiliary services and access to and use of port facilities, leading to the elimination of restrictions within a fixed time scale.
2. A Negotiating Group on Maritime Transport Services (hereinafter referred to as the 'NGMTS') is established to carry out this mandate. The NGMTS shall report periodically on the progress of these negotiations.
3. The negotiations in the NGMTS shall be open to all governments and the European Communities which announce their intention to participate. To date, the following have announced their intention to take part in the negotiations:
Argentina, Canada, European Communities and their Member States, Finland, Hong Kong, Iceland, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Singapore, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, United States.
Further notifications of intention to participate shall be addressed to the depositary of the WTO Agreement.
4. The NGMTSs shall hold its first negotiating session no later than 16 May 1994. It shall conclude these negotiations and make a final report no later than June 1996. The final report of the NGMTS shall include a date for the implementation of results of these negotiations.
5. Until the conclusion of the negotiations Article II and paragraphs 1 and 2 of the Annex on Article II Exemptions are suspended in their application to this sector, and it is not necessary to list MFN exemptions. At the conclusion of the negotiations, Members shall be free to improve, modify or withdraw any commitments made in this sector during the Uruguay Round without offering compensation, notwithstanding the provisions of Article XXI of the Agreement. At the same time Members shall finalize their positions relating to MFN exemptions in this sector, notwithstanding the provisions of the Annex on Article II Exemptions. Should negotiations not succeed, the Council for Trade in Services shall decide whether to continue the negotiations in accordance with this mandate.
6. Any commitments resulting from the negotiations, including the date of their entry into force, shall be inscribed in the Schedules annexed to the General Agreement on Trade in Services and be subject to all the provisions of the Agreement.
7. Commencing immediately and continuing until the implementation date to be determined under paragraph 4, it is understood that participants shall not apply any measure affecting trade in maritime transport services except in response to measures applied by other countries and with a view to maintaining or improving the freedom of provision of maritime transport services, nor in such a manner as would improve their negotiating position and leverage.
8. The implementation of paragraph 7 shall be subject to surveillance in the NGMTS. Any participant may bring to the attention of the NGMTS any action or omission which it believes to be relevant to the fulfilment of paragraph 7. Such notifications shall be deemed to have been submitted to the NGMTS upon their receipt by the Secretariat.
DECISION ON NEGOTIATIONS ON BASIC TELECOMMUNICATIONS
MINISTERS DECIDE AS FOLLOWS:
1. Negotiations shall be entered into on a voluntary basis with a view to the progressive liberalization of trade in telecommunications transport networks and services (hereinafter referred to as 'basic telecommunications') within the framework of the General Agreement on Trade in Services.
2. Without prejudice to their outcome, the negotiations shall be comprehensive in scope, with no basic telecommunications excluded a priori.
3. A Negotiating Group on Basic Telecommunications (hereinafter referred to as the 'NGBT') is established to carry out this mandate. The NGBT shall report periodically on the progress of these negotiations.
4. The negotiations in the NGBT shall be open to all governments and the European Communities which announce their intention to participate. To date, the following have announced their intention to take part in the negotiations:
Australia, Austria, Canada, Chile, Cyprus, European Communities and their Member States, Finland, Hong Kong, Hungary, Japan, Korea, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Slovak Republic, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United States.
Further notifications of intention to participate shall be addressed to the depositary of the Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization.
5. The NGBT shall hold its first negotiating session no later than 16 May 1994. It shall conclude these negotiations and make a final report no later than 30 April 1996. The final report of the NGBT shall include a date for the implementation of results of these negotiations.
6. Any commitments resulting from the negotiations, including the date of their entry into force, shall be inscribed in the Schedules annexed to the General Agreement on Trade in Services and shall be subject to all the provisions of the Agreement.
7. Commencing immediately and continuing until the implementation date to be determined under paragraph 5, it is understood that no participant shall apply any measure affecting trade in basic telecommunications in such a manner as would improve its negotiating position and leverage. It is understood that this provision shall not prevent the pursuit of commercial and governmental arrangements regarding the provision of basic telecommunications services.
8. The implementation of paragraph 7 shall be subject to surveillance in the NGBT. Any participant may bring to the attention of the NGBT any action or omission which it believes to be relevant to the fulfilment of paragraph 7. Such notifications shall be deemed to have been submitted to the NGBT upon their receipt by the Secretariat.
DECISION ON PROFESSIONAL SERVICES
Ministers decide to recommend that the Council for Trade in Services at its first meeting adopt the decision set out below.
