Commission Regulation (EC) No 2237/2004 of 29 December 2004 amending Regulation (EC) No 1725/2003 adopting certain international accounting standards in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1606/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council, as regards


Published: 2004-12-29

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31.12.2004   

EN

Official Journal of the European Union

L 393/1


COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 2237/2004

of 29 December 2004

amending Regulation (EC) No 1725/2003 adopting certain international accounting standards in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1606/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council, as regards IAS No 32 and IFRIC 1

(Text with EEA relevance)

THE COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES,

Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Community,

Having regard to Regulation (EC) No 1606/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 July 2002 on the application of international accounting standards (1), and in particular Article 3(1) thereof,

Whereas:

(1)

By Commission Regulation (EC) No 1725/2003 (2) certain international standards and interpretations that were extant at 1 September were adopted.

(2)

On 17 December 2003 the International Accounting Standard Board (IASB) published revised International Accounting Standard (IAS) 32 Financial instruments: disclosure and presentation as part of the IASB’s initiative to improve 15 standards in time for them to be used by companies adopting IAS for the first time in 2005. In revising IAS 32, the IASB did not reconsider the fundamental approaches contained in it. IAS 32 establishes basic principles for the classification of instruments as liabilities or equity. In determining whether the instruments should be classified as liabilities or equity, the entity must consider all of the terms and conditions of the respective contract.

(3)

Following bilateral discussions with representatives of the cooperative world and due to a request by the Commission, the IASB invited its International Financial Reporting Interpretation Committee (IFRIC), to develop an interpretation to facilitate the application of the revised IAS 32. A final interpretation, IFRIC 2 Members’ shares in cooperative entities and similar instrument was published in final form on 25 November 2004. The effective date of application of this interpretation is the same as that for IAS 32. IFRIC 2 will be considered for endorsement by the European Commission as soon as possible in 2005.

(4)

On 27 May 2004, the IASB released IFRIC Interpretation 1 Changes in existing decommissioning, restoration and similar liabilities. The Interpretation addresses the way to account for changes in existing decommissioning, restoration and similar liabilities that fall within the scope of IAS 16 Property, plant and equipment and are recognised as a provision under IAS 37 Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets.

(5)

The consultation with technical experts in the field confirms that the revised IAS 32 Financial instruments: disclosure and presentation and IFRIC Interpretation 1 Changes in existing decommissioning, restoration and similar liabilities meet the technical criteria for adoption set out in Article 3(2) of Regulation (EC) No 1606/2002 and in particular the requirement of being conducive to the European public good.

(6)

Regulation (EC) No 1725/2003 should therefore be amended accordingly.

(7)

The measures provided for in this Regulation are in accordance with the opinion of the Accounting Regulatory Committee,

HAS ADOPTED THIS REGULATION:

Article 1

Annex to regulation (EC) No 1725/2003 is amended as follows:

(1)

the text of International Accounting Standard (IAS) 32 Financial instruments: disclosure and presentation set out in the Annex to this Regulation, is inserted.

(2)

the text of the Interpretation IFRIC 1 Changes in existing decommissioning, restoration and similar liabilities set out in the Annex to this Regulation, is inserted.

Article 2

This Regulation shall enter into force on the third day following that of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union.

It shall apply from 1 January 2005 at the latest.

This Regulation shall be binding in its entirety and directly applicable in all Member States.

Done at Brussels, 29 December 2004.

For the Commission

Charlie McCREEVY

Member of the Commission


(1)  OJ L 243, 11.9.2002, p. 1

(2)  OJ L 261, 13.10.2003, p. 1. Regulation as last amended by Regulation (EC) No 2236/2004 (OJ L 392, 31.12.2004, p. 1).


ANNEX

INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS

IAS 32

Financial instruments: disclosure and presentation

IFRIC 1

Changes in existing decommissioning, restoration and similar liabilities

Reproduction allowed within the European Economic Area. All existing rights reserved outside the EEA, with the exception of the right to reproduce for the purposes of personal use or other fair dealing. Further information can be obtained from the IASB at www.iasb.org.uk

INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARD 32

Financial Instruments: Disclosure and Presentation

SUMMARY

Objective

Scope

Definitions

Presentation

Liabilities and Equity

No Contractual Obligation to Deliver Cash or Another Financial Asset (paragraph 16(a))

Settlement in the Entity’s Own Equity Instruments (paragraph 16(b))

Contingent Settlement Provisions

Settlement Options

Compound Financial Instruments

Treasury Shares

Interest, Dividends, Losses and Gains

Offsetting a Financial Asset and a Financial Liability

Disclosure

Format, Location and Classes of Financial Instruments

Risk Management Policies and Hedging Activities

Terms, Conditions and Accounting Policies

Interest Rate Risk

Credit Risk

Fair Value

Other Disclosures

Derecognition

Collateral

Compound financial instruments with multiple embedded derivatives

Financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss

Reclassification

Income statement and equity

Impairment

Defaults and breaches

Effective date

Withdrawal of other pronouncements

This revised Standard supersedes IAS 32 (revised 2000) Financial Instruments: Disclosure and Presentation and should be applied for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2005. Earlier application is permitted.

OBJECTIVE

1.

The objective of this Standard is to enhance financial statement users’ understanding of the significance of financial instruments to an entity’s financial position, performance and cash flows.

2.

This Standard contains requirements for the presentation of financial instruments and identifies the information that should be disclosed about them. The presentation requirements apply to the classification of financial instruments, from the perspective of the issuer, into financial assets, financial liabilities and equity instruments; the classification of related interest, dividends, losses and gains; and the circumstances in which financial assets and financial liabilities should be offset. The Standard requires disclosure of information about factors that affect the amount, timing and certainty of an entity’s future cash flows relating to financial instruments and the accounting policies applied to those instruments. This Standard also requires disclosure of information about the nature and extent of an entity’s use of financial instruments, the business purposes they serve, the risks associated with them, and management’s policies for controlling those risks.

3.

The principles in this Standard complement the principles for recognising and measuring financial assets and financial liabilities in IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement.

SCOPE

4.

This Standard shall be applied by all entities to all types of financial instruments except:

(a)

those interests in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures that are accounted for under IAS 27 Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements, IAS 28 Investments in Associates or IAS 31 Interests in Joint Ventures. However, entities shall apply this Standard to an interest in a subsidiary, associate or joint venture that according to IAS 27, IAS 28 or IAS 31 is accounted for under IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement. In these cases, entities shall apply the disclosure requirements in IAS 27, IAS 28 and IAS 31 in addition to those in this Standard. Entities shall also apply this Standard to all derivatives on interests in subsidiaries, associates or joint ventures.

(b)

employers’ rights and obligations under employee benefit plans, to which IAS 19 Employee Benefits applies.

(c)

rights and obligations arising under insurance contracts. However, entities shall apply this Standard to a financial instrument that takes the form of an insurance (or reinsurance) contract as described in paragraph 6, but principally involves the transfer of financial risks described in paragraph 52. In addition, entities shall apply this Standard to derivatives that are embedded in insurance contracts (see paragraphs 10-13 of IAS 39).

(d)

contracts for contingent consideration in a business combination (see paragraphs 65-67 of IAS 22 Business Combinations). This exemption applies only to the acquirer.

(e)

contracts that require a payment based on climatic, geological or other physical variables (see paragraph AG1 of IAS 39). However, this Standard shall be applied to other types of derivatives that are embedded in such contracts (for example, if an interest rate swap is contingent on a climatic variable such as heating degree days, the interest rate swap element is an embedded derivative that is within the scope of this Standard — see paragraphs 10-13 of IAS 39).

5.

This Standard applies to recognised and unrecognised financial instruments. Recognised financial instruments include equity instruments issued by the entity and financial assets and financial liabilities that are within the scope of IAS 39. Unrecognised financial instruments include some financial instruments that, although outside the scope of IAS 39, are within the scope of this Standard (such as some loan commitments).

6.

For the purposes of this Standard, an insurance contract is a contract that exposes the insurer to identified risks of loss from events or circumstances occurring or discovered within a specified period, including death (or in the case of an annuity, the survival of the annuitant), sickness, disability, property damage, injury to others and business interruption. The provisions of this Standard apply when a financial instrument takes the form of an insurance contract but principally involves the transfer of financial risks (see paragraph 52), for example, some types of financial reinsurance and guaranteed investment contracts issued by insurance and other entities. Entities that have obligations under insurance contracts are encouraged to consider the appropriateness of applying the provisions of this Standard in presenting and disclosing information about such obligations.

7.

Other Standards specific to particular types of financial instrument contain additional presentation and disclosure requirements. For example, IAS 17 Leases and IAS 26 Accounting and Reporting by Retirement Benefit Plans incorporate specific disclosure requirements relating to finance leases and retirement benefit plan investments, respectively. In addition, some requirements of other Standards, particularly IAS 30 Disclosures in the Financial Statements of Banks and Similar Financial Institutions, apply to financial instruments.

8.

This Standard shall be applied to those contracts to buy or sell a non-financial item that can be settled net in cash or another financial instrument, or by exchanging financial instruments, as if the contracts were financial instruments, with the exception of contracts that were entered into and continue to be held for the purpose of the receipt or delivery of a non-financial item in accordance with the entity’s expected purchase, sale or usage requirements.

9.

There are various ways in which a contract to buy or sell a non-financial item can be settled net in cash or another financial instrument or by exchanging financial instruments. These include:

(a)

when the terms of the contract permit either party to settle it net in cash or another financial instrument or by exchanging financial instruments;

(b)

when the ability to settle net in cash or another financial instrument, or by exchanging financial instruments, is not explicit in the terms of the contract, but the entity has a practice of settling similar contracts net in cash or another financial instrument, or by exchanging financial instruments (whether with the counterparty, by entering into offsetting contracts or by selling the contract before its exercise or lapse);

(c)

when, for similar contracts, the entity has a practice of taking delivery of the underlying and selling it within a short period after delivery for the purpose of generating a profit from short-term fluctuations in price or dealer’s margin;

and

(d)

when the non-financial item that is the subject of the contract is readily convertible to cash.

A contract to which (b) or (c) applies is not entered into for the purpose of the receipt or delivery of the non-financial item in accordance with the entity’s expected purchase, sale or usage requirements, and, accordingly, is within the scope of this Standard. Other contracts to which paragraph 8 applies are evaluated to determine whether they were entered into and continue to be held for the purpose of the receipt or delivery of the non-financial item in accordance with the entity’s expected purchase, sale or usage requirement, and accordingly, whether they are within the scope of this Standard.

10.

A written option to buy or sell a non-financial item that can be settled net in cash or another financial instrument, or by exchanging financial instruments, in accordance with paragraph 9(a) or (d) is within the scope of this Standard. Such a contract cannot be entered into for the purpose of the receipt or delivery of the non-financial item in accordance with the entity’s expected purchase, sale or usage requirements.

DEFINITIONS (see also paragraphs AG3-AG24)

11.

The following terms are used in this Standard with the meanings specified:

A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity. A financial asset is any asset that is:

(a)

cash;

(b)

an equity instrument of another entity;

(c)

a contractual right:

(i)

to receive cash or another financial asset from another entity;

or

(ii)

to exchange financial assets or financial liabilities with another entity under conditions that are potentially favourable to the entity;

or

(d)

a contract that will or may be settled in the entity’s own equity instruments and is:

(i)

a non-derivative for which the entity is or may be obliged to receive a variable number of the entity’s own equity instruments;

or

(ii)

a derivative that will or may be settled other than by the exchange of a fixed amount of cash or another financial asset for a fixed number of the entity’s own equity instruments. For this purpose the entity’s own equity instruments do not include instruments that are themselves contracts for the future receipt or delivery of the entity’s own equity instruments.

