Carbon Credits (Carbon Farming Initiative—Reforestation and Afforestation 2.0) Methodology Determination 2015

Link to law: https://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2015L00682

 
 
 
 
Carbon Credits (Carbon Farming Initiative—Reforestation and Afforestation 2.0) Methodology Determination 2015
I, Greg Hunt, Minister for the Environment, make the following determination.
Dated     8 : 5: 2015                 
 
GREG HUNT
Greg Hunt
Minister for the Environment
 
  
 
Contents
Part 1 —Preliminary                                                                                                    6
1  Name                                                                                                                                         6
2  Commencement                                                                                                                         6
3  Authority                                                                                                                                   6
4  Duration                                                                                                                                    6
5  Definitions                                                                                                                                 6
6  References to factors and parameters from external sources                                                    12
Part 2 —Permanent planting projects                                                                      13
7  Permanent planting projects                                                                                                     13
Part 3 —Project requirements                                                                                   14
8  Operation of this Part                                                                                                              14
9  Location                                                                                                                                   14
10  Project area to include eligible land                                                                                        14
11  Project mechanisms                                                                                                               14
12  Removal of trees                                                                                                                    14
13  Preparation burns                                                                                                                  15
14  Restrictions relating to fertiliser use                                                                                       15
15  Requirements for pre-existing project                                                                                    15
16  Requirement in lieu of regulatory additionality requirement                                                  16
Part 4 —Stratification, estimating project removals and calculating project emissions    17
Division 1 —Defining strata and delineating boundaries                                     17
17  Defining strata in the project area                                                                                          17
18  Delineating stratum boundaries                                                                                             19
19  Growth disturbances and revision of strata                                                                           19
20  Effect of change in stratum boundaries                                                                                  21
21  Reporting on newly established and superseded strata                                                          21
Division 2 —Estimating project removals                                                            22
Subdivision 1 —General                                                                                                                  22
22  General                                                                                                                                  22
Subdivision 2 —Outline—conducting full inventory or PSP assessment                            22
23  Outline of steps—conducting full inventory or PSP assessment                                           22
Subdivision 3 —Sampling plans                                                                                                     23
24  Developing and documenting a sampling plan                                                                      23
25  Sampling plan information for full inventory and PSP assessment                                       23
26  Sampling plan information for stratum specific functions                                                     24
27  Sampling plan information for regional functions                                                                 24
Subdivision 4 —Ex ante estimate of minimum number of TSPs or PSPs                           25
28  Operation of Subdivision                                                                                                      25
29  Target probable limits of error for full inventory and PSP assessment                                  25
30  Ex ante estimate of minimum number of TSPs or PSPs                                                        25
Subdivision 5 —Determining the location of TSPs and PSPs                                                 26
31  Operation of Subdivision                                                                                                      26
32  Determining potential plot locations                                                                                      26
33  Selecting a subset from the potential plot locations                                                                27
34  Determining intended location coordinates of TSPs and PSPs                                              27
Subdivision 6 —Establishing plots                                                                                                27
35  Operation of Subdivision                                                                                                      27
36  Establishing plots                                                                                                                  28
37  Plot configuration                                                                                                                  28
38  Plot size                                                                                                                                 28
39  Identifying and marking plots                                                                                                28
40  Dealing with plots located close to stratum boundaries                                                         29
41  Edge plots                                                                                                                              29
Subdivision 7 —Visiting TSPs and PSPs and collecting data                                                 30
42  Operation of Subdivision                                                                                                      30
43  Plot visits during full inventory                                                                                             30
44  Plot visits during PSP assessment                                                                                         30
45  Collection of information during plot visits                                                                           30
Subdivision 8 —Estimation of biomass                                                                                        30
46  Operation of Subdivision                                                                                                      30
47  Estimation of biomass                                                                                                           30
48  Estimation of carbon stock                                                                                                    31
49  Plot carbon stock for edge plots                                                                                            31
50  Assessment of plots if pilot inventory was conducted                                                           31
Subdivision 9 —Ex post analysis of plots                                                                                    31
51  Operation of Subdivision                                                                                                      31
52  Ex post analysis—probable limit of error                                                                              31
53  Ex post analysis—plot location and size                                                                                32
Subdivision 10 —Proceeding when requirements of ex post analysis met                          32
54  Operation of Subdivision                                                                                                      32
55  Estimation of carbon stock—full inventory                                                                           32
56  Estimation of carbon stock—PSP assessment                                                                       32
Subdivision 11 —Proceeding when requirements of ex post analysis not met                   33
57  Operation of Subdivision                                                                                                      33
58  How to proceed if target probable limit of error not met                                                        33
59  How to proceed if plot location tolerance or size requirement not met                                   33
Subdivision 12 —Allometric functions                                                                                         33
60  Applying allometric functions                                                                                               33
61  Allometric domain                                                                                                                 34
62  Regression fitting                                                                                                                  34
63  Minimum data requirements                                                                                                  35
64  Minimum regression fit requirements                                                                                    35
65  Variance of weighted residuals                                                                                              36
66  Allometric report                                                                                                                   36
Subdivision 13 —Allometric functions for live trees                                                                36
67  Developing allometric functions for live trees                                                                       36
68  Developing stratum specific functions                                                                                   37
69  Updating pre‑existing stratum specific functions or CFI functions                                       38
70  Regional functions                                                                                                                 39
71  Converting a stratum specific function to a regional function                                                40
Subdivision 14 —Assessing biomass sample trees                                                                     40
72  Assessing above‑ground biomass of biomass sample trees                                                  40
73  Assessing below-ground biomass of biomass sample trees                                                  41
74  Destructive sampling method for estimating below-ground biomass                                    41
Subdivision 15 —Allometric functions for other trees                                                             42
75  Developing allometric functions for trees other than live trees                                              42
Subdivision 16 —Applicability of allometric functions                                                           42
76  Testing the applicability of allometric functions                                                                     42
77  Compatibility checks                                                                                                             42
78  Validation test                                                                                                                        43
Subdivision 17 —Assessing carbon stock in fallen dead wood and litter                             45
79  Assessing carbon stock in litter                                                                                             45
80  Assessing carbon stock in fallen dead wood                                                                         45
Division 3 —Calculating project emissions                                                          46
81  Calculating fuel emissions from project activities                                                                  46
82  Calculating fire emissions from a stratum                                                                              46
Part 5 —Calculating the carbon dioxide equivalent net abatement amount for a project in relation to a reporting period                                                                                        47
Division 1 —Preliminary                                                                                       47
83  General                                                                                                                                  47
84  Gases accounted for in abatement calculations                                                                      47
85  Requirements for calculating carbon dioxide equivalent net abatement                                  47
Division 2 —Calculations                                                                                      48
Subdivision 1 —Calculating carbon dioxide equivalent net abatement amount               48
86  General                                                                                                                                  48
87  Calculating the carbon dioxide equivalent net abatement amount                                           48
88  Calculating uncertainty for net abatement amount                                                                  49
89  Calculating standard error for net abatement amount                                                             49
90  Calculating degrees of freedom for net abatement amount                                                     50
Subdivision 2 —Calculating carbon stock change                                                                    50
91  Calculating carbon stock change for a project                                                                        50
92  Calculating carbon stock change for a stratum                                                                       51
Subdivision 3 —Calculating initial carbon stock for a stratum                                            53
93  Calculating initial carbon stock for a stratum                                                                         53
Subdivision 4 —Calculating closing carbon stock for a stratum                                          53
94  Calculating closing carbon stock for a stratum based on full inventory                                 53
95  Calculating closing carbon stock for a stratum based on PSP assessment                             54
96  Calculating closing carbon stock for a stratum with no assessment                                       56
Subdivision 5 —Calculating lower confidence bound                                                              56
97  Calculating the lower confidence bound for mean ratio of change in PSP carbon stock        56
Subdivision 6 —Calculating mean ratio of change in PSP carbon stock                            56
98  Calculating the mean ratio of change in PSP carbon stock                                                    56
99  Calculating the ratio of change in PSP carbon stock                                                              57
Subdivision 7 —Calculating mean plot carbon stock for a stratum                                     58
100  Calculating mean plot carbon stock for a stratum                                                                58
Subdivision 8 —Calculating carbon stock in a plot                                                                  59
101  Calculating carbon stock within a plot assessed as part of full inventory or a PSP assessment 59
Subdivision 9 —Calculating carbon stock in trees, fallen dead wood, and litter               59
102  Calculating carbon stock in live trees within a plot                                                              59
103  Calculating carbon stock in live fire affected trees within a plot                                          60
104  Calculating carbon stock in dead standing trees within a plot                                              60
105  Calculating carbon stock in dead standing fire affected trees within a plot                          60
106  Calculating carbon stock in litter within a plot                                                                     61
107  Calculating carbon stock in fallen dead wood within a plot                                                 61
Subdivision 10 —Calculating biomass in trees                                                                          61
108  Calculating biomass in live trees within a plot                                                                     61
109  Calculating biomass in live fire affected trees within a plot                                                 62
110  Calculating biomass in dead standing trees within a plot                                                     62
111  Calculating biomass in dead standing fire affected trees within a plot                                 62
Subdivision 11 —Calculating project emissions                                                                        63
112  Calculating project emissions                                                                                              63
113  Calculating fuel emissions for a stratum                                                                              64
114  Calculating emissions for fossil fuel types                                                                          64
Subdivision 12 —Calculating emissions for newly fire affected strata                               64
115  Calculating emissions for a newly fire affected stratum                                                       64
116  Calculating the standard error for fire emissions                                                                 66
Subdivision 13 —Calculating probable limit of error                                                             67
117  Calculating probable limit of error for carbon stock estimates                                             67
118  Calculating number of plots required for probable limit of error                                         68
Subdivision 14 —Calculating biomass for biomass sample trees and test trees                69
119  Calculating total biomass for trees—destructive sampling                                                   69
120  Calculating total biomass for trees—default root:shoot ratio                                               69
121  Calculating the dry weight of biomass components for biomass sample trees and test trees 69
122  Calculating the variance of weighted residuals for biomass sample trees and test trees       70
Part 6 —Monitoring and reporting requirements                                                   72
Division 1 —Monitoring requirements                                                                 72
123  Operation of this Division                                                                                                   72
124  Monitoring for growth disturbances                                                                                    72
Division 2 —Offsets report requirements                                                             72
125  Operation of this Division                                                                                                   72
126  Reporting when not possible to use factors or parameters as at end of reporting period     72
Division 3 —Reporting under section 77A of the Act                                          72
127  No division of stratum area                                                                                                 72
 
Part 1—Preliminary
1  Name
                   This is the Carbon Credits (Carbon Farming Initiative—Reforestation and Afforestation 2.0) Methodology Determination 2015.
2  Commencement
                   This determination commences on the day after it is registered.
3  Authority
                   This determination is made under subsection 106(1) of the Carbon Credits (Carbon Farming Initiative) Act 2011.
4  Duration
                   This determination remains in force for the period that:
                     (a)  begins when this determination commences; and
                     (b)  ends on the day before this instrument would otherwise be repealed under subsection 50(1) of the Legislative Instruments Act 2003.
5  Definitions
In this determination:
Act means the Carbon Credits (Carbon Farming Initiative) Act 2011.
actual location coordinates means spatial coordinates that are collected on the ground using a global positioning system, and that define the location of plots, biomass sample plots and biomass sample trees.
actual plot size means the area of a plot as physically measured on the ground.
allometric data range means the range between the smallest and largest predictor measures included within an allometric dataset.
allometric dataset means predictor measures and biomass measurements recorded from biomass sample trees that are used to develop an allometric function.
allometric domain means the specific conditions under which an allometric function is applicable.
allometric function means a species‑specific regression function fitted to a scatter of data‑points that relates predictor measures collected through a non‑destructive measurement process to a measure of the weight of biomass within a project tree, and includes stratum specific and regional functions.
allometric report means a document that describes a project proponent’s approach to the development of allometric functions, including descriptions of allometric data, allometric domain, regression fitting processes and outcomes of checks against regression fit requirements.
belt plantings means discrete patches of project trees that have been established in a linear or curvilinear ‘belt’ pattern where width measured across the belt is no wider than 50 metres.
biomass means vegetation‑derived organic matter.
biomass component of a tree means a component according to a categorisation that divides its elements into at least:
                     (a)  the following above‑ground components:
                              (i)  stem;
                             (ii)  branches;
                            (iii)  crown;
                            (iv)  dead material, including dead branches, dead stem and dead crown, attached to the biomass sample tree; and
                     (b)  the following below‑ground components:     
                              (i)  tap root or lignotuber;
                             (ii)  the lateral roots.
biomass sample plot means an area of land that occurs within a biomass sample site and is delineated in accordance with Part 4.
biomass sample site means an area of land in which biomass sample plots are randomly located and biomass sample trees are randomly selected, for the purposes of developing a regional function.
biomass sample tree means a tree selected for destructive sampling in order to develop, update or extend an allometric function.
branches means the hard, woody above‑ground support elements of a tree that are connected to the stem, support the crown, and have a distinct, thick bark layer.
block plantings means discrete patches of project trees that have been established so the average minimum width is greater than 50 metres.
bulked sample means a sample of litter collected through combining 4 smaller samples into a single sample.
carbon fraction means the proportion, by weight, of dry organic matter that is composed of carbon.
carbon stock means the quantity of carbon, expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent, held within project forest biomass.
centroid option means a plot established so that the actual location coordinates are located at the centre of the plot.
CFI function means a stratum‑specific or regional function that was developed in compliance with a CFI methodology determination (whether or not the determination has since ceased to be in force).
CFI Mapping Guidelines means the guidelines known as the Carbon Farming Initiative (CFI) Mapping Guidelines, as published from time to time, to be used for mapping project areas and strata within project areas, and available on the Department’s website.
closing carbon stock means the quantity of carbon, expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent, estimated to be held within the project forest biomass occurring within a stratum at the end of a reporting period.
consistent edge option means a plot established so that:
                     (a)  the starting edge passes through the actual location coordinates and is aligned perpendicular to the orientation of the edges of a belt planting; and
                     (b)  if a belt planting has:
                              (i)  an east‑west orientation—the plot is laid out toward the most westerly end of the belt planting; or
                             (ii)  an orientation other than east‑west—the plot is laid out toward the most southerly end of the belt planting; and
                     (c)  the plot extends across the full width of the belt planting.
constant position option means a plot established so that the actual location coordinates are located at the same relative position on the plots, for example, the most southern and eastern corner.
crown means non‑woody, above‑ground tree structures that include twigs, petioles, and leaves, and that are involved in photosynthesis or supporting photosynthetic structures.
crown cover means the amount of land covered by the outer limits of the crown (viewed as a horizontal cross‑section) of a tree, or collection of trees.
crown radius, for a stratum, means:
                     (a)  if an average expected radius of a fully mature project tree in the stratum can be reliably estimated—that radius; and
                     (b)  otherwise—2 metres.
dead standing fire affected tree means a dead tree that shows obvious signs of having been affected by fire and that remains in an upright position.
dead standing tree means a dead tree that shows no signs of having been affected by fire and which remains in an upright position.
declaration date for a project, means the date on which the declaration of the project as an eligible offsets project under section 27 of the Act takes effect.
disturbance affected stratum means a stratum that has been subject to a growth disturbance event, other than fire—see section 19.
edge plot—see section 41.
eligible land—see subsection 10(2).
extant project forest boundary, of a stratum—see subsection 18(3).
fallen dead wood means dead woody stem and branch components that:
                     (a)  have a cross‑sectional diameter of more than 2.5 centimetres; and
                     (b)  are derived from a project tree; and
                     (c)  occur at ground level.
fire affected stratum means a stratum that is so labelled under section 19 because it experienced a fire event that still affects it.
fire emissions means emissions of methane (CH4) or nitrous oxide (N2O) arising from fire events.
fire event means an occurrence of a fire in a stratum or strata.
forest means land of a minimum area of 0.2 of a hectare on which trees:
                     (a)  have attained, or have the potential to attain, a crown cover of at least 20% across the area of land; and
                     (b)  have reached, or have the potential to reach, a height of at least 2 metres.
forest cover—land has forest cover if:
                     (a)  the land has an area of at least 0.2 of a hectare; and
                     (b)  the vegetation on the land includes trees that:
                              (i)  are 2 metres or more in height; and
                             (ii)  provide crown cover of at least 20% of the land.
fuel emissions means emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), or methane (CH4) arising from fossil fuel use in relation to the delivery of project activities within the project area.
Note:          This includes fuel use that takes place outside the project strata, but within the wider project area, if it relates to project activities.
full inventory means an estimation of carbon stock conducted in accordance with section 23.
Note:          This is one of the 2 measurement processes available to a project proponent to estimate carbon stock within a stratum and involves the use of temporary sample plots and, optionally, permanent sample plots to estimate carbon stock. The other process is PSP assessment.
growth disturbance—see section 19.
initial carbon stock—see section 93.
intended location coordinates means spatial coordinates for a randomly selected intersection from a grid overlay used to define the proposed on‑ground location of plots and biomass sample plots.
lateral root means the woody material that extends laterally from a tree’s tap root or lignotuber, or both, and that forms part of a tree’s below‑ground structure.
litter means dead, project‑tree derived material that occurs at ground level and is less than 2.5 centimetres in diameter (such as leaves, twigs, bark and small woody stems in various stages of decomposition).
live fire affected tree means a tree that is living and showing obvious signs of having experienced a fire event, or for which records indicate that it has experienced a fire event.
live tree means a tree that is living, which shows no obvious physical signs of having experienced a fire event, and for which no records exist that indicate that it has been affected by a fire event.
native forest means an area of land that:
                     (a)  is dominated by trees that:
                              (i)  are located within their natural range; and
                             (ii)  have attained, or have the potential to attain, a crown cover of at least 20% of the area of land; and
                            (iii)  have reached, or have the potential to reach, a height of at least 2 metres; and
                     (b)  is not a plantation.
newly fire affected stratum means a fire affected stratum that has not had the emissions from the relevant fire event included in abatement calculations for an offsets report.
non‑project forest means forest within the project area that was not established as a direct result of the project.
non‑project tree means a tree within the project area that was neither planted, nor otherwise established, as a direct result of the project.
ortho‑rectified aerial imagery means an aerial photograph or satellite image geometrically corrected for distortion to produce a uniform scale across the image.
permanent planting has the same meaning as in the Rule or the Regulations.
permanent planting project—see section 7.
planting means the planting of seedlings or the sowing of seed derived from trees.
plot means a temporary sample plot or a permanent sample plot.
plot layout option means any of the following:
                     (a)  centroid option;
                     (b)  consistent edge option;
                     (c)  constant position option.
predictor measure means a measure of tree dimensions collected through a non‑destructive measurement process and referenced in an allometric function to estimate the biomass contained within trees.
preparation burn means the controlled application of fire within a stratum to assist in the removal or suppression of ground‑level vegetation or fire fuel loads.
prescribed weed means any plant that is required by law to be removed.
probable limit of error means the percentage error at the 90% confidence level.
project activity means an activity carried out within the project area as part of the establishment and management of project forest.
project emissions means emissions of greenhouse gases occurring within the project area as a result of a project activity, from the sources specified in section 84.
project forest means forest that has been established within the project area as a direct result of the project.
project forest biomass means the biomass contained within project trees, litter, or fallen dead wood.
project removals means removals from the atmosphere of greenhouse gases caused as a result of project activities.
project tree means a tree that has been established within a stratum through undertaking project activities.
pseudo-random number generator means computer software that:
                     (a)  generates a sequence of numbers that approximates the properties of random numbers; and
                     (b)  reports the seed number that was used to generate the sequence.     
PSP (permanent sample plot) means an area of land that has been selected and established as a PSP in accordance with Subdivision 5 and Subdivision 6 of Division 2 of Part 4.
PSP assessment means an estimation of carbon in an area made in accordance with section 23.
Note:          This is one of the 2 measurement processes available to a project proponent to estimate carbon stock within a stratum and involves the use of permanent sample plots (PSPs). The other process is a full inventory.
regional function means an allometric function developed by or for a project proponent and which has an allometric domain that potentially extends across multiple strata.
Regulations means the Carbon Credits (Carbon Farming Initiative) Regulations 2011.
Rule means the Carbon Credits (Carbon Farming Initiative) Rule 2015.
root:shoot ratio (R:S) means the ratio of below‑ground biomass to above-ground biomass.
sampling plan means a sampling plan as described in Subdivision 3 of Division 2 of Part 4.
seed number means a number input into a pseudo-random number generator.
size class means a class of items that is determined according to size.
starting edge means, for a plot established within a belt planting, the first edge of the plot to be laid out on the ground.
stem means the hard woody structural support element of a tree that forms part of the tree’s above‑ground structure and includes the trunk and heavier vertical limbs extending into the crown.   
stratum means a stratum of a project area defined under section 17.
stratum area, of a stratum, means the area within the stratum boundary, expressed in hectares.
stratum boundary—see subsection 18(4).
stratum commencement means the point in time at which preparation of a stratum for planting begins.
stratum identifier means a unique numeric, alpha numeric, or text string that is used to refer to and identify a stratum.
stratum specific function means an allometric function developed by or for a project proponent from an allometric dataset collected exclusively from within a single stratum, to which the stratum specific function is intended to be applied.
tap root or lignotuber means a thickened, rigid and dense woody mass connected directly to a tree’s stem at ground level and extending downwards into the regolith, and with lateral roots extending from it.
target plot size means the area of the land that is intended to be included within the boundaries of a plot or biomass sample plot as determined in accordance with Part 4.
target probable limit of error, for a full inventory or a PSP assessment—see section 29.
test tree means a project tree that has been randomly selected from within a temporary sample plot or a biomass sample plot for biomass measurement as part of the process for validating regional functions or converting stratum specific functions to regional functions.
tree means a perennial plant that has primary supporting structures consisting of secondary xylem.
tree status means one of the following conditions of a tree:
                     (a)  live;
                     (b)  dead standing;
                     (c)  live fire affected;
                     (d)  dead standing fire affected.
tree type means trees that are of the same species and equivalent tree status, and which have predictor measures that fall within a defined range of values.
TSP (temporary sample plot) means an area of land that has been selected and established as a TSP in accordance with Subdivision 5 and Subdivision 6 of Division 2 of Part 4.
weighted residual means the difference between measured and predicted (from a regression equation) tree biomass multiplied by a weighting factor, and as calculated using Equation 32b.
Note:          Other words and expressions used in this determination have the meaning given by the Act, including:
                    carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2‑e)
crediting period
                   eligible carbon abatement
                   eligible offsets project
                   emission
                   methodology determination
                   natural disturbance
                   offsets project
                   offsets report
                   project
                   project area
                   project proponent
                   Regulator
                   reporting period.
6  References to factors and parameters from external sources
             (1)  If a calculation in this determination includes a factor or parameter that is defined or calculated by reference to another instrument or writing, the factor or parameter to be used for a reporting period is the factor or parameter referred to in, or calculated by reference to, the instrument or writing as in force at the end of the reporting period.
             (2)  Subsection (1) does not apply if:
                     (a)  the determination specifies otherwise; or
                     (b)  it is not possible to define or calculate the factor or parameter by reference to the instrument or writing as in force at the end of the reporting period.
Part 2—Permanent planting projects
7  Permanent planting projects
             (1)  For paragraph 106(1)(a) of the Act, this determination applies to an offsets project that is the establishment of a permanent planting that can reasonably be expected to result in eligible carbon abatement.
             (2)  A project covered by subsection (1) is a permanent planting project.
Part 3—Project requirements
8  Operation of this Part
                   For paragraph 106(1)(b) of the Act, this Part sets out requirements that must be met for a permanent planting project to be an eligible offsets project.
9  Location
                   The project area must be located within Australia.
10  Project area to include eligible land
             (1)  The project area must include eligible land.
             (2)  For this determination, eligible land is land that, for at least 5 years before the date of the relevant application in relation to the project, has been:
                     (a)  used for grazing or cropping; or
                     (b)  fallow between grazing or cropping activities; or
                     (c)  a combination of paragraphs (a) and (b).
Note:          For a pre-existing project, existing plantings may also be eligible land—see section 15.
             (3)  For this section the relevant application is:
                     (a)  for land that was part of the project area at the time of the application under section 22 of the Act—that application; and
                     (b)  for land that became part of the project area as a result of a later variation—the application for that variation.
11  Project mechanisms
                   The project must establish, on some or all of the eligible land, a permanent planting that has sufficient planting density so that the land on which the trees are planted has the potential to achieve forest cover.
Note:          The spatial configuration of a planting may be in belts or blocks provided the planting density has the potential to achieve forest cover.
12  Removal of trees
Non‑project trees
             (1)  The project must be one in which, subject to this section, native forest and non‑project trees are not removed from the project area, or otherwise disturbed.
             (2)  Non‑project trees may be removed from the project area, or otherwise disturbed, only in the following circumstances:
                     (a)  where the non‑project trees are prescribed weeds;
                     (b)  where:
                              (i)  at the time of stratum commencement, the non‑project trees to be removed:
                                        (A)  cover a total land area that represents less than 5% of the project area, as measured by crown cover; and
                                        (B)  do not meet the definition of native forest; and
                                        (C)  are less than 2 metres in height; and
                             (ii)  the trees are removed no later than 6 months after the first planting;
                     (c)  for biomass sampling;
                     (d)  to manage a natural disturbance event such as disease or fire;
                     (e)  where otherwise required by law or permitted by or under the Act.
Project trees
             (3)  The project must be one in which project trees are removed from the project area only in the following circumstances:
                     (a)  for biomass sampling;
                     (b)  to manage a natural disturbance event such as disease or fire;
                     (c)  where otherwise required by law or permitted by or under the Act.
Note:          The Act and instruments made under it permit biomass from project trees to be removed in the following circumstances:
•     to remove debris for fire management;
•     to remove firewood, fruits, nuts, seeds, or material used for fencing or as craft materials, if those things are not removed for sale;
•     in accordance with traditional indigenous practices or native title rights;
•     for thinning for ecological purposes.
13  Preparation burns
                   The project must be one in which no more than one preparation burn is applied to each stratum between stratum commencement and planting.
14  Restrictions relating to fertiliser use
                   The project must be one in which fertiliser is applied to each stratum no more than once per 25 years.
15  Requirements for pre-existing project
             (1)  For this section, a permanent planting project is a pre-existing project if another applicable determination (the former determination) applied to the project immediately before the application of this determination.
Offsets report under former determination required
             (2)  For a pre-existing project:
                     (a)  the project proponent must have submitted at least one offsets report under the former determination; and
                     (b)  the Regulator must be satisfied that the reported value for the carbon stock for each stratum in the latest offsets report (the relevant offsets report) appropriately reflects the existing carbon stock for the stratum.
             (3)  The Regulator is taken to be satisfied for paragraph (2)(b):
                     (a)  for closing carbon stock reported as greater than zero—if the Regulator issued Australian carbon credit units on the basis of the relevant offsets report; and
                     (b)  for closing carbon stock reported as zero—if the Regulator is satisfied that the value of zero was the result of appropriate measurement or modelling (rather than, for example, the application of a default permitted by the former determination).
Eligible land
             (4)  For a pre-existing project, eligible land includes land that is part of a stratum reported in the relevant offsets report.
16  Requirement in lieu of regulatory additionality requirement
             (1)  For the purposes of subparagraph 27(4A)(b)(ii) of the Act, this requirement applies in lieu of the regulatory additionality requirement.
             (2)  The project must not be required to be carried out by or under a law of the Commonwealth, a State or a Territory.
             (3)  A requirement to carry out an activity under a conservation covenant entered into with:
                     (a)  the Commonwealth, a State, a Territory or a local governing body; or
                     (b)  an authority of the Commonwealth, a State or a Territory;
                   is not a requirement for the purposes of subsection (2).
Part 4—Stratification, estimating project removals and calculating project emissions
Division 1—Defining strata and delineating boundaries
17  Defining strata in the project area
             (1)  The project proponent must define one or more strata in the project area, in accordance with the CFI Mapping Guidelines, as areas for which abatement will be calculated in accordance with this Part.
             (2)  A stratum must consist of eligible land on which a permanent planting has been established in accordance with section 11 (Project mechanisms).
Note:          The extent of a stratum is defined essentially by the stems of the trees in the planting.  See section 18.
             (3)  Strata may be defined on the basis of any characteristics that tend to make the growth characteristics of trees in a stratum more uniform.
Note:          The following are examples of such characteristics:
•     time of planting;
•     tree species;
•     observed or measured growth trends;           
•     growing regions;
•     climatic conditions;
•     soil types;                 
•     disturbance history;
•     land management units;
•     management regime;
•     any other characteristics that may be likely to influence project tree growth.
             (4)  The project proponent must define at least one stratum before the submission of the first offsets report.
             (5)  The project proponent may define new strata at any time.
Note:          New strata may be required by this determination in certain circumstances, for example, in the event of a growth disturbance (see section 19).
             (6)  A new stratum may consist of any eligible land in the project area, including land in an existing stratum.
Note:          In such a case:
(a)    a full inventory will be required (see subsection 85(4)), which is subject to section 19); and
(b)    any superseded strata are reported on under section 21.
             (7)  If a new stratum includes part of an existing stratum, then:
                     (a)  the existing stratum is superseded; and
                     (b)  another new stratum may be defined from the remainder.
Note:          See section 21 for reporting on superseded strata.
             (8)  When a stratum is defined:
                     (a)  it must be given a stratum identifier; and
                     (b)  its extant project forest boundary and its stratum boundary must be delineated in accordance with section 18; and
                     (c)  its stratum area must be calculated from the stratum boundary.
             (9)  If there is a change to the project trees in a stratum that affects the extant project forest boundary:
                     (a)  its extant project forest boundary and its stratum boundary must be delineated in accordance with section 18; and
                     (b)  its stratum area must be calculated from the new stratum boundary.
Example:    Subsection (9) might apply if trees near the boundary of the stratum are removed in accordance with section 12 in such a way that re-stratification is not required.
Strata in a pre-existing project
           (10)  For a pre-existing project to which section 15 applies, each stratum reported in the relevant offsets report mentioned in section 15 is taken to be defined as a stratum of the project under this determination (a pre-existing stratum).
Note:          If the proponent wishes to change a pre-existing stratum, it will become a superseded stratum subject to section 21.
           (11)  Subsection (8) applies to a pre-existing stratum.
           (12)  For a pre-existing stratum, the following apply:
                     (a)  any full inventory or PSP assessment conducted in the stratum in accordance with the former determination is taken to have been conducted in accordance with this determination;
                     (b)  any TSPs or PSPs established in the stratum in accordance with the former determination are taken to have been established in accordance with this determination;
                     (c)  any data collected in relation to the TSPs or PSPs in accordance with the former determination is taken to have been collected in accordance with this determination;
                     (d)  if a full inventory was conducted in the stratum in accordance with the former determination, subsection 85(4) does not apply to the stratum;
                     (e)  in subsection 19(1), subsection 47(2), subsections 95(3) and (4) (definitions of Vj, vj and SEVj), subsection 96(3), subsection 98(3) (definition of Qj,p), section 99 (definitions of Rj,p and Qj,p), subsection 115(3) (definition of NF,j), and subsection 116(1) (definition of NF,j):
                              (i)  a reference to a ‘previous reporting period’ includes a reference to a reporting period under the former determination; and
                             (ii)  a reference to an offsets report includes a reference to an offsets report under the former determination; and
                            (iii)  a reference to a certificate of entitlement includes a reference to a certificate of entitlement issued under the former determination.
Note:          The main effects of this subsection are that:
(a)  if PSPs were established under the former determination, the proponent will be able to continue using the PSPs and existing PSP data to conduct PSP assessments until 5 years after the last full inventory conducted under the former determination; and
(b)  sections 19 (revision of strata after growth disturbances) and 115 (calculation of fire emissions) apply to a pre-existing stratum during the first reporting period under this determination.
           (13)  In this section, former determination has the same meaning as in section 15.
18  Delineating stratum boundaries
             (1)  A project proponent must delineate the boundaries of the strata of the project area by generating a set of spatial coordinates that define the geographic limits of the land area included within each stratum by:
                     (a)  using one of the following methods, or a combination of them, to identify the limits of extant project forest boundary and stratum boundary:
                              (i)  conducting an on‑ground survey using a global positioning system;
                             (ii)  using ortho‑rectified aerial imagery; and
                     (b)  using a geographic information system to generate spatial data‑files to identify the limits of extant project forest boundary and stratum boundary.
Use of ortho‑rectified aerial imagery
             (2)  If ortho‑rectified aerial imagery is used:
                     (a)  the relevant land area must be digitised from the imagery; and
                     (b)  the imagery must meet the accuracy requirements specified in the CFI Mapping Guidelines; and
                     (c)  the pixel resolution must be no greater than 2.5 metres; and
                     (d)  the image must be of sufficient quality and resolution to allow the clear identification of the limits of project forest establishment activities.
Extant project forest boundary
             (3)  The extant project forest boundary of a stratum is the polygon that is the outer limit of the stems of the project trees that are included in the stratum.
Stratum boundary
             (4)  The stratum boundary of a stratum is the outer limit of land that lies within a crown radius of the extant project forest boundary of the stratum, other than the following:
                     (a)  land that lies outside the project area;
                     (b)  land that lies within the extant project forest boundary of another stratum;
                     (c)  land that is non‑project forest.
             (5)  If application of the stratum boundary would result in the mapped geographic limits of the stratum:
                     (a)  overlapping the geographic limits of a second stratum—then the boundary must be equidistant between the two strata along the length of the area where the overlap would otherwise have occurred; or
                     (b)  exceeding the geographic limits of the project area—then the boundary of the stratum boundary must be the limits of the project area.
19  Growth disturbances and revision of strata
             (1)  This section applies if a growth disturbance occurs in a stratum (the original stratum) that:
                     (a)  is not a superseded stratum; and
                     (b)  has been reported in an offsets report; and
                     (c)  in the most recent offsets report, was reported with a closing carbon stock greater than zero.
             (2)  For this section, a growth disturbance in a stratum is an event that is likely to affect significantly the project tree growth characteristics of the whole or part of the stratum.
Note:          Examples include floods, fires, droughts, pest attacks, diseases and natural disturbance that would be a significant reversal under the Rule.
             (3)  The project proponent must, within 6 months after detecting the growth disturbance, delineate the boundaries of the land occupied by project trees affected by the disturbance.
Note:          Section 81 of the Act requires a project proponent to notify the Regulator in the event of certain natural disturbances.
             (4)  If the growth disturbance affects 5% or more of the original stratum area, the project proponent must revise the stratum in accordance with subsections (6) and (7).
             (5)  If the growth disturbance affects less than 5% of the original stratum area, the project proponent may choose to revise the stratum in accordance with subsection (7).
Revision of stratum affected by growth disturbance
             (6)  If the whole of the original stratum is affected by the growth disturbance:
                     (a)  it is revised by defining a new stratum with a new stratum identifier (being an affected stratum); and
                     (b)  the original stratum is superseded.
             (7)  If only a part of the original stratum is affected by the growth disturbance:
                     (a)  it is revised by dividing it into two or more strata:
                              (i)  one or more of which is affected by the growth disturbance (each being an affected stratum); and
                             (ii)  one or more of which is not so affected (each being an unaffected stratum); and
                     (b)  the original stratum is superseded.
Labelling of affected strata
             (8)  An affected stratum must be labelled:
                     (a)  if the disturbance is fire—a ‘fire affected stratum’; and
                     (b)  otherwise—a ‘disturbance affected stratum’.
             (9)  The label ‘fire affected stratum’ and ‘disturbance affected stratum’ may be removed from a stratum when the growth disturbance no longer significantly affects the project tree growth characteristics reported for the stratum.
Note:          At this point, the stratum may be re-amalgamated through stratification with an unaffected stratum.
Closing carbon stock in unaffected stratum
Note:          The closing carbon stock of the superseded original stratum will be zero (section 21). The initial carbon stock of the new affected and unaffected strata will also be zero (section 93).
           (10)  Subsection 85(4) does not apply to an unaffected stratum.
Note:          The effect is that a full inventory is not required for the current reporting period, and the project proponent can choose instead to conduct a PSP assessment (using subsection (11)), or no assessment (giving a zero carbon stock change).
           (11)  For paragraph 85(3)(b), the PSP assessment may be made for an unaffected stratum for a reporting period, and section 95 applied to calculate the closing carbon stock:
                     (a)  as if the unaffected stratum had been defined at the time of the last full inventory of the original stratum; and
                     (b)  as if vj = aj; and