THE COUNCIL FOR TRADE IN SERVICES,
Recognizing the impact of regulatory measures relating to professional qualifications, technical standards and licensing on the expansion of trade in professional services;
Desiring to establish multilateral disciplines with a view to ensuring that, when specific commitments are undertaken, such regulatory measures do not constitute unnecessary barriers to the supply of professional services;
DECIDES AS FOLLOWS:
1. The work programme foreseen in paragraph 4 of Article VI on Domestic Regulation should be put into effect immediately. To this end, a Working Party on Professional Services shall be established to examine and report, with recommendations, on the disciplines necessary to ensure that measures relating to qualification requirements and procedures, technical standards and licensing requirements in the field of professional services do not constitute unnecessary barriers to trade.
2. As a matter of priority, the Working Party shall make recommendations for the elaboration of multilateral disciplines in the accountancy sector, so as to give operational effect to specific commitments. In making these recommendations, the Working Party shall concentrate on:
(a) developing multilateral disciplines relating to market access so as to ensure that domestic regulatory requirements are: (i) based on objective and transport criteria, such as competence and the ability to supply the service; (ii) not more burdensome than necessary to ensure the quality of the service, thereby facilitating the effective liberalization of accountancy services;
(b) the use of international standards and, in doing so, it shall encourage the cooperation with the relevant international organizations as defined under paragraph 5(b) of Article VI, so as to give full effect to paragraph 5 of Article VII;
(c) facilitating the effective application of paragraph 6 of Article VI of the Agreement by establishing guidelines for the recognition of qualifications.
In elaborating these disciplines, the Working Party shall take account of the importance of the governmental and non-governmental bodies regulating professional services.
DECISION ON THE APPLICATION AND REVIEW OF THE UNDERSTANDING ON RULES AND PROCEDURES GOVERNING THE SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES
RECALLING the Decision of 22 February 1994 that existing rules and procedures of GATT 1947 in the field of dispute settlement shall remain in effect until the date of entry into force of the Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization,
INVITE the relevant Councils and Committees to decide that they shall remain in operation for the purpose of dealing with any dispute for which the request for consultation was made before that date;
INVITE the Ministerial Conference to complete a full review of dispute settlement rules and procedures under the World Trade Organization within four years after the entry into force of the Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, and to take a decision on the occasion of its first meeting after the completion of the review, whether to continue, modify or terminate such dispute settlement rules and procedures.
UNDERSTANDING ON COMMITMENTS IN FINANCIAL SERVICES
Participants in the Uruguay Round have been enabled to take on specific commitments with respect to financial services under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (hereinafter referred to as the 'Agreement') on the basis of an alternative approach to that covered by the provisions of Part III of the Agreement. It was agreed that this approach could be applied subject to the following understanding:
(i) it does not conflict with the provisions of the Agreement;
(ii) it does not prejudice the right of any Member to schedule its specific commitments in accordance with the approach under Part III of the Agreement;
(iii) resulting specific commitments shall apply on a most-favoured-nation basis;
(iv) no presumption has been created as to the degree of liberalization to which a Member is committing itself under the Agreement.
Interested Members, on the basis of negotiations, and subject to conditions and qualifications where specified, have inscribed in their schedule specific commitments conforming to the approach set out below.
Any conditions, limitations and qualifications to the commitments noted below shall be limited to existing non-conforming measures.
B. Market Access
1. In addition to Article VIII of the Agreement, the following shall apply:
Each Member shall list in its schedule pertaining to financial services existing monopoly rights and shall endeavour to eliminate them or reduce their scope. Notwithstanding subparagraph 1(b) of the Annex on Financial Services, this paragraph applies to the activities referred to in subparagraph 1(b)(iii) of the Annex.
Financial Services purchased by Public Entities
2. Notwithstanding Article XIII of the Agreement, each Member shall ensure that financial service suppliers of any other Member established in its territory are accorded most-favoured-nation treatment and national treatment as regards the purchase or acquisition of financial services by public entities of the Member in its territory.
3. Each Member shall permit non-resident suppliers of financial services to supply, as a principal, through an intermediary or as an intermediary, and under terms and conditions that accord national treatment, the following services:
(a) insurance of risks relating to:
(i) maritime shipping and commercial aviation and space launching and freight (including satellites), with such insurance to cover any or all of the following: the goods being transported, the vehicle transporting the goods and any liability arising therefrom; and
(ii) goods in international transit;
(b) re-insurance and retrocession and the services auxiliary to insurance as referred to in subparagraph 5(a)(iv) of the Annex;
(c) provision and transfer of financial information and financial data processing as referred to in subparagraph 5(a)(xv) of the Annex and advisory and other auxiliary services, excluding intermediation, relating to banking and other financial services as referred to in subparagraph 5(a)(xvi) of the Annex.