A financial liability is any liability that is:

(a)

a contractual obligation:

(i)

to deliver cash or another financial asset to another entity;

or

(ii)

to exchange financial assets or financial liabilities with another entity under conditions that are potentially unfavourable to the entity;

or

(b)

a contract that will or may be settled in the entity’s own equity instruments and is:

(i)

a non-derivative for which the entity is or may be obliged to deliver a variable number of the entity’s own equity instruments;

or

(ii)

a derivative that will or may be settled other than by the exchange of a fixed amount of cash or another financial asset for a fixed number of the entity’s own equity instruments. For this purpose the entity’s own equity instruments do not include instruments that are themselves contracts for the future receipt or delivery of the entity’s own equity instruments .

An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities. Fair value is the amount for which an asset could be exchanged, or a liability settled, between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm’s length transaction.

12.

The following terms are defined in paragraph 9 of IAS 39 and are used in this Standard with the meaning specified in IAS 39.

amortised cost of a financial asset or financial liability

available-for-sale financial assets

derecognition

derivative

effective interest method

financial asset or financial liability at fair value through profit or loss

firm commitment

forecast transaction

hedge effectiveness

hedged item

hedging instrument

held-to-maturity investments

loans and receivables

regular way purchase or sale

transaction costs.

13.

In this Standard, ‘contract’ and ‘contractual’ refer to an agreement between two or more parties that has clear economic consequences that the parties have little, if any, discretion to avoid, usually because the agreement is enforceable by law. Contracts, and thus financial instruments, may take a variety of forms and need not be in writing.

14.

In this Standard, ‘entity’ includes individuals, partnerships, incorporated bodies, trusts and government agencies.

PRESENTATION

Liabilities and Equity (see also paragraphs AG25-AG29)

15.

The issuer of a financial instrument shall classify the instrument, or its component parts, on initial recognition as a financial liability, a financial asset or an equity instrument in accordance with the substance of the contractual arrangement and the definitions of a financial liability, a financial asset and an equity instrument.

16.

When an issuer applies the definitions in paragraph 11 to determine whether a financial instrument is an equity instrument rather than a financial liability, the instrument is an equity instrument if, and only if, both conditions (a) and (b) below are met.

(a)

The instrument includes no contractual obligation:

(i)

to deliver cash or another financial asset to another entity;

or

(ii)

to exchange financial assets or financial liabilities with another entity under conditions that are potentially unfavourable to the issuer.

(b)

If the instrument will or may be settled in the issuer’s own equity instruments, it is:

(i)

a non-derivative that includes no contractual obligation for the issuer to deliver a variable number of its own equity instruments;

or

(ii)

a derivative that will be settled only by the issuer exchanging a fixed amount of cash or another financial asset for a fixed number of its own equity instruments. For this purpose the issuer’s own equity instruments do not include instruments that are themselves contracts for the future receipt or delivery of the issuer’s own equity instruments.

A contractual obligation, including one arising from a derivative financial instrument, that will or may result in the future receipt or delivery of the issuer’s own equity instruments, but does not meet conditions (a) and (b) above, is not an equity instrument.

No Contractual Obligation to Deliver Cash or Another Financial Asset (paragraph 16(a))

17.

A critical feature in differentiating a financial liability from an equity instrument is the existence of a contractual obligation of one party to the financial instrument (the issuer) either to deliver cash or another financial asset to the other party (the holder) or to exchange financial assets or financial liabilities with the holder under conditions that are potentially unfavourable to the issuer. Although the holder of an equity instrument may be entitled to receive a pro rata share of any dividends or other distributions of equity, the issuer does not have a contractual obligation to make such distributions because it cannot be required to deliver cash or another financial asset to another party.

18.

The substance of a financial instrument, rather than its legal form, governs its classification on the entity’s balance sheet. Substance and legal form are commonly consistent, but not always. Some financial instruments take the legal form of equity but are liabilities in substance and others may combine features associated with equity instruments and features associated with financial liabilities. For example:

(a)

a preference share that provides for mandatory redemption by the issuer for a fixed or determinable amount at a fixed or determinable future date, or gives the holder the right to require the issuer to redeem the instrument at or after a particular date for a fixed or determinable amount, is a financial liability.

(b)

a financial instrument that gives the holder the right to put it back to the issuer for cash or another financial asset (a ‘puttable instrument’) is a financial liability. This is so even when the amount of cash or other financial assets is determined on the basis of an index or other item that has the potential to increase or decrease, or when the legal form of the puttable instrument gives the holder a right to a residual interest in the assets of an issuer. The existence of an option for the holder to put the instrument back to the issuer for cash or another financial asset means that the puttable instrument meets the definition of a financial liability. For example, open-ended mutual funds, unit trusts, partnerships and some co-operative entities may provide their unitholders or members with a right to redeem their interests in the issuer at any time for cash equal to their proportionate share of the asset value of the issuer. However, classification as a financial liability does not preclude the use of descriptors such as ‘net asset value attributable to unitholders’ and ‘change in net asset value attributable to unitholders’ on the face of the financial statements of an entity that has no equity capital (such as some mutual funds and unit trusts, see Illustrative Example 7) or the use of additional disclosure to show that total members’ interests comprise items such as reserves that meet the definition of equity and puttable instruments that do not (see Illustrative Example 8).

19.

If an entity does not have an unconditional right to avoid delivering cash or another financial asset to settle a contractual obligation, the obligation meets the definition of a financial liability. For example:

(a)

a restriction on the ability of an entity to satisfy a contractual obligation, such as lack of access to foreign currency or the need to obtain approval for payment from a regulatory authority, does not negate the entity’s contractual obligation or the holder’s contractual right under the instrument.

(b)

a contractual obligation that is conditional on a counterparty exercising its right to redeem is a financial liability because the entity does not have the unconditional right to avoid delivering cash or another financial asset.

20.

A financial instrument that does not explicitly establish a contractual obligation to deliver cash or another financial asset may establish an obligation indirectly through its terms and conditions. For example:

(a)

a financial instrument may contain a non-financial obligation that must be settled if, and only if, the entity fails to make distributions or to redeem the instrument. If the entity can avoid a transfer of cash or another financial asset only by settling the non-financial obligation, the financial instrument is a financial liability.

(b)

a financial instrument is a financial liability if it provides that on settlement the entity will deliver either:

(i)

cash or another financial asset;

or

(ii)

its own shares whose value is determined to exceed substantially the value of the cash or other financial asset.

Although the entity does not have an explicit contractual obligation to deliver cash or another financial asset, the value of the share settlement alternative is such that the entity will settle in cash. In any event, the holder has in substance been guaranteed receipt of an amount that is at least equal to the cash settlement option (see paragraph 21).

Settlement in the Entity’s Own Equity Instruments (paragraph 16(b))

21.

A contract is not an equity instrument solely because it may result in the receipt or delivery of the entity’s own equity instruments. An entity may have a contractual right or obligation to receive or deliver a number of its own shares or other equity instruments that varies so that the fair value of the entity’s own equity instruments to be received or delivered equals the amount of the contractual right or obligation. Such a contractual right or obligation may be for a fixed amount or an amount that fluctuates in part or in full in response to changes in a variable other than the market price of the entity’s own equity instruments (eg an interest rate, a commodity price or a financial instrument price). Two examples are (a) a contract to deliver as many of the entity’s own equity instruments as are equal in value to CU100, (1) and (b) a contract to deliver as many of the entity’s own equity instruments as are equal in value to the value of 100 ounces of gold. Such a contract is a financial liability of the entity even though the entity must or can settle it by delivering its own equity instruments. It is not an equity instrument because the entity uses a variable number of its own equity instruments as a means to settle the contract. Accordingly, the contract does not evidence a residual interest in the entity’s assets after deducting all of its liabilities.

22.

A contract that will be settled by the entity (receiving or) delivering a fixed number of its own equity instruments in exchange for a fixed amount of cash or another financial asset is an equity instrument. For example, an issued share option that gives the counterparty a right to buy a fixed number of the entity’s shares for a fixed price or for a fixed stated principal amount of a bond is an equity instrument. Changes in the fair value of a contract arising from variations in market interest rates that do not affect the amount of cash or other financial assets to be paid or received, or the number of equity instruments to be received or delivered, on settlement of the contract do not preclude the contract from being an equity instrument. Any consideration received (such as the premium received for a written option or warrant on the entity’s own shares) is added directly to equity. Any consideration paid (such as the premium paid for a purchased option) is deducted directly from equity. Changes in the fair value of an equity instrument are not recognised in the financial statements.

23.

A contract that contains an obligation for an entity to purchase its own equity instruments for cash or another financial asset gives rise to a financial liability for the present value of the redemption amount (for example, for the present value of the forward repurchase price, option exercise price or other redemption amount). This is the case even if the contract itself is an equity instrument. One example is an entity’s obligation under a forward contract to purchase its own equity instruments for cash. When the financial liability is recognised initially under IAS 39, its fair value (the present value of the redemption amount) is reclassified from equity. Subsequently, the financial liability is measured in accordance with IAS 39. If the contract expires without delivery, the carrying amount of the financial liability is reclassified to equity. An entity’s contractual obligation to purchase its own equity instruments gives rise to a financial liability for the present value of the redemption amount even if the obligation to purchase is conditional on the counterparty exercising a right to redeem (eg a written put option that gives the counterparty the right to sell an entity’s own equity instruments to the entity for a fixed price).

24.

A contract that will be settled by the entity delivering or receiving a fixed number of its own equity instruments in exchange for a variable amount of cash or another financial asset is a financial asset or financial liability. An example is a contract for the entity to deliver 100 of its own equity instruments in return for an amount of cash calculated to equal the value of 100 ounces of gold.

Contingent Settlement Provisions

25.

A financial instrument may require the entity to deliver cash or another financial asset, or otherwise to settle it in such a way that it would be a financial liability, in the event of the occurrence or non-occurrence of uncertain future events (or on the outcome of uncertain circumstances) that are beyond the control of both the issuer and the holder of the instrument, such as a change in a stock market index, consumer price index, interest rate or taxation requirements, or the issuer’s future revenues, net income or debt-to-equity ratio. The issuer of such an instrument does not have the unconditional right to avoid delivering cash or another financial asset (or otherwise to settle it in such a way that it would be a financial liability). Therefore, it is a financial liability of the issuer unless:

(a)

the part of the contingent settlement provision that could require settlement in cash or another financial asset (or otherwise in such a way that it would be a financial liability) is not genuine;

or

(b)

the issuer can be required to settle the obligation in cash or another financial asset (or otherwise to settle it in such a way that it would be a financial liability) only in the event of liquidation of the issuer.

Settlement Options

26.

When a derivative financial instrument gives one party a choice over how it is settled (eg the issuer or the holder can choose settlement net in cash or by exchanging shares for cash), it is a financial asset or a financial liability unless all of the settlement alternatives would result in it being an equity instrument.

27.

An example of a derivative financial instrument with a settlement option that is a financial liability is a share option that the issuer can decide to settle net in cash or by exchanging its own shares for cash. Similarly, some contracts to buy or sell a non-financial item in exchange for the entity’s own equity instruments are within the scope of this Standard because they can be settled either by delivery of the non-financial item or net in cash or another financial instrument (see paragraphs 8-10). Such contracts are financial assets or financial liabilities and not equity instruments.

Compound Financial Instruments (see also paragraphs AG30-AG35 and Illustrative Examples 9-12)

28.

The issuer of a non-derivative financial instrument shall evaluate the terms of the financial instrument to determine whether it contains both a liability and an equity component. Such components shall be classified separately as financial liabilities, financial assets or equity instruments in accordance with paragraph 15.

29.

An entity recognises separately the components of a financial instrument that (a) creates a financial liability of the entity and (b) grants an option to the holder of the instrument to convert it into an equity instrument of the entity. For example, a bond or similar instrument convertible by the holder into a fixed number of ordinary shares of the entity is a compound financial instrument. From the perspective of the entity, such an instrument comprises two components: a financial liability (a contractual arrangement to deliver cash or another financial asset) and an equity instrument (a call option granting the holder the right, for a specified period of time, to convert it into a fixed number of ordinary shares of the entity). The economic effect of issuing such an instrument is substantially the same as issuing simultaneously a debt instrument with an early settlement provision and warrants to purchase ordinary shares, or issuing a debt instrument with detachable share purchase warrants. Accordingly, in all cases, the entity presents the liability and equity components separately on its balance sheet.

30.

Classification of the liability and equity components of a convertible instrument is not revised as a result of a change in the likelihood that a conversion option will be exercised, even when exercise of the option may appear to have become economically advantageous to some holders. Holders may not always act in the way that might be expected because, for example, the tax consequences resulting from conversion may differ among holders. Furthermore, the likelihood of conversion will change from time to time. The entity’s contractual obligation to make future payments remains outstanding until it is extinguished through conversion, maturity of the instrument or some other transaction.

31.

IAS 39 deals with the measurement of financial assets and financial liabilities. Equity instruments are instruments that evidence a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities. Therefore, when the initial carrying amount of a compound financial instrument is allocated to its equity and liability components, the equity component is assigned the residual amount after deducting from the fair value of the instrument as a whole the amount separately determined for the liability component. The value of any derivative features (such as a call option) embedded in the compound financial instrument other than the equity component (such as an equity conversion option) is included in the liability component. The sum of the carrying amounts assigned to the liability and equity components on initial recognition is always equal to the fair value that would be ascribed to the instrument as a whole. No gain or loss arises from initially recognising the components of the instrument separately.

32.

Under the approach described in paragraph 31, the issuer of a bond convertible into ordinary shares first determines the carrying amount of the liability component by measuring the fair value of a similar liability (including any embedded non-equity derivative features) that does not have an associated equity component. The carrying amount of the equity instrument represented by the option to convert the instrument into ordinary shares is then determined by deducting the fair value of the financial liability from the fair value of the compound financial instrument as a whole.

Treasury Shares (see also paragraph AG36)

33.

If an entity reacquires its own equity instruments, those instruments (‘treasury shares’) shall be deducted from equity. No gain or loss shall be recognised in profit or loss on the purchase, sale, issue or cancellation of an entity’s own equity instruments. Such treasury shares may be acquired and held by the entity or by other members of the consolidated group. Consideration paid or received shall be recognised directly in equity.

34.

The amount of treasury shares held is disclosed separately either on the face of the balance sheet or in the notes, in accordance with IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements. An entity provides disclosure in accordance with IAS 24 Related Party Disclosures if the entity reacquires its own equity instruments from related parties.

Interest, Dividends, Losses and Gains (see also paragraph AG37)

35.

Interest, dividends, losses and gains relating to a financial instrument or a component that is a financial liability shall be recognised as income or expense in profit or loss. Distributions to holders of an equity instrument shall be debited by the entity directly to equity, net of any related income tax benefit. Transaction costs of an equity transaction, other than costs of issuing an equity instrument that are directly attributable to the acquisition of a business (which shall be accounted for under IAS 22), shall be accounted for as a deduction from equity, net of any related income tax benefit.

36.

The classification of a financial instrument as a financial liability or an equity instrument determines whether interest, dividends, losses and gains relating to that instrument are recognised as income or expense in profit or loss. Thus, dividend payments on shares wholly recognised as liabilities are recognised as expenses in the same way as interest on a bond. Similarly, gains and losses associated with redemptions or refinancings of financial liabilities are recognised in profit or loss, whereas redemptions or refinancings of equity instruments are recognised as changes in equity. Changes in the fair value of an equity instrument are not recognised in the financial statements.

37.

An entity typically incurs various costs in issuing or acquiring its own equity instruments. Those costs might include registration and other regulatory fees, amounts paid to legal, accounting and other professional advisers, printing costs and stamp duties. The transaction costs of an equity transaction are accounted for as a deduction from equity (net of any related income tax benefit) to the extent they are incremental costs directly attributable to the equity transaction that otherwise would have been avoided. The costs of an equity transaction that is abandoned are recognised as an expense.

38.

Transaction costs that relate to the issue of a compound financial instrument are allocated to the liability and equity components of the instrument in proportion to the allocation of proceeds. Transaction costs that relate jointly to more than one transaction (for example, costs of a concurrent offering of some shares and a stock exchange listing of other shares) are allocated to those transactions using a basis of allocation that is rational and consistent with similar transactions.

39.

The amount of transaction costs accounted for as a deduction from equity in the period is disclosed separately under IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements. The related amount of income taxes recognised directly in equity is included in the aggregate amount of current and deferred income tax credited or charged to equity that is disclosed under IAS 12 Income Taxes.

40.

Dividends classified as an expense may be presented in the income statement either with interest on other liabilities or as a separate item. In addition to the requirements of this Standard, disclosure of interest and dividends is subject to the requirements of IAS 1 and IAS 30 Disclosures in the Financial Statements of Banks and Similar Financial Institutions. In some circumstances, because of the differences between interest and dividends with respect to matters such as tax deductibility, it is desirable to disclose them separately in the income statement. Disclosures of the tax effects are made in accordance with IAS 12.

41.

Gains and losses related to changes in the carrying amount of a financial liability are recognised as income or expense in profit or loss even when they relate to an instrument that includes a right to the residual interest in the assets of the entity in exchange for cash or another financial asset (see paragraph 18(b)). Under IAS 1 the entity presents any gain or loss arising from remeasurement of such an instrument separately on the face of the income statement when it is relevant in explaining the entity’s performance.

Offsetting a Financial Asset and a Financial Liability (see also paragraphs AG38 and AG39)

42.

A financial asset and a financial liability shall be offset and the net amount presented in the balance sheet when, and only when, an entity:

(a)

currently has a legally enforceable right to set off the recognised amounts;

and

(b)

intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

In accounting for a transfer of a financial asset that does not qualify for derecognition, the entity shall not offset the transferred asset and the associated liability (see IAS 39, paragraph 36).

43.

This Standard requires the presentation of financial assets and financial liabilities on a net basis when doing so reflects an entity’s expected future cash flows from settling two or more separate financial instruments. When an entity has the right to receive or pay a single net amount and intends to do so, it has, in effect, only a single financial asset or financial liability. In other circumstances, financial assets and financial liabilities are presented separately from each other consistently with their characteristics as resources or obligations of the entity.

44.

Offsetting a recognised financial asset and a recognised financial liability and presenting the net amount differs from the derecognition of a financial asset or a financial liability. Although offsetting does not give rise to recognition of a gain or loss, the derecognition of a financial instrument not only results in the removal of the previously recognised item from the balance sheet but also may result in recognition of a gain or loss.

45.

A right of set-off is a debtor’s legal right, by contract or otherwise, to settle or otherwise eliminate all or a portion of an amount due to a creditor by applying against that amount an amount due from the creditor. In unusual circumstances, a debtor may have a legal right to apply an amount due from a third party against the amount due to a creditor provided that there is an agreement between the three parties that clearly establishes the debtor’s right of set-off. Because the right of set-off is a legal right, the conditions supporting the right may vary from one legal jurisdiction to another and the laws applicable to the relationships between the parties need to be considered.

46.

The existence of an enforceable right to set off a financial asset and a financial liability affects the rights and obligations associated with a financial asset and a financial liability and may affect an entity’s exposure to credit and liquidity risk. However, the existence of the right, by itself, is not a sufficient basis for offsetting. In the absence of an intention to exercise the right or to settle simultaneously, the amount and timing of an entity’s future cash flows are not affected. When an entity intends to exercise the right or to settle simultaneously, presentation of the asset and liability on a net basis reflects more appropriately the amounts and timing of the expected future cash flows, as well as the risks to which those cash flows are exposed. An intention by one or both parties to settle on a net basis without the legal right to do so is not sufficient to justify offsetting because the rights and obligations associated with the individual financial asset and financial liability remain unaltered.

47.

An entity’s intentions with respect to settlement of particular assets and liabilities may be influenced by its normal business practices, the requirements of the financial markets and other circumstances that may limit the ability to settle net or to settle simultaneously. When an entity has a right of set-off, but does not intend to settle net or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously, the effect of the right on the entity’s credit risk exposure is disclosed in accordance with paragraph 76.

48.

Simultaneous settlement of two financial instruments may occur through, for example, the operation of a clearing house in an organised financial market or a face-to-face exchange. In these circumstances the cash flows are, in effect, equivalent to a single net amount and there is no exposure to credit or liquidity risk. In other circumstances, an entity may settle two instruments by receiving and paying separate amounts, becoming exposed to credit risk for the full amount of the asset or liquidity risk for the full amount of the liability. Such risk exposures may be significant even though relatively brief. Accordingly, realisation of a financial asset and settlement of a financial liability are treated as simultaneous only when the transactions occur at the same moment.

49.

The conditions set out in paragraph 42 are generally not satisfied and offsetting is usually inappropriate when:

(a)

several different financial instruments are used to emulate the features of a single financial instrument (a ‘synthetic instrument’);

(b)

financial assets and financial liabilities arise from financial instruments having the same primary risk exposure (for example, assets and liabilities within a portfolio of forward contracts or other derivative instruments) but involve different counterparties;

(c)

financial or other assets are pledged as collateral for non-recourse financial liabilities;

(d)

financial assets are set aside in trust by a debtor for the purpose of discharging an obligation without those assets having been accepted by the creditor in settlement of the obligation (for example, a sinking fund arrangement);

or

(e)

obligations incurred as a result of events giving rise to losses are expected to be recovered from a third party by virtue of a claim made under an insurance policy.

50.

An entity that undertakes a number of financial instrument transactions with a single counterparty may enter into a ‘master netting arrangement’ with that counterparty. Such an agreement provides for a single net settlement of all financial instruments covered by the agreement in the event of default on, or termination of, any one contract. These arrangements are commonly used by financial institutions to provide protection against loss in the event of bankruptcy or other circumstances that result in a counterparty being unable to meet its obligations. A master netting arrangement commonly creates a right of set-off that becomes enforceable and affects the realisation or settlement of individual financial assets and financial liabilities only following a specified event of default or in other circumstances not expected to arise in the normal course of business. A master netting arrangement does not provide a basis for offsetting unless both of the criteria in paragraph 42 are satisfied. When financial assets and financial liabilities subject to a master netting arrangement are not offset, the effect of the arrangement on an entity’s exposure to credit risk is disclosed in accordance with paragraph 76.

DISCLOSURE

51.

The purpose of the disclosures required by this Standard is to provide information to enhance understanding of the significance of financial instruments to an entity’s financial position, performance and cash flows, and assist in assessing the amounts, timing and certainty of future cash flows associated with those instruments.

52.

Transactions in financial instruments may result in an entity assuming or transferring to another party one or more of the financial risks described below. The required disclosures provide information to assist users of financial statements in assessing the extent of risk related to financial instruments.

(a)

Market risk includes three types of risk:

(i)

currency risk — the risk that the value of a financial instrument will fluctuate because of changes in foreign exchange rates.

(ii)

fair value interest rate risk — the risk that the value of a financial instrument will fluctuate because of changes in market interest rates.

(iii)

price risk — the risk that the value of a financial instrument will fluctuate as a result of changes in market prices, whether those changes are caused by factors specific to the individual instrument or its issuer or factors affecting all instruments traded in the market.

Market risk embodies not only the potential for loss but also the potential for gain.

(b)

Credit risk — the risk that one party to a financial instrument will fail to discharge an obligation and cause the other party to incur a financial loss.

(c)

Liquidity risk (also referred to as funding risk) — the risk that an entity will encounter difficulty in raising funds to meet commitments associated with financial instruments. Liquidity risk may result from an inability to sell a financial asset quickly at close to its fair value.

(d)

Cash flow interest rate risk — the risk that the future cash flows of a financial instrument will fluctuate because of changes in market interest rates. In the case of a floating rate debt instrument, for example, such fluctuations result in a change in the effective interest rate of the financial instrument, usually without a corresponding change in its fair value.

Format, Location and Classes of Financial Instruments

53.

This Standard does not prescribe either the format of the information required to be disclosed or its location within the financial statements. To the extent that the required information is presented on the face of the financial statements, it is unnecessary to repeat it in the notes to the financial statements. Disclosures may include a combination of narrative descriptions and quantified data, as appropriate to the nature of the instruments and their relative significance to the entity.

54.

Determining the level of detail to be disclosed about particular financial instruments requires the exercise of judgement taking into account the relative significance of those instruments. It is necessary to strike a balance between overburdening financial statements with excessive detail that may not assist users of financial statements and obscuring important information as a result of too much aggregation. For example, when an entity is party to a large number of financial instruments with similar characteristics and no single contract is individually material, a summary by classes of instruments is appropriate. On the other hand, information about an individual instrument may be important when it is, for example, a material component of an entity’s capital structure.

55.

The management of an entity groups financial instruments into classes that are appropriate to the nature of the information disclosed, taking into account matters such as the characteristics of the instruments and the measurement basis that has been applied. In general, classes distinguish items measured at cost or amortised cost from items measured at fair value. Sufficient information is provided to permit a reconciliation to relevant line items on the balance sheet. When an entity is a party to financial instruments not within the scope of this Standard, those instruments constitute a class or classes of financial assets or financial liabilities separate from those within the scope of this Standard. Disclosures about those financial instruments are dealt with by other IFRSs.

Risk Management Policies and Hedging Activities

56.

An entity shall describe its financial risk management objectives and policies, including its policy for hedging each main type of forecast transaction for which hedge accounting is used.

57.

In addition to providing specific information about particular balances and transactions related to financial instruments, an entity provides a discussion of the extent to which financial instruments are used, the associated risks and the business purposes served. A discussion of management’s policies for controlling the risks associated with financial instruments includes policies on matters such as hedging of risk exposures, avoidance of undue concentrations of risk and requirements for collateral to mitigate credit risk. Such discussion provides a valuable additional perspective that is independent of the specific instruments held or outstanding at a particular time.

58.

An entity shall disclose the following separately for designated fair value hedges, cash flow hedges and hedges of a net investment in a foreign operation (as defined in IAS 39):

(a)

a description of the hedge;

(b)

a description of the financial instruments designated as hedging instruments and their fair values at the balance sheet date;

(c)

the nature of the risks being hedged;

and

(d)

for cash flow hedges, the periods in which the cash flows are expected to occur, when they are expected to enter into the determination of profit or loss, and a description of any forecast transaction for which hedge accounting had previously been used but which is no longer expected to occur.

59.

When a gain or loss on a hedging instrument in a cash flow hedge has been recognised directly in equity, through the statement of changes in equity, an entity shall disclose:

(a)

the amount that was so recognised in equity during the period;

(b)

the amount that was removed from equity and included in profit or loss for the period;

and

(c)

the amount that was removed from equity during the period and included in the initial measurement of the acquisition cost or other carrying amount of a non-financial asset or non- financial liability in a hedged highly probable forecast transaction.

Terms, Conditions and Accounting Policies

60.

For each class of financial asset, financial liability and equity instrument, an entity shall disclose:

(a)

information about the extent and nature of the financial instruments, including significant terms and conditions that may affect the amount, timing and certainty of future cash flows;

and

(b)

the accounting policies and methods adopted, including the criteria for recognition and the basis of measurement applied.

61.

As part of the disclosure of an entity’s accounting policies, an entity shall disclose, for each category of financial assets, whether regular way purchases and sales of financial assets are accounted for at trade date or at settlement date (see IAS 39, paragraph 38).

62.

The contractual terms and conditions of a financial instrument affect the amount, timing and certainty of future cash receipts and payments by the parties to the instrument. When financial instruments are significant, either individually or as a class, to the financial position of an entity or its future operating results, their terms and conditions are disclosed. If no single instrument is individually significant to the future cash flows of the entity, the essential characteristics of the instruments are described by reference to appropriate groupings of like instruments.

63.

When financial instruments held or issued by an entity, either individually or as a class, create a potentially significant exposure to the risks described in paragraph 52, terms and conditions that warrant disclosure include:

(a)

the principal, stated, face or other similar amount, which, for some derivative instruments, such as interest rate swaps, might be the amount (referred to as the notional amount) on which future payments are based;

(b)

the date of maturity, expiry or execution;

(c)

early settlement options held by either party to the instrument, including the period in which, or date at which, the options can be exercised and the exercise price or range of prices;

(d)

options held by either party to the instrument to convert the instrument into, or exchange it for, another financial instrument or some other asset or liability, including the period in which, or date at which, the options can be exercised and the conversion or exchange ratio(s);

(e)

the amount and timing of scheduled future cash receipts or payments of the principal amount of the instrument, including instalment repayments and any sinking fund or similar requirements;

(f)

stated rate or amount of interest, dividend or other periodic return on principal and the timing of payments;

(g)

collateral held, in the case of a financial asset, or pledged, in the case of a financial liability;

(h)

in the case of an instrument for which cash flows are denominated in a currency other than the entity’s functional currency, the currency in which receipts or payments are required;

(i)

in the case of an instrument that provides for an exchange, information described in items (a)-(h) for the instrument to be acquired in the exchange;

and

(j)

any condition of the instrument or an associated covenant that, if contravened, would significantly alter any of the other terms (for example, a maximum debt-to-equity ratio in a bond covenant that, if contravened, would make the full principal amount of the bond due and payable immediately).

64.

When the balance sheet presentation of a financial instrument differs from the instrument’s legal form, it is desirable for an entity to explain in the notes to the financial statements the nature of the instrument.

65.

The usefulness of information about the extent and nature of financial instruments is enhanced when it highlights any relationship between individual instruments that can significantly affect the amount, timing or certainty of the future cash flows of an entity. For example, it may be important to disclose hedging relationships such as one that might exist when an entity holds an investment in shares for which it has purchased a put option. The extent to which a risk exposure is altered by the relationship among the assets and liabilities may be apparent to financial statement users from information of the type described in paragraph 63, but in some circumstances further disclosure is necessary.

66.

In accordance with IAS 1, an entity provides disclosure of all significant accounting policies, including the general principles adopted and the method of applying those principles to transactions, other events and conditions arising in the entity’s business. In the case of financial instruments, such disclosure includes:

(a)

the criteria applied in determining when to recognise a financial asset or financial liability and when to derecognise it;

(b)

the basis of measurement applied to financial assets and financial liabilities on initial recognition and subsequently;

and

(c)

the basis on which income and expenses arising from financial assets and financial liabilities are recognised and measured.

Interest Rate Risk

67.

For each class of financial assets and financial liabilities, an entity shall disclose information about its exposure to interest rate risk, including:

(a)

contractual repricing or maturity dates, whichever dates are earlier;

and

(b)

effective interest rates, when applicable.

68.

An entity provides information about its exposure to the effects of future changes in the prevailing level of interest rates. Changes in market interest rates have a direct effect on the contractually determined cash flows associated with some financial assets and financial liabilities (cash flow interest rate risk) and on the fair value of others (fair value interest rate risk).

69.

Information about maturity dates (or repricing dates when they are earlier) indicates the length of time for which interest rates are fixed, and information about effective interest rates indicates the levels at which they are fixed. Disclosure of this information provides users of financial statements with a basis for evaluating the fair value interest rate risk to which an entity is exposed and, thus, the potential for gain or loss. For instruments that are repriced to a market rate of interest before maturity, disclosure of the period until the next repricing is more important for this purpose than disclosure of the period to maturity.

70.

To supplement the information about contractual repricing and maturity dates, an entity may elect to disclose information about expected repricing or maturity dates when those dates differ significantly from the contractual dates. For example, such information may be particularly relevant when an entity is able to predict, with reasonable reliability, the amount of fixed rate mortgage loans that will be repaid before maturity and it uses this information as the basis for managing its interest rate risk exposure. The additional information includes disclosure that it is based on management’s expectations of future events and an explanation of the assumptions made about repricing or maturity dates and how those assumptions differ from the contractual dates.

71.

An entity indicates which of its financial assets and financial liabilities are:

(a)

exposed to fair value interest rate risk, such as financial assets and financial liabilities with a fixed interest rate;

(b)

exposed to cash flow interest rate risk, such as financial assets and financial liabilities with a floating interest rate that is reset as market rates change;

and

(c)

not directly exposed to interest rate risk, such as some investments in equity instruments.

72.

The requirement in paragraph 67(b) applies to bonds, notes, loans and similar financial instruments involving future payments that create a return to the holder and a cost to the issuer reflecting the time value of money. The requirement does not apply to financial instruments such as investments in equity instruments and derivative instruments that do not bear a determinable effective interest rate. For example, even though instruments such as interest rate derivatives (including swaps, forward rate agreements and options) are exposed to fair value or cash flow risk from changes in market interest rates, disclosure of an effective interest rate is not required. However, when providing effective interest rate information, an entity discloses the effect on its interest rate risk exposure of hedging transactions such as interest rate swaps.

73.

An entity may become exposed to interest rate risk as a result of a transaction in which no financial asset or financial liability is recognised on its balance sheet. In such circumstances, the entity discloses information that permits users of its financial statements to understand the nature and extent of its exposure. For example, when an entity has a commitment to lend funds at a fixed interest rate, the disclosure normally includes the stated principal, interest rate and term to maturity of the amount to be lent and the significant terms of the transaction giving rise to the exposure to interest rate risk.

74.

The nature of an entity’s business and the extent of its activity in financial instruments determine whether information about interest rate risk is presented in narrative form, in tables or by using a combination of the two. When an entity has a variety of financial instruments exposed to fair value or cash flow interest rate risk, it may adopt one or more of the following approaches to presenting information:

(a)

The carrying amounts of financial instruments exposed to interest rate risk may be presented in tabular form, grouped by those that are contracted to mature or be repriced in the following periods after the balance sheet date:

(i)

in one year or less;

(ii)

in more than one year but not more than two years;

(iii)

in more than two years but not more than three years;

(iv)

in more than three years but not more than four years;

(v)

in more than four years but not more than five years;

and

(vi)

in more than five years.

(b)

When the performance of an entity is significantly affected by the level of its exposure to interest rate risk or changes in that exposure, more detailed information is desirable. An entity such as a bank may disclose, for example, separate groupings of the carrying amounts of financial instruments contracted to mature or be repriced:

(i)

in one month or less after the balance sheet date;

(ii)

in more than one month but not more than three months after the balance sheet date;

and

(iii)

in more than three months but not more than twelve months after the balance sheet date.

(c)

Similarly, an entity may indicate its exposure to cash flow interest rate risk through a table indicating the aggregate carrying amount of groups of floating rate financial assets and financial liabilities maturing within various future time periods.

(d)

Interest rate information may be disclosed for individual financial instruments. Alternatively, weighted average rates or a range of rates may be presented for each class of financial instrument. An entity may group into separate classes instruments denominated in different currencies or having substantially different credit risks when those factors result in instruments having substantially different effective interest rates.

75.

In some circumstances, an entity may be able to provide useful information about its exposure to interest rate risks by indicating the effect of a hypothetical change in market interest rates on the fair value of its financial instruments and future profit or loss and cash flows. Such information may be based on, for example, an assumed one percentage point (100 basis points) change in market interest rates occurring at the balance sheet date. The effects of a change in interest rates include changes in interest income and expense relating to floating rate financial instruments and gains or losses resulting from changes in the fair value of fixed rate instruments. The reported interest rate sensitivity may be restricted to the direct effects of an interest rate change on interest-bearing financial instruments recognised at the balance sheet date because the indirect effects of a rate change on financial markets and individual entities cannot normally be predicted reliably. When disclosing interest rate sensitivity information, an entity indicates the basis on which it has prepared the information, including any significant assumptions.

Credit Risk

76.

For each class of financial assets and other credit exposures, an entity shall disclose information about its exposure to credit risk, including:

(a)

the amount that best represents its maximum credit risk exposure at the balance sheet date, without taking account of the fair value of any collateral, in the event of other parties failing to perform their obligations under financial instruments;

and

(b)

significant concentrations of credit risk.

77.

An entity provides information relating to credit risk to permit users of its financial statements to assess the extent to which failures by counterparties to discharge their obligations could reduce the amount of future cash inflows from financial assets recognised at the balance sheet date or require a cash outflow from other credit exposures (such as a credit derivative or an issued guarantee of the obligations of a third party). Such failures give rise to a loss recognised in an entity’s profit or loss. Paragraph 76 does not require an entity to disclose an assessment of the probability of losses arising in the future.

78.

The purposes of disclosing amounts exposed to credit risk without regard to potential recoveries from realisation of collateral (‘an entity’s maximum credit risk exposure’) are:

(a)

to provide users of financial statements with a consistent measure of the amount exposed to credit risk for financial assets and other credit exposures;

and

(b)

to take into account the possibility that the maximum exposure to loss may differ from the carrying amount of financial assets recognised at the balance sheet date.

79.

In the case of financial assets exposed to credit risk, the carrying amount of the assets in the balance sheet, net of any applicable provisions for loss, usually represents the amount exposed to credit risk. For example, in the case of an interest rate swap carried at fair value, the maximum exposure to loss at the balance sheet date is normally the carrying amount because it represents the cost, at current market rates, of replacing the swap in the event of default. In these circumstances, no additional disclosure beyond that provided on the balance sheet is necessary. On the other hand, an entity’s maximum potential loss from some financial instruments may differ significantly from their carrying amount and from other disclosed amounts such as their fair value or principal amount. In such circumstances, additional disclosure is necessary to meet the requirements of paragraph 76(a).

80.

A financial asset subject to a legally enforceable right of set-off against a financial liability is not presented on the balance sheet net of the liability unless settlement is intended to take place on a net basis or simultaneously. Nevertheless, an entity discloses the existence of the legal right of set-off when providing information in accordance with paragraph 76. For example, when an entity is due to receive the proceeds from realisation of a financial asset before settlement of a financial liability of equal or greater amount against which the entity has a legal right of set-off, the entity has the ability to exercise that right of set-off to avoid incurring a loss in the event of a default by the counterparty. However, if the entity responds, or is likely to respond, to the default by extending the term of the financial asset, an exposure to credit risk would exist if the revised terms are such that collection of the proceeds is expected to be deferred beyond the date on which the liability is required to be settled. To inform users of financial statements of the extent to which exposure to credit risk at a particular point in time has been reduced, the entity discloses the existence and effect of the right of set-off when the financial asset is expected to be collected in accordance with its terms. When the financial liability against which a right of set-off exists is due to be settled before the financial asset, the entity is exposed to credit risk on the full carrying amount of the asset if the counterparty defaults after the liability has been settled.

81.

An entity may have entered into one or more master netting arrangements that serve to mitigate its exposure to credit loss but do not meet the criteria for offsetting. When a master netting arrangement significantly reduces the credit risk associated with financial assets not offset against financial liabilities with the same counterparty, an entity provides additional information concerning the effect of the arrangement. Such disclosure indicates that:

(a)

the credit risk associated with financial assets subject to a master netting arrangement is eliminated only to the extent that financial liabilities due to the same counterparty will be settled after the assets are realised;

and

(b)

the extent to which an entity’s overall exposure to credit risk is reduced through a master netting arrangement may change substantially within a short period following the balance sheet date because the exposure is affected by each transaction subject to the arrangement.

It is also desirable for an entity to disclose the terms of its master netting arrangements that determine the extent of the reduction in its credit risk.

82.

An entity may be exposed to credit risk as a result of a transaction in which no financial asset is recognised on its balance sheet, such as for a financial guarantee or credit derivative contract. Guaranteeing an obligation of another party creates a liability and exposes the guarantor to credit risk that is taken into account in making the disclosures required by paragraph 76.

83.

Concentrations of credit risk are disclosed when they are not apparent from other disclosures about the nature of the business and financial position of the entity and result in a significant exposure to loss in the event of default by other parties. Identification of such concentrations requires judgement by management taking into account the circumstances of the entity and its debtors. IAS 14 Segment Reporting provides guidance in identifying industry and geographical segments within which credit risk concentrations may arise.

84.

Concentrations of credit risk may arise from exposures to a single debtor or to groups of debtors having such a similar characteristic that their ability to meet their obligations is expected to be affected similarly by changes in economic or other conditions. Characteristics that may give rise to a concentration of risk include the nature of the activities undertaken by debtors, such as the industry in which they operate, the geographical area in which activities are undertaken and the level of creditworthiness of groups of borrowers. For example, a manufacturer of equipment for the oil and gas industry will normally have trade accounts receivable from sales of its products for which the risk of non-payment is affected by economic changes in the oil and gas industry. A bank that normally lends on an international scale may have many loans outstanding to less developed nations and the bank’s ability to recover them may be adversely affected by local economic conditions.

85.

Disclosure of concentrations of credit risk includes a description of the shared characteristic that identifies each concentration and the amount of the maximum credit risk exposure associated with all financial assets sharing that characteristic.

Fair Value

86.

Except as set out in paragraph 90, for each class of financial assets and financial liabilities, an entity shall disclose the fair value of that class of assets and liabilities in a way that permits it to be compared with the corresponding carrying amount in the balance sheet. (IAS 39 provides guidance for determining fair value.)

87.

Fair value information is widely used for business purposes in determining an entity’s overall financial position and in making decisions about individual financial instruments. It is also relevant to many decisions made by users of financial statements because, in many circumstances, it reflects the judgement of the financial markets about the present value of expected future cash flows relating to an instrument. Fair value information permits comparisons of financial instruments having substantially the same economic characteristics, regardless of why they are held and when and by whom they were issued or acquired. Fair values provide a neutral basis for assessing management’s stewardship by indicating the effects of its decisions to buy, sell or hold financial assets and to incur, maintain or discharge financial liabilities. When an entity does not measure a financial asset or financial liability in its balance sheet at fair value, it provides fair value information through supplementary disclosures.

88.

For financial instruments such as short-term trade receivables and payables, no disclosure of fair value is required when the carrying amount is a reasonable approximation of fair value.

89.

In disclosing fair values, an entity groups financial assets and financial liabilities into classes and offsets them only to the extent that their related carrying amounts are offset in the balance sheet.

90.

If investments in unquoted equity instruments or derivatives linked to such equity instruments are measured at cost under IAS 39 because their fair value cannot be measured reliably, that fact shall be disclosed together with a description of the financial instruments, their carrying amount, an explanation of why fair value cannot be measured reliably and, if possible, the range of estimates within which fair value is highly likely to lie. Furthermore, if financial assets whose fair value previously could not be reliably measured are sold, that fact, the carrying amount of such financial assets at the time of sale and the amount of gain or loss recognised shall be disclosed.

91.

If investments in unquoted equity instruments or derivatives linked to such equity instruments are measured at cost under IAS 39 because their fair values cannot be measured reliably, the information about fair value set out in paragraphs 86 and 92 is not required to be disclosed. Instead, information is provided to assist users of the financial statements in making their own judgements about the extent of possible differences between the carrying amount of such financial assets and financial liabilities and their fair value. In addition to an explanation of the principal characteristics of the financial instruments that are pertinent to their value and the reason for not disclosing fair values, information is provided about the market for the instruments. In some cases, the terms and conditions of the instruments disclosed in accordance with paragraph 60 may provide sufficient information. When it has a reasonable basis for doing so, management may indicate its opinion on the relationship between fair value and the carrying amount of financial assets and financial liabilities for which it is unable to determine fair value reliably.

92.

An entity shall disclose:

(a)

the methods and significant assumptions applied in determining fair values of financial assets and financial liabilities separately for significant classes of financial assets and financial liabilities. (Paragraph 55 provides guidance for determining classes of financial assets.)

(b)

whether fair values of financial assets and financial liabilities are determined directly, in full or in part, by reference to published price quotations in an active market or are estimated using a valuation technique (see IAS 39, paragraphs AG71-AG79).

(c)

whether its financial statements include financial instruments measured at fair values that are determined in full or in part using a valuation technique based on assumptions that are not supported by observable market prices or rates. If changing any such assumption to a reasonably possible alternative would result in a significantly different fair value, the entity shall state this fact and disclose the effect on the fair value of a range of reasonably possible alternative assumptions. For this purpose, significance shall be judged with respect to profit or loss and total assets or total liabilities.

(d)

the total amount of the change in fair value estimated using a valuation technique that was recognised in profit or loss during the period.

93.

Disclosure of fair value information includes disclosure of the method used in determining fair value and the significant assumptions made in its application. For example, an entity discloses information about the assumptions relating to prepayment rates, rates of estimated credit losses and interest or discount rates if they are significant.

Other Disclosures

Derecognition

94.

(a)

An entity may have either transferred a financial asset (see paragraph 18 of IAS 39) or entered into the type of arrangement described in paragraph 19 of IAS 39 in such a way that the arrangement does not qualify as a transfer of a financial asset. If the entity either continues to recognise all of the asset or continues to recognise the asset to the extent of the entity’s continuing involvement (see IAS 39, paragraphs 29 and 30) it shall disclose for each class of financial asset:

(i)

the nature of the assets;

(ii)

the nature of the risks and rewards of ownership to which the entity remains exposed;

(iii)

when the entity continues to recognise all of the asset, the carrying amounts of the asset and of the associated liability;

and

(iv)

when the entity continues to recognise the asset to the extent of its continuing involvement, the total amount of the asset, the amount of the asset that the entity continues to recognise and the carrying amount of the associated liability.

Collateral

94.

(b)

An entity shall disclose the carrying amount of financial assets pledged as collateral for liabilities, the carrying amount of financial assets pledged as collateral for contingent liabilities, and (consistently with paragraphs 60(a) and 63(g)) any material terms and conditions relating to assets pledged as collateral.

(c)

When an entity has accepted collateral that it is permitted to sell or repledge in the absence of default by the owner of the collateral, it shall disclose:

(i)

the fair value of the collateral accepted (financial and non-financial assets);

(ii)

the fair value of any such collateral sold or repledged and whether the entity has an obligation to return it;

and

(iii)

any material terms and conditions associated with its use of this collateral (consistently with paragraphs 60(a) and 63(g)).

Compound financial instruments with multiple embedded derivatives

94.

(d)

If an entity has issued an instrument that contains both a liability and an equity component (see paragraph 28) and the instrument has multiple embedded derivative features whose values are interdependent (such as a callable convertible debt instrument), it shall disclose the existence of those features and the effective interest rate on the liability component (excluding any embedded derivatives that are accounted for separately).

Financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss (see also paragraph AG40)

94.

(e)

An entity shall disclose the carrying amounts of financial assets and financial liabilities that:

(i)

are classified as held for trading;

and

(ii)

were, upon initial recognition, designated by the entity as financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss (ie those that are not financial instruments classified as held for trading).

(f)

If the entity has designated a financial liability as at fair value through profit or loss, it shall disclose:

(i)

the amount of change in its fair value that is not attributable to changes in a benchmark interest rate (eg LIBOR);

and

(ii)

the difference between its carrying amount and the amount the entity would be contractually required to pay at maturity to the holder of the obligation.

Reclassification

94.

(g)

If the entity has reclassified a financial asset as one measured at cost or amortised cost rather than at fair value (see IAS 39, paragraph 54), it shall disclose the reason for that reclassification.

Income statement and equity

94.

(h)

An entity shall disclose material items of income, expense and gains and losses resulting from financial assets and financial liabilities, whether included in profit or loss or as a separate component of equity. For this purpose, the disclosure shall include at least the following items:

(i)

total interest income and total interest expense (calculated using the effective interest method) for financial assets and financial liabilities that are not at fair value through profit or loss;

(ii)

for available-for-sale financial assets, the amount of any gain or loss recognised directly in equity during the period and the amount that was removed from equity and recognised in profit or loss for the period;

and

(iii)

the amount of interest income accrued on impaired financial assets, in accordance with IAS 39, paragraph AG93.

Impairment

94.

(i)

An entity shall disclose the nature and amount of any impairment loss recognised in profit or loss for a financial asset, separately for each significant class of financial asset (paragraph 55 provides guidance for determining classes of financial assets).

Defaults and breaches

94.

(j)

With respect to any defaults of principal, interest, sinking fund or redemption provisions during the period on loans payable recognised as at the balance sheet date, and any other breaches during the period of loan agreements when those breaches can permit the lender to demand repayment (except for breaches that are remedied, or in response to which the terms of the loan are renegotiated, on or before the balance sheet date), an entity shall disclose:

(i)

details of those breaches;

(ii)

the amount recognised as at the balance sheet date in respect of the loans payable on which the breaches occurred;

and

(iii)

with respect to amounts disclosed under (ii), whether the default has been remedied or the terms of the loans payable renegotiated before the date the financial statements were authorised for issue.

95.

For the purpose of disclosing information on breaches of loan agreements in accordance with paragraph 94(j), loans payable include issued debt instruments and financial liabilities other than short-term trade payables on normal credit terms. When such a breach occurred during the period, and the breach has not been remedied or the terms of the loan payable have not been renegotiated by the balance sheet date, the effect of the breach on the classification of the liability as current or non-current is determined under IAS 1.

EFFECTIVE DATE

96.

An entity shall apply this Standard for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2005. Earlier application is permitted. An entity shall not apply this Standard for annual periods beginning before 1 January 2005 unless it also applies IAS 39 (issued December 2003). If an entity applies this Standard for a period beginning before 1 January 2005, it shall disclose that fact.

97.

This Standard shall be applied retrospectively.

WITHDRAWAL OF OTHER PRONOUNCEMENTS

98.

This Standard supersedes IAS 32 Financial Instruments: Disclosure and Presentation revised in 2000.

99.

This Standard supersedes the following Interpretations:

(a)

SIC-5 Classification of Financial Instruments — Contingent Settlement Provisions;

(b)

SIC-16 Share Capital — Reacquired Own Equity Instruments (Treasury Shares);

and

(c)

SIC-17 Equity — Costs of an Equity Transaction.

100.

This Standard withdraws draft SIC Interpretation D34 Financial Instruments — Instruments or Rights Redeemable by the Holder.


(1)  In this Standard, monetary amounts are denominated in ‘currency units’ (CU).

APPENDIX A

Application Guidance IAS 32 Financial Instruments: Disclosure and Presentation

This appendix is an integral part of the Standard.

AG1.

This Application Guidance explains the application of particular aspects of the Standard.

AG2.

The Standard does not deal with the recognition or measurement of financial instruments. Requirements about the recognition and measurement of financial assets and financial liabilities are set out in IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement.

Definitions (paragraphs 11-14)

Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities

AG3.

Currency (cash) is a financial asset because it represents the medium of exchange and is therefore the basis on which all transactions are measured and recognised in financial statements. A deposit of cash with a bank or similar financial institution is a financial asset because it represents the contractual right of the depositor to obtain cash from the institution or to draw a cheque or similar instrument against the balance in favour of a creditor in payment of a financial liability.

AG4.

Common examples of financial assets representing a contractual right to receive cash in the future and corresponding financial liabilities representing a contractual obligation to deliver cash in the future are:

(a)

trade accounts receivable and payable;

(b)

notes receivable and payable;

(c)

loans receivable and payable;

and

(d)

bonds receivable and payable.

In each case, one party’s contractual right to receive (or obligation to pay) cash is matched by the other party’s corresponding obligation to pay (or right to receive).

AG5.

Another type of financial instrument is one for which the economic benefit to be received or given up is a financial asset other than cash. For example, a note payable in government bonds gives the holder the contractual right to receive and the issuer the contractual obligation to deliver government bonds, not cash. The bonds are financial assets because they represent obligations of the issuing government to pay cash. The note is, therefore, a financial asset of the note holder and a financial liability of the note issuer.

AG6.

‘Perpetual’ debt instruments (such as ‘perpetual’ bonds, debentures and capital notes) normally provide the holder with the contractual right to receive payments on account of interest at fixed dates extending into the indefinite future, either with no right to receive a return of principal or a right to a return of principal under terms that make it very unlikely or very far in the future. For example, an entity may issue a financial instrument requiring it to make annual payments in perpetuity equal to a stated interest rate of 8 per cent applied to a stated par or principal amount of CU1 000. (1) Assuming 8 per cent to be the market rate of interest for the instrument when issued, the issuer assumes a contractual obligation to make a stream of future interest payments having a fair value (present value) of CU1 000 on initial recognition. The holder and issuer of the instrument have a financial asset and a financial liability, respectively.

AG7.

A contractual right or contractual obligation to receive, deliver or exchange financial instruments is itself a financial instrument. A chain of contractual rights or contractual obligations meets the definition of a financial instrument if it will ultimately lead to the receipt or payment of cash or to the acquisition or issue of an equity instrument.

AG8.

The ability to exercise a contractual right or the requirement to satisfy a contractual obligation may be absolute, or it may be contingent on the occurrence of a future event. For example, a financial guarantee is a contractual right of the lender to receive cash from the guarantor, and a corresponding contractual obligation of the guarantor to pay the lender, if the borrower defaults. The contractual right and obligation exist because of a past transaction or event (assumption of the guarantee), even though the lender’s ability to exercise its right and the requirement for the guarantor to perform under its obligation are both contingent on a future act of default by the borrower. A contingent right and obligation meet the definition of a financial asset and a financial liability, even though such assets and liabilities are not always recognised in the financial statements.

AG9.

Under IAS 17 Leases a finance lease is regarded as primarily an entitlement of the lessor to receive, and an obligation of the lessee to pay, a stream of payments that are substantially the same as blended payments of principal and interest under a loan agreement. The lessor accounts for its investment in the amount receivable under the lease contract rather than the leased asset itself. An operating lease, on the other hand, is regarded as primarily an uncompleted contract committing the lessor to provide the use of an asset in future periods in exchange for consideration similar to a fee for a service. The lessor continues to account for the leased asset itself rather than any amount receivable in the future under the contract. Accordingly, a finance lease is regarded as a financial instrument and an operating lease is not regarded as a financial instrument (except as regards individual payments currently due and payable).

AG10.

Physical assets (such as inventories, property, plant and equipment), leased assets and intangible assets (such as patents and trademarks) are not financial assets. Control of such physical and intangible assets creates an opportunity to generate an inflow of cash or another financial asset, but it does not give rise to a present right to receive cash or another financial asset.

AG11.

Assets (such as prepaid expenses) for which the future economic benefit is the receipt of goods or services, rather than the right to receive cash or another financial asset, are not financial assets. Similarly, items such as deferred revenue and most warranty obligations are not financial liabilities because the outflow of economic benefits associated with them is the delivery of goods and services rather than a contractual obligation to pay cash or another financial asset.

AG12.

Liabilities or assets that are not contractual (such as income taxes that are created as a result of statutory requirements imposed by governments) are not financial liabilities or financial assets. Accounting for income taxes is dealt with in IAS 12 Income Taxes. Similarly, constructive obligations, as defined in IAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets, do not arise from contracts and are not financial liabilities.

Equity Instruments

AG13.

Examples of equity instruments include non-puttable ordinary shares, some types of preference shares (see paragraphs AG25 and AG26), and warrants or written call options that allow the holder to subscribe for or purchase a fixed number of non-puttable ordinary shares in the issuing entity in exchange for a fixed amount of cash or another financial asset. An entity’s obligation to issue or purchase a fixed number of its own equity instruments in exchange for a fixed amount of cash or another financial asset is an equity instrument of the entity. However, if such a contract contains an obligation for the entity to pay cash or another financial asset, it also gives rise to a liability for the present value of the redemption amount (see paragraph AG27(a)). An issuer of non-puttable ordinary shares assumes a liability when it formally acts to make a distribution and becomes legally obligated to the shareholders to do so. This may be the case following the declaration of a dividend or when the entity is being wound up and any assets remaining after the satisfaction of liabilities become distributable to shareholders.

AG14.

A purchased call option or other similar contract acquired by an entity that gives it the right to reacquire a fixed number of its own equity instruments in exchange for delivering a fixed amount of cash or another financial asset is not a financial asset of the entity. Instead, any consideration paid for such a contract is deducted from equity.

Derivative Financial Instruments

AG15.

Financial instruments include primary instruments (such as receivables, payables and equity instruments) and derivative financial instruments (such as financial options, futures and forwards, interest rate swaps and currency swaps). Derivative financial instruments meet the definition of a financial instrument and, accordingly, are within the scope of this Standard.

AG16.

Derivative financial instruments create rights and obligations that have the effect of transferring between the parties to the instrument one or more of the financial risks inherent in an underlying primary financial instrument. On inception, derivative financial instruments give one party a contractual right to exchange financial assets or financial liabilities with another party under conditions that are potentially favourable, or a contractual obligation to exchange financial assets or financial liabilities with another party under conditions that are potentially unfavourable. However, they generally (2) do not result in a transfer of the underlying primary financial instrument on inception of the contract, nor does such a transfer necessarily take place on maturity of the contract. Some instruments embody both a right and an obligation to make an exchange. Because the terms of the exchange are determined on inception of the derivative instrument, as prices in financial markets change those terms may become either favourable or unfavourable.

AG17.

A put or call option to exchange financial assets or financial liabilities (ie financial instruments other than an entity’s own equity instruments) gives the holder a right to obtain potential future economic benefits associated with changes in the fair value of the financial instrument underlying the contract. Conversely, the writer of an option assumes an obligation to forgo potential future economic benefits or bear potential losses of economic benefits associated with changes in the fair value of the underlying financial instrument. The contractual right of the holder and obligation of the writer meet the definition of a financial asset and a financial liability, respectively. The financial instrument underlying an option contract may be any financial asset, including shares in other entities and interest-bearing instruments. An option may require the writer to issue a debt instrument, rather than transfer a financial asset, but the instrument underlying the option would constitute a financial asset of the holder if the option were exercised. The option-holder’s right to exchange the financial asset under potentially favourable conditions and the writer’s obligation to exchange the financial asset under potentially unfavourable conditions are distinct from the underlying financial asset to be exchanged upon exercise of the option. The nature of the holder’s right and of the writer’s obligation are not affected by the likelihood that the option will be exercised.

AG18.

Another example of a derivative financial instrument is a forward contract to be settled in six months’ time in which one party (the purchaser) promises to deliver CU1 000 000 cash in exchange for CU1 000 000 face amount of fixed rate government bonds, and the other party (the seller) promises to deliver CU1 000 000 face amount of fixed rate government bonds in exchange for CU1 000 000 cash. During the six months, both parties have a contractual right and a contractual obligation to exchange financial instruments. If the market price of the government bonds rises above CU1 000 000, the conditions will be favourable to the purchaser and unfavourable to the seller; if the market price falls below CU1 000 000, the effect will be the opposite. The purchaser has a contractual right (a financial asset) similar to the right under a call option held and a contractual obligation (a financial liability) similar to the obligation under a put option written; the seller has a contractual right (a financial asset) similar to the right under a put option held and a contractual obligation (a financial liability) similar to the obligation under a call option written. As with options, these contractual rights and obligations constitute financial assets and financial liabilities separate and distinct from the underlying financial instruments (the bonds and cash to be exchanged). Both parties to a forward contract have an obligation to perform at the agreed time, whereas performance under an option contract occurs only if and when the holder of the option chooses to exercise it.

AG19.

Many other types of derivative instruments embody a right or obligation to make a future exchange, including interest rate and currency swaps, interest rate caps, collars and floors, loan commitments, note issuance facilities and letters of credit. An interest rate swap contract may be viewed as a variation of a forward contract in which the parties agree to make a series of future exchanges of cash amounts, one amount calculated with reference to a floating interest rate and the other with reference to a fixed interest rate. Futures contracts are another variation of forward contracts, differing primarily in that the contracts are standardised and traded on an exchange.

Contracts to Buy or Sell Non-Financial Items (paragraphs 8-10)

AG20.

Contracts to buy or sell non-financial items do not meet the definition of a financial instrument because the contractual right of one party to receive a non-financial asset or service and the corresponding obligation of the other party do not establish a present right or obligation of either party to receive, deliver or exchange a financial asset. For example, contracts that provide for settlement only by the receipt or delivery of a non-financial item (eg an option, futures or forward contract on silver) are not financial instruments. Many commodity contracts are of this type. Some are standardised in form and traded on organised markets in much the same fashion as some derivative financial instruments. For example, a commodity futures contract may be bought and sold readily for cash because it is listed for trading on an exchange and may change hands many times. However, the parties buying and selling the contract are, in effect, trading the underlying commodity. The ability to buy or sell a commodity contract for cash, the ease with which it may be bought or sold and the possibility of negotiating a cash settlement of the obligation to receive or deliver the commodity do not alter the fundamental character of the contract in a way that creates a financial instrument. Nevertheless, some contracts to buy or sell non-financial items that can be settled net or by exchanging financial instruments, or in which the non-financial item is readily convertible to cash, are within the scope of the Standard as if they were financial instruments (see paragraph 8).

AG21.

A contract that involves the receipt or delivery of physical assets does not give rise to a financial asset of one party and a financial liability of the other party unless any corresponding payment is deferred past the date on which the physical assets are transferred. Such is the case with the purchase or sale of goods on trade credit.

AG22.

Some contracts are commodity-linked, but do not involve settlement through the physical receipt or delivery of a commodity. They specify settlement through cash payments that are determined according to a formula in the contract, rather than through payment of fixed amounts. For example, the principal amount of a bond may be calculated by applying the market price of oil prevailing at the maturity of the bond to a fixed quantity of oil. The principal is indexed by reference to a commodity price, but is settled only in cash. Such a contract constitutes a financial instrument.

AG23.

The definition of a financial instrument also encompasses a contract that gives rise to a non-financial asset or non-financial liability in addition to a financial asset or financial liability. Such financial instruments often give one party an option to exchange a financial asset for a non-financial asset. For example, an oil-linked bond may give the holder the right to receive a stream of fixed periodic interest payments and a fixed amount of cash on maturity, with the option to exchange the principal amount for a fixed quantity of oil. The desirability of exercising this option will vary from time to time depending on the fair value of oil relative to the exchange ratio of cash for oil (the exchange price) inherent in the bond. The intentions of the bondholder concerning the exercise of the option do not affect the substance of the component assets. The financial asset of the holder and the financial liability of the issuer make the bond a financial instrument, regardless of the other types of assets and liabilities also created.

AG24.

Although the Standard was not developed to apply to commodity or other contracts that do not satisfy the definition of a financial instrument or fall within paragraph 8, entities may regard it as appropriate to apply the relevant disclosure requirements of this Standard to such contracts.

Presentation

Liabilities and Equity (paragraphs 15-27)

No Contractual Obligation to Deliver Cash or Another Financial Asset (paragraphs 17-20)

AG25.

Preference shares may be issued with various rights. In determining whether a preference share is a financial liability or an equity instrument, an issuer assesses the particular rights attaching to the share to determine whether it exhibits the fundamental characteristic of a financial liability. For example, a preference share that provides for redemption on a specific date or at the option of the holder contains a financial liability because the issuer has an obligation to transfer financial assets to the holder of the share. The potential inability of an issuer to satisfy an obligation to redeem a preference share when contractually required to do so, whether because of a lack of funds, a statutory restriction or insufficient profits or reserves, does not negate the obligation. An option of the issuer to redeem the shares for cash does not satisfy the definition of a financial liability because the issuer does not have a present obligation to transfer financial assets to the shareholders. In this case, redemption of the shares is solely at the discretion of the issuer. An obligation may arise, however, when the issuer of the shares exercises its option, usually by formally notifying the shareholders of an intention to redeem the shares.

AG26.

When preference shares are non-redeemable, the appropriate classification is determined by the other rights that attach to them. Classification is based on an assessment of the substance of the contractual arrangements and the definitions of a financial liability and an equity instrument. When distributions to holders of the preference shares, whether cumulative or non-cumulative, are at the discretion of the issuer, the shares are equity instruments. The classification of a preference share as an equity instrument or a financial liability is not affected by, for example:

(a)

a history of making distributions;

(b)

an intention to make distributions in the future;

(c)

a possible negative impact on the price of ordinary shares of the issuer if distributions are not made (because of restrictions on paying dividends on the ordinary shares if dividends are not paid on the preference shares);

(d)

the amount of the issuer’s reserves;

(e)

an issuer’s expectation of a profit or loss for a period;

or

(f)

an ability or inability of the issuer to influence the amount of its profit or loss for the period.

Settlement in the Entity’s Own Equity Instruments (paragraphs 21-24)

AG27.

The following examples illustrate how to classify different types of contracts on an entity’s own equity instruments:

(a)

A contract that will be settled by the entity receiving or delivering a fixed number of its own shares for no future consideration, or exchanging a fixed number of its own shares for a fixed amount of cash or another financial asset, is an equity instrument. Accordingly, any consideration received or paid for such a contract is added directly to or deducted directly from equity. One example is an issued share option that gives the counterparty a right to buy a fixed number of the entity’s shares for a fixed amount of cash. However, if the contract requires the entity to purchase (redeem) its own shares for cash or another financial asset at a fixed or determinable date or on demand, the entity also recognises a financial liability for the present value of the redemption amount. One example is an entity’s obligation under a forward contract to repurchase a fixed number of its own shares for a fixed amount of cash.

(b)

An entity’s obligation to purchase its own shares for cash gives rise to a financial liability for the present value of the redemption amount even if the number of shares that the entity is obliged to repurchase is not fixed or if the obligation is conditional on the counterparty exercising a right to redeem. One example of a conditional obligation is an issued option that requires the entity to repurchase its own shares for cash if the counterparty exercises the option.

(c)

A contract that will be settled in cash or another financial asset is a financial asset or financial liability even if the amount of cash or another financial asset that will be received or delivered is based on changes in the market price of the entity’s own equity. One example is a net cash-settled share option.

(d)

A contract that will be settled in a variable number of the entity’s own shares whose value equals a fixed amount or an amount based on changes in an underlying variable (eg a commodity price) is a financial asset or a financial liability. An example is a written option to buy gold that, if exercised, is settled net in the entity’s own instruments by the entity delivering as many of those instruments as are equal to the value of the option contract. Such a contract is a financial asset or financial liability even if the underlying variable is the entity’s own share price rather than gold. Similarly, a contract that will be settled in a fixed number of the entity’s own shares, but the rights attaching to those shares will be varied so that the settlement value equals a fixed amount or an amount based on changes in an underlying variable, is a financial asset or a financial liability.

Contingent Settlement Provisions (paragraph 25)

AG28.

Paragraph 25 requires that if a part of a contingent settlement provision that could require settlement in cash or another financial asset (or in another way that would result in the instrument being a financial liability) is not genuine, the settlement provision does not affect the classification of a financial instrument. Thus, a contract that requires settlement in cash or a variable number of the entity’s own shares only on the occurrence of an event that is extremely rare, highly abnormal and very unlikely to occur is an equity instrument. Similarly, settlement in a fixed number of an entity’s own shares may be contractually precluded in circumstances that are outside the control of the entity, but if these circumstances have no genuine possibility of occurring, classification as an equity instrument is appropriate.

Treatment in Consolidated Financial Statements

AG29.

In consolidated financial statements, an entity presents minority interests — ie the interests of other parties in the equity and income of its subsidiaries — in accordance with IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements and IAS 27 Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements. When classifying a financial instrument (or a component of it) in consolidated financial statements, an entity considers all terms and conditions agreed between members of the group and the holders of the instrument in determining whether the group as a whole has an obligation to deliver cash or another financial asset in respect of the instrument or to settle it in a manner that results in liability classification. When a subsidiary in a group issues a financial instrument and a parent or other group entity agrees additional terms directly with the holders of the instrument (eg a guarantee), the group may not have discretion over distributions or redemption. Although the subsidiary may appropriately classify the instrument without regard to these additional terms in its individual financial statements, the effect of other agreements between members of the group and the holders of the instrument is considered in order to ensure that consolidated financial statements reflect the contracts and transactions entered into by the group as a whole. To the extent that there is such an obligation or settlement provision, the instrument (or the component of it that is subject to the obligation) is classified as a financial liability in consolidated financial statements.

Compound Financial Instruments (paragraphs 28-32)

AG30.

Paragraph 28 applies only to issuers of non-derivative compound financial instruments. Paragraph 28 does not deal with compound financial instruments from the perspective of holders. IAS 39 deals with the separation of embedded derivatives from the perspective of holders of compound financial instruments that contain debt and equity features.

AG31.

A common form of compound financial instrument is a debt instrument with an embedded conversion option, such as a bond convertible into ordinary shares of the issuer, and without any other embedded derivative features. Paragraph 28 requires the issuer of such a financial instrument to present the liability component and the equity component separately on the balance sheet, as follows:

(a)

The issuer’s obligation to make scheduled payments of interest and principal is a financial liability that exists as long as the instrument is not converted. On initial recognition, the fair value of the liability component is the present value of the contractually determined stream of future cash flows discounted at the rate of interest applied at that time by the market to instruments of comparable credit status and providing substantially the same cash flows, on the same terms, but without the conversion option.

(b)

The equity instrument is an embedded option to convert the liability into equity of the issuer. The fair value of the option comprises its time value and its intrinsic value, if any. This option has value on initial recognition even when it is out of the money.

AG32.

On conversion of a convertible instrument at maturity, the entity derecognises the liability component and recognises it as equity. The original equity component remains as equity (although it may be transferred from one line item within equity to another). There is no gain or loss on conversion at maturity.

AG33.

When an entity extinguishes a convertible instrument before maturity through an early redemption or repurchase in which the original conversion privileges are unchanged, the entity allocates the consideration paid and any transaction costs for the repurchase or redemption to the liability and equity components of the instrument at the date of the transaction. The method used in allocating the consideration paid and transaction costs to the separate components is consistent with that used in the original allocation to the separate components of the proceeds received by the entity when the convertible instrument was issued, in accordance with paragraphs 28-32.

AG34.

Once the allocation of the consideration is made, any resulting gain or loss is treated in accordance with accounting principles applicable to the related component, as follows:

(a)

the amount of gain or loss relating to the liability component is recognised in profit or loss;

and

(b)

the amount of consideration relating to the equity component is recognised in equity.

AG35.

An entity may amend the terms of a convertible instrument to induce early conversion, for example by offering a more favourable conversion ratio or paying other additional consideration in the event of conversion before a specified date. The difference, at the date the terms are amended, between the fair value of the consideration the holder receives on conversion of the instrument under the revised terms and the fair value of the consideration the holder would have received under the original terms is recognised as a loss in profit or loss.

Treasury Shares (paragraphs 33 and 34)

AG36.

An entity’s own equity instruments are not recognised as a financial asset regardless of the reason for which they are reacquired. Paragraph 33 requires an entity that reacquires its own equity instruments to deduct those equity instruments from equity. However, when an entity holds its own equity on behalf of others, eg a financial institution holding its own equity on behalf of a client, there is an agency relationship and as a result those holdings are not included in the entity’s balance sheet.

Interest, Dividends, Losses and Gains (paragraphs 35-41)

AG37.

The following example illustrates the application of paragraph 35 to a compound financial instrument. Assume that a non-cumulative preference share is mandatorily redeemable for cash in five years, but that dividends are payable at the discretion of the entity before the redemption date. Such an instrument is a compound financial instrument, with the liability component being the present value of the redemption amount. The unwinding of the discount on this component is recognised in profit or loss and classified as interest expense. Any dividends paid relate to the equity component and, accordingly, are recognised as a distribution of profit or loss. A similar treatment would apply if the redemption was not mandatory but at the option of the holder, or if the share was mandatorily convertible into a variable number of ordinary shares calculated to equal a fixed amount or an amount based on changes in an underlying variable (eg commodity). However, if any unpaid dividends are added to the redemption amount, the entire instrument is a liability. In such a case, any dividends are classified as interest expense.

Offsetting a Financial Asset and a Financial Liability (paragraphs 42-50)

AG38.

To offset a financial asset and a financial liability, an entity must have a currently enforceable legal right to set off the recognised amounts. An entity may have a conditional right to set off recognised amounts, such as in a master netting agreement or in some forms of non-recourse debt, but such rights are enforceable only on the occurrence of some future event, usually a default of the counterparty. Thus, such an arrangement does not meet the conditions for offset.

AG39.

The Standard does not provide special treatment for so-called ‘synthetic instruments’, which are groups of separate financial instruments acquired and held to emulate the characteristics of another instrument. For example, a floating rate long-term debt combined with an interest rate swap that involves receiving floating payments and making fixed payments synthesises a fixed rate long-term debt. Each of the individual financial instruments that together constitute a ‘synthetic instrument’ represents a contractual right or obligation with its own terms and conditions and each may be transferred or settled separately. Each financial instrument is exposed to risks that may differ from the risks to which other financial instruments are exposed. Accordingly, when one financial instrument in a ‘synthetic instrument’ is an asset and another is a liability, they are not offset and presented on an entity’s balance sheet on a net basis unless they meet the criteria for offsetting in paragraph 42. Disclosures are provided about the significant terms and conditions of each financial instrument, although an entity may indicate in addition the nature of the relationship between the individual instruments (see paragraph 65).

Disclosure

Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities at Fair Value Through Profit or Loss (paragraph 94(f))

AG40.

If an entity designates a financial liability as at fair value through profit or loss, it is required to disclose the amount of change in the fair value of the liability that is not attributable to changes in a benchmark interest rate (eg LIBOR). For a liability whose fair value is determined on the basis of an observed market price, this amount can be estimated as follows:

(a)

First, the entity computes the liability’s internal rate of return at the start of the period using the observed market price of the liability and the liability’s contractual cash flows at the start of the period. It deducts from this rate of return the benchmark interest rate at the start of the period, to arrive at an instrument- specific component of the internal rate of return.

(b)

Next, the entity calculates the present value of the liability using the liability’s contractual cash flows at the start of the period and a discount rate equal to the sum of the benchmark interest rate at the end of the period and the instrument-specific component of the internal rate of return at the start of the period as determined in (a).

(c)

The amount determined in (b) is then decreased for any cash paid on the liability during the period and increased to reflect the increase in fair value that arises because the contractual cash flows are one period closer to their due date.

(d)

The difference between the observed market price of the liability at the end of the period and the amount determined in (c) is the change in fair value that is not attributable to changes in the benchmark interest rate. This is the amount to be disclosed.


(1)  In this guidance, monetary amounts are denominated in ‘currency units’ (CU).

(2)  This is true of most, but not all derivatives, eg in some cross-currency interest rate swaps principal is exchanged on inception (and re-exchanged on maturity).

IFRIC INTERPRETATION 1

Changes in Existing Decommissioning, Restoration and Similar Liabilities

REFERENCES

IAS 1

Presentation of Financial Statements (as revised in 2003)

IAS 8

Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors

IAS 16

Property, Plant and Equipment (as revised in 2003)

IAS 23

Borrowing Costs

IAS 36

Impairment of Assets(as revised in 2004)

IAS 37

Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

BACKGROUND

1.

Many entities have obligations to dismantle, remove and restore items of property, plant and equipment. In this Interpretation such obligations are referred to as ‘decommissioning, restoration and similar liabilities’. Under IAS 16, the cost of an item of property, plant and equipment includes the initial estimate of the costs of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located, the obligation for which an entity incurs either when the item is acquired or as a consequence of having used the item during a particular period for purposes other than to produce inventories during that period. IAS 37 contains requirements on how to measure decommissioning, restoration and similar liabilities. This Interpretation provides guidance on how to account for the effect of changes in the measurement of existing decommissioning, restoration and similar liabilities.

SCOPE

2.

This Interpretation applies to changes in the measurement of any existing decommissioning, restoration or similar liability that is both:

(a)

recognised as part of the cost of an item of property, plant and equipment in accordance with IAS 16;

and

(b)

recognised as a liability in accordance with IAS 37.

For example, a decommissioning, restoration or similar liability may exist for decommissioning a plant, rehabilitating environmental damage in extractive industries, or removing equipment.

ISSUE

3.

This Interpretation addresses how the effect of the following events that change the measurement of an existing decommissioning, restoration or similar liability should be accounted for:

(a)

a change in the estimated outflow of resources embodying economic benefits (eg cash flows) required to settle the obligation;

(b)

a change in the current market-based discount rate as defined in paragraph 47 of IAS 37 (this includes changes in the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability);

and

(c)

an increase that reflects the passage of time (also referred to as the unwinding of the discount).

CONSENSUS

4.

Changes in the measurement of an existing decommissioning, restoration and similar liability that result from changes in the estimated timing or amount of the outflow of resources embodying economic benefits required to settle the obligation, or a change in the discount rate, shall be accounted for in accordance with paragraphs 5-7 below.

5.

If the related asset is measured using the cost model:

(a)

subject to (b), changes in the liability shall be added to, or deducted from, the cost of the related asset in the current period.

(b)

the amount deducted from the cost of the asset shall not exceed its carrying amount. If a decrease in the liability exceeds the carrying amount of the asset, the excess shall be recognised immediately in profit or loss.

(c)

if the adjustment results in an addition to the cost of an asset, the entity shall consider whether this is an indication that the new carrying amount of the asset may not be fully recoverable. If it is such an indication, the entity shall test the asset for impairment by estimating its recoverable amount, and shall account for any impairment loss, in accordance with IAS 36.

6.

If the related asset is measured using the revaluation model:

(a)

changes in the liability alter the revaluation surplus or deficit previously recognised on that asset, so that:

(i)

a decrease in the liability shall (subject to (b)) be credited directly to revaluation surplus in equity, except that it shall be recognised in profit or loss to the extent that it reverses a revaluation deficit on the asset that was previously recognised in profit or loss;

(ii)

an increase in the liability shall be recognised in profit or loss, except that it shall be debited directly to revaluation surplus in equity to the extent of any credit balance existing in the revaluation surplus in respect of that asset.

(b)

in the event that a decrease in the liability exceeds the carrying amount that would have been recognised had the asset been carried under the cost model, the excess shall be recognised immediately in profit or loss.

(c)

a change in the liability is an indication that the asset may have to be revalued in order to ensure that the carrying amount does not differ materially from that which would be determined using fair value at the balance sheet date. Any such revaluation shall be taken into account in determining the amounts to be taken to profit or loss and equity under (a). If a revaluation is necessary, all assets of that class shall be revalued.

(d)

IAS 1 requires disclosure on the face of the statement of changes in equity of each item of income or expense that is recognised directly in equity. In complying with this requirement, the change in the revaluation surplus arising from a change in the liability shall be separately identified and disclosed as such.

7.

The adjusted depreciable amount of the asset is depreciated over its useful life. Therefore, once the related asset has reached the end of its useful life, all subsequent changes in the liability shall be recognised in profit or loss as they occur. This applies under both the cost model and the revaluation model.

8.

The periodic unwinding of the discount shall be recognised in profit or loss as a finance cost as it occurs. The allowed alternative treatment of capitalisation under IAS 23 is not permitted.

EFFECTIVE DATE

9.

An entity shall apply this Interpretation for annual periods beginning on or after 1 September 2004. Earlier application is encouraged. If an entity applies the Interpretation for a period beginning before 1 September 2004, it shall disclose that fact.

TRANSITION

10.

Changes in accounting policies shall be accounted for according to the requirements of IAS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors.  (1)


(1)  If an entity applies this Interpretation for a period beginning before 1 January 2005, the entity shall follow the requirements of the previous version of IAS 8, which was entitled Net Profit or Loss for the Period, Fundamental Errors and Changes in Accounting Policies, unless the entity is applying the revised version of that Standard for that earlier period.

APPENDIX

Amendments to IFRS 1 First-time Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards

The amendments in this appendix shall be applied for annual periods beginning on or after 1 September 2004. If an entity applies this Interpretation for an earlier period, these amendments shall be applied for that earlier period.

A1

IFRS 1 First-time Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards and its accompanying documents are amended as described below.

In paragraph 12 of the IFRS, the reference to paragraphs 13-25D is changed to 13-25E.

Subparagraphs 13(h) and (i) of the IFRS are amended, and subparagraph (j) is inserted, to read as follows:

(h)

share-based payment transactions (paragraphs 25B and 25C);

(i)

insurance contracts (paragraph 25D);

and

(j)

decommissioning liabilities included in the cost of property, plant and equipment (paragraph 25E).

In the IFRS, a new heading and paragraph 25E are inserted, as follows:

Changes in existing decommissioning, restoration and similar liabilities included in the cost of property, plant and equipment

25E

IFRIC 1 Changes in Existing Decommissioning, Restoration and Similar Liabilities requires specified changes in a decommissioning, restoration or similar liability to be added to or deducted from the cost of the asset to which it relates; the adjusted depreciable amount of the asset is then depreciated prospectively over its remaining useful life. A first-time adopter need not comply with these requirements for changes in such liabilities that occurred before the date of transition to IFRSs. If a first-time adopter uses this exemption, it shall:

(a)

measure the liability as at the date of transition to IFRSs in accordance with IAS 37;

(b)

to the extent that the liability is within the scope of IFRIC 1, estimate the amount that would have been included in the cost of the related asset when the liability first arose, by discounting the liability to that date using its best estimate of the historical risk-adjusted discount rate(s) that would have applied for that liability over the intervening period;

and

(c)

calculate the accumulated depreciation on that amount, as at the date of transition to IFRSs, on the basis of the current estimate of the useful life of the asset, using the depreciation policy adopted by the entity under IFRSs.