CASA 157/14 - Instructions — GNSS as primary means of navigation for NDB and VOR (overlay) approach (Qantas Airways Limited)

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Instrument number CASA 157/14
I, GERARD JOHN CAMPBELL, Executive Manager, Operations Division, a delegate of CASA, make this instrument under subregulation 179A (1) of the Civil Aviation Regulations 1988 (CAR 1988).
[Signed G.J. Campbell]
Gerard J. Campbell
Executive Manager
Operations Division
25 July 2014
Instructions — GNSS as primary means of navigation for NDB and VOR (overlay) approach (Qantas Airways Limited)
1          Duration
                 This instrument:
(a)   commences on 1 August 2014; and
(b)   expires at the end of July 2017, as if it had been repealed by another instrument.
2          Definitions
                 In this instrument:
AFM means the aircraft flight manual.
approved navigation database means a navigation database on a medium approved by the manufacturer of the aircraft as suitable for use with the aircraft.
FMC means flight management computer.
FMS means the aircraft’s flight management system.
GNSS means the Global Navigation Satellite System, a satellite navigation system used by a pilot on board an aircraft to determine position from satellite data.
GPS means the United States Government satellite navigation system known as the Global Positioning System.
method of control means autopilot or flight director.
RNAV (GNSS) approach means an area navigation instrument approach procedure.
RNP means the required navigation performance as displayed to the flight crew by the FMS.
RNP-capable RNAV system means an area navigation system fitted to an aircraft for which the AFM for the aircraft states that it is capable of meeting RNP 0.3 (or lower, as required) requirements.
XTK error means the cross-track difference between the indicated position of the aircraft and the planned position, as displayed to the flight crew by the FMS.
3          Application
                 This instrument applies to the conduct of non-precision approach procedures by Qantas Airways Limited, Aviation Reference Number 216147 (Qantas), in an A330, A380, B737-800, B747 or B767 aircraft with an RNP-capable RNAV system.
4          Instructions
                 I issue the instructions in Schedule 1.
Schedule 1          Instructions
1          Use of RNP‑capable RNAV system
     (1)     An aircraft operated by Qantas under I.F.R. may use an RNP-capable RNAV system in accordance with these instructions as a non-precision approach I.F.R. radio navigation aid for a published non-precision approach procedure, including a related missed approach procedure.
     (2)     This means that the FMC may be used as a substitute means of navigation, instead of a navigation aid, where the approach is in the approved navigation database, including where:
(a)   a NOTAM states that the underlying navigation aid is out of service; or
(b)      the onboard navigation aid is not serviceable or not installed.
     (3)     The procedure must not be flown if:
(a)   the underlying navigation aid had been decommissioned; or
(b)   the instrument approach for the navigation aid has been withdrawn.
2          Requirements
     (1)     The AFM or the manufacturer’s approved document must contain a statement that the aircraft is capable of meeting the requirements for RNP 0.3 or lower.
     (2)     The aircraft must be operated in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
     (3)     The RNP-capable RNAV system must not be used as a navigation reference for flight below the lowest safe altitude/minimum sector altitude except in accordance with a published non-precision approach procedure.
     (4)     The procedure to be flown by the flight crew must be extracted from an approved navigation database.
     (5)     Qantas must inform CASA should any condition, operational bulletin, airworthiness directive or AFM amendment change or affect this instrument.
3          Procedures
     (1)     Qantas must ensure that flight crew are appropriately trained in the minimum equipment required for dispatch, commencement of the approach, the approach procedures and reasons to discontinue the approach.
     (2)     The training syllabus for training of flight crew must be included in Qantas’s approved training and checking manual.
     (3)     Qantas’s policy, procedures and limitations on the use of GNSS as a primary means of navigation for an NDB and VOR (overlay) approach must be included in Qantas’s operations manual.
     (4)     For the purposes of planning alternate minima, Qantas may base the calculation upon:
(a)   any of the published non‑precision approach landing minima, except RNP‑AR; plus
(b)   the weather forecast tolerance.
     (5)     Before dispatch, the pilot in command must ensure that, if GNSS is to be used as primary means of navigation, at least 2 FMCs, 2 control display units, 2 GNSS receivers and 2 inertial reference units in NAV mode are operational.
     (6)     A prediction of the RNP‑GNSS based approach availability is required for RNP 0.30 operations, unless:
(a)   at least 24 satellites are operation and available within the GPS constellation; and
(b)   either:
             (i)  the AFM, or FAA or EASA approved documentation, includes a statement negating the need for ground-based predictions; or
            (ii)  supporting document is provided to CASA indicating at least 99% RNP 0.30 availability, with the minimum number of GPS satellites available.
     (7)     If GNSS is to be used as primary means of navigation and a prediction required by subclause 3 (6) indicates that RNP 0.3 may not be available, before dispatch, the pilot in command must ensure that:
(a)   sufficient holding fuel is carried for the duration of the period for which RNP 0.3 or lower is not available; or
(b)   the flight is planned using conventional ground‑based radio navigation aids for which the aircraft is equipped; or
(c)   an alternate aerodrome is planned for which the requirements of this subclause 3 (7) are also met.
     (8)     Before commencing the approach, the flight crew must ensure that:
(a)   at least 1 FMC, 1 control display unit, 1 GNSS receiver and 2 inertial reference units in NAV mode are operational; and
(b)   the instrument approach procedure is selected by name from a current aircraft navigation database; and
(c)   the procedure conforms to the charted procedure; and
(d)   the final approach segment RNP 0.3 (or lower, as required) is displayed or selected in the FMS; and
(e)   no modification of approach, missed approach or departure waypoints are made, except as required to modify speeds or apply cold weather temperature corrections, as applicable.
     (9)     For a non-precision approach where these instructions are used, a maximum RNP alerting level must be used as follows:
(a)   for the initial, intermediate and missed approach segment — 1.0 nm;
(b)   for the final approach segment — 0.30 nm.
   (10)     At all times during the approach, the pilot in command must ensure that:
(a)   the approach is flown using a method of control that, in accordance with the AFM, permits RNP 0.3 (or lower, as required) operations to be conducted; and
(b)   the approach is flown in accordance with the current approved charted approach procedure; and
(c)   an approved method is used to monitor XTK error; and
(d)   at least 1 pilot monitors the XTK error; and
(e)   procedure centrelines, as depicted by the onboard equipment displays, are maintained; and
(f)    for normal operations, XTK error is limited to the lesser of:
             (i)  1 times RNP to a maximum of 0.30 nm; or
            (ii)  the prescribed FMS Landing System or Navigation Performance Scale limits (as installed).
   (11)     The pilot in command must ensure that the non-precision approach is discontinued if:
(a)   the navigation of the aircraft exceeds the manufacturer’s stated limits for the RNP 0.3 capability (or lower, as required); or
(b)   an alert is displayed indicating that the navigation system cannot meet the manufacturer’s stated limits for the RNP 0.3 capability (or lower, as required); or
(c)   a XTK error alert is annunciated; or
(d)   if the manufacturer does not provide a means of XTK error alerting — the XTK error is greater than 1 times RNP to a maximum of 0.30 nm.
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