4. Each Member shall permit its residents to purchase in the territory of any other Member the financial services indicated in:
(a) subparagraph 3(a);
(b) subparagraph 3(b); and
(c) subparagraphs 5(a)(v) to (xvi) of the Annex.
5. Each Member shall grant financial service suppliers of any other Member the right to establish or expand within its territory, including through the acquisition of existing enterprises, a commercial presence.
6. A Member may impose terms, conditions and procedures for authorization of the establishment and expansion of a commercial presence in so far as they do not circumvent the Member's obligation under paragraph 5 and they are consistent with the other obligations of the Agreement.
New Financial Services
7. A Member shall permit financial service suppliers of any other Member established in its territory to offer in its territory any new financial service.
Transfers of Information and Processing of Information
8. No Member shall take measures that prevent transfers of information or the processing of financial information, including transfers of data by electronic means, or that, subject to importation rules consistent with international agreements, prevent transfers of equipment, where such transfers of information, processing of financial information or transfers of equipment are necessary for the conduct of the ordinary business of a financial service supplier. Nothing in this paragraph restricts the right of a Member to protect personal data, personal privacy and the confidentiality of individual records and accounts so long as such right is not used to circumvent the provisions of the Agreement.
Temporary Entry of Personnel
9. (a) Each Member shall permit temporary entry into its territory of the following personnel of a financial service supplier of any other Member that is establishing or has established commercial presence in the territory of the Member:
(i) senior managerial personnel possessing proprietary information essential to the establishment, control and operation of the services of the financial service supplier; and
(ii) specialists in the operation of the financial service supplier.
(b) Each Member shall permit, subject to the availability of qualified personnel in its territory, temporary entry into its territory of the following personnel associated with a commercial presence of a financial service supplier of any other Member:
(i) specialists in computer services, telecommunication services and accounts of the financial service supplier; and
(ii) actuarial and legal specialists.
10. Each Member shall endeavour to remove or to limit any significant adverse effects on financial service suppliers of any other Member of:
(a) non-discriminatory measures that prevent financial service suppliers from offering in the Member's territory, in the form determined by the Member, all the financial services permitted by the Member;
(b) non-discriminatory measures that limit the expansion of the activities of financial service suppliers into the entire territory of the Member;
(c) measures of a Member, when such a Member applies the same measures to the supply of both banking and securities services, and a financial service supplier of any other Member concentrates its activities in the provision of securities services; and
(d) other measures that, although respecting the provisions of the Agreement, affect adversely the ability of financial service suppliers of any other Member to operate, compete or enter the Member's market;
provided that any action taken under this paragraph would not unfairly discriminate against financial service suppliers of the Member taking such action.
11. With respect to the non-discriminatory measures referred to in subparagraphs 10(a) and (b), a Member shall endeavour not to limit or restrict the present degree of market opportunities nor the benefits already enjoyed by financial service suppliers of all other Members as a class in the territory of the Member, provided that this commitment does not result in unfair discrimination against financial service suppliers of the Member applying such measures.
C. National Treatment
1. Under terms and conditions that accord national treatment, each Member shall grant to financial service suppliers of any other Member established in its territory access to payment and clearing systems operated by public entities, and to official funding and re-financing facilities available in the normal course of ordinary business. This paragraph is not intended to confer access to the Member's lender of last resort facilities.
2. When membership or participation in, or access to, any self-regulatory body, securities or futures exchange or market, clearing agency, or any other organization or association, is required by a Member in order for financial service suppliers of any other Member to supply financial services on an equal basis with financial service suppliers of the Member, or when the Member provides directly or indirectly such entities, privileges or advantages in supplying financial services, the Member shall ensure that such entities accord national treatment to financial service suppliers of any other Member resident in the territory of the Member.
For the purposes of this approach:
1. A non-resident supplier of financial services is a financial service supplier of a Member which supplies a financial service into the territory of another Member from an establishment located in the territory of another Member, regardless of whether such a financial service supplier has or has not a commercial presence in the territory of the Member in which the financial service is supplied.
2. 'Commercial presence' means an enterprise within a Member's territory for the supply of financial services and includes wholly- or partly-owned subsidiaries, joint ventures, partnerships, sole proprietorships, franchising operations, branches, agencies, representative offices or other organizations.
3. A new financial service is a service of a financial nature, including services related to existing and new products or the manner in which a product is delivered, that is not supplied by any financial service supplier in the territory of a particular Member but which is supplied in the territory of another Member.
(1) This list does not alter existing notification requirements in the Multilateral Trade Agreements in Annex 1A to the WTO Agreement or, where applicable, the Plurilateral Trade Agreements in Annex 4 of the WTO Agreement.