CASA 270/14 - Determination — meteorological minima for landing or taking-off at aerodrome

Link to law: https://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2014L01579

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Instrument number CASA 270/14
I, jonathan aleck, Acting Director of Aviation Safety, on behalf of CASA, make this instrument under subregulation 257 (1) of the Civil Aviation Regulations 1988 (CAR 1988) and subsection 33 (3) of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901.
[Signed Jonathan Aleck]
Jonathan Aleck
Acting Director of Aviation Safety
21 November 2014
Determination — meteorological minima for landing or taking-off at aerodrome
1          Commencement
                 This instrument commences on the day of registration.
2          Repeal
                 Instrument CASA 70/11 is repealed.
3          Definitions
                 In this instrument:
AIP means Aeronautical Information Publication.
CAO means Civil Aviation Order.
defined point after take-off means the point within the take-off and initial climb phase before which a helicopter’s ability to continue the flight safely, with 1 engine inoperative, is not assured and a forced landing may be required.
LSALT means lowest safe altitude.
MSA means minimum sector altitude.
MTOW means maximum take-off weight.
PC1 means performance class 1 and is the class of helicopter performance such that in the event of failure of the critical power-unit the helicopter is able either to land within the rejected take-off distance available, or to safely continue the flight to an appropriate landing area, depending on when the failure occurs.
PC2 means performance class 2 and is the class of helicopter performance such that in the event of critical power-unit failure performance is available to enable the helicopter to safely continue the flight except when the failure occurs early during the take-off manoeuvre or late in the landing manoeuvre, in which cases a forced landing may be required.
qualifying multi-engine aeroplane means an I.F.R. aeroplane to which Part A of Schedule 1 applies.
qualifying multi-engine helicopter means an I.F.R. helicopter to which Part C of Schedule 1 applies.
RVR means runway visual range and is measured by instrument and reported by Air Traffic Control (ATC).
TODA means take-off distance available.
4          Determination
        (1)     The meteorological minima for an I.F.R. aeroplane taking off are as determined in Part A or Part B of Schedule 1, subject to any conditions mentioned in the Part.
        (2)     The meteorological minima for an I.F.R. helicopter taking off are as determined in Part C or Part D of Schedule 1, subject to any conditions mentioned in the Part.
        (3)     The meteorological minima for an I.F.R. aircraft landing are as determined in Schedule 2.
Note   Under regulation 257 of CAR 1988, unless exempted by CASA, it is a strict liability offence if an aircraft takes off or lands below any of the minima determined for the aircraft.
Schedule 1          Take-off minima for aircraft
Part A             Take-off minima for certain multi-engine I.F.R. aeroplanes
        1     Part A applies to a multi-engine I.F.R. aeroplane that meets each of the following requirements (a qualifying multi-engine aeroplane):
(a)   the aeroplane is:
             (i)  2 pilot operated; or
            (ii)  a single pilot operated jet aeroplane; or
           (iii)  a single pilot operated propeller aeroplane with operative auto feather; and
(b)   for an aeroplane with a MTOW exceeding 5 700 kg — the aeroplane is able to meet the relevant obstacle clearance requirements of CAO 20.7.1B; and
(c)   for an aeroplane with a MTOW not exceeding 5 700 kg:
             (i)  the gross climb gradient performance is at least 1.9% under ambient conditions with the loss of the most critical engine; and
            (ii)  the aeroplane engine-out climb gradient under ambient conditions specified in the manufacturer’s data is at least 0.3% greater than the obstacle free gradient for the runway length required; and
           (iii)  the pilot in command uses published obstacle free gradients only if such gradients are surveyed to at least a distance of 7 500 m from end of TODA; and
          Note   All runways with strip widths of 150 m or greater are surveyed to 7 500 m unless otherwise annotated in the AIP.
           (iv)  an operator-established obstacle free gradient is used only if:
(A)    the gradient (having a 150 m baseline at the end of TODA), 12.5% splays, and 7 500 m distance) is established not more than 30° from runway heading; and
(B)    the procedures involve not more than 15° of bank to track within the splay; and
(d)   for a 2-pilot operation — each pilot is:
             (i)  endorsed on type; and
            (ii)  multi-crew trained on type; and
           (iii)  multi-crew proficiency checked within the previous 13 months; and
           (iv)  instrument rated.
        2     The take-off minima for a qualifying multi-engine aeroplane are:
(a)   a ceiling of zero feet; and
(b)   visibility of:
             (i)  550 m — but only if the following conditions are complied with:
(A)    the runway must have illuminated edge lighting at spacing intervals not exceeding 60 m, and centreline lighting or centreline markings; and
(B)    if the aerodrome is a non-controlled aerodrome, or a controlled aerodrome without ATC in operation — the take-off must be conducted by day only, and the aerodrome must be one at which carriage of radio is mandatory; or
            (ii)  800 m.
        3     It is a condition of the use of the take-off minima in Part A that the pilot in command of the aeroplane must ensure that:
(a)   if a return to land at the departure aerodrome will be necessary in the event of an engine failure — the meteorological conditions must be at, or above, instrument approach and landing minima for the aerodrome or such as to allow a visual approach; and
(b)   if engine failure occurs at any time after V1, lift-off, or encountering non‑visual conditions — terrain clearance is assured until reaching either en route LSALT or departure aerodrome MSA; and
(c)   if a return to the departure aerodrome is not possible — the aeroplane’s performance and fuel availability must each be adequate to enable the aeroplane to proceed to a suitable aerodrome, having regard to terrain, obstacles and route distance limitations.
Part B             Take-off minima for other I.F.R. aeroplanes
        1     Part B applies to an I.F.R. aeroplane that is NOT a qualifying multi-engine aeroplane within the meaning of Part A.
        2     The take-off minima for the aeroplane are:
(a)   a ceiling of 300 ft; and
(b)   visibility of 2 000 m.
        3     It is a condition of the use of the minima in Part B that the pilot in command of the aeroplane must ensure that:
(a)   terrain clearance is assured until reaching either en route LSALT or departure aerodrome MSA; and
(b)   if a return to the departure aerodrome is not possible — the aeroplane’s performance and fuel availability are each adequate to enable the aeroplane to proceed to a suitable aerodrome, having regard to terrain, obstacles and route distance limitations.
        4     It is a condition of the use of the minima in Part B by a multi-engine aeroplane that:
(a)   if a return to land at the departure aerodrome will be necessary in the event of an engine failure — the meteorological conditions must be at or above instrument approach and landing minima for the aerodrome or such as to allow a visual approach; and
(b)   if engine failure occurs at any time after V1, lift-off, or encountering non‑visual conditions terrain clearance must be assured until reaching either en route LSALT or departure aerodrome MSA.
Part C             Take-off minima for certain multi-engine I.F.R. helicopters
        1     Part C applies to a multi-engine I.F.R. helicopter operating in PC1 or PC2 (a qualifying multi-engine helicopter).
        2     The minima for a qualifying multi-engine helicopter are:
(a)   clear of cloud:
             (i)  for helicopters operating in PC1 — until attaining the greater of Vyse or Vmin I.M.C.; or
            (ii)  for helicopters operating in PC2 — until attaining the greater of Vyse or Vmin I.M.C., and passing the defined point after take-off; and
(b)   visibility of:
             (i)  800 m; or
            (ii)  550 m, but only if the relevant runway or helicopter landing site has:
(A)    illuminated edge lighting at spacing intervals not exceeding 60 m; and
(B)    centreline lighting or centreline markings.
        3     It is a condition of the use of the minima in Part C that after entering instrument meteorological conditions the take-off must be conducted:
(a)   either:
             (i)  in accordance with published I.F.R. departure procedures; or
            (ii)  if there are no published procedures — such that terrain clearance is assured; and
(b)   in the event of an engine failure:
             (i)  after encountering non‑visual conditions — terrain clearance is assured until reaching either the en-route LSALT or departure aerodrome MSA; and
            (ii)  a return to land at the departure aerodrome is required — the meteorological conditions must be at, or above, instrument approach and landing minima for the aerodrome or such as to allow a visual approach; and
           (iii)  a return to the departure aerodrome is not possible — the helicopter’s performance and fuel availability must each be adequate to enable the helicopter to proceed to a suitable aerodrome, having regard to terrain, obstacles and route distance limitations.
Part D             Take-off minima for other I.F.R. helicopters
        1     Part D applies to an I.F.R. helicopter that is NOT a qualifying multi-engine helicopter within the meaning of Part C.
        2     The minima for the helicopter are:
(a)   a ceiling of 500 ft; and
(b)   visibility of 800 m.
        3     It is a condition of the use of the minima in Part D that after entering instrument meteorological conditions the take-off must be conducted either:
(a)   in accordance with published I.F.R. departure procedures; or
(b)   if there are no published procedures — such that terrain clearance is assured;
                 until reaching either en route LSALT or departure aerodrome MSA and safe flight to a suitable destination or alternate, or a return to land can be made.
        4     It is a condition of the use of the minima in Part D that if a return to land at the departure aerodrome will be necessary in the event of an engine failure, that:
(a)   the meteorological conditions must be at, or above, instrument approach and landing minima for the aerodrome or such as to allow a visual approach; or
(b)   if a return to the departure aerodrome is not possible — the helicopter’s performance and fuel availability must each be adequate to enable the helicopter to proceed to a suitable aerodrome, having regard to terrain, obstacles and route distance limitations.
Schedule 2          Landing minima for I.F.R. aircraft
        1     The landing minima for an I.F.R. aircraft are:
(a)   for an aerodrome with an approved instrument approach procedure — the minima specified in the instrument approach chart for carrying out that procedure, being:
             (i)  a height above runway threshold of not less than 200 ft and visibility of not less than 800 m; or
            (ii)  a height above runway threshold of not less than 200 ft and an RVR of not less than 550 m in the runway touchdown zone; or
(b)   for other aerodromes:
             (i)  in the case of day I.F.R. — visual approach requirements; and
            (ii)  in the case of night I.F.R. — VMC from the lowest safe altitude within 3 nautical miles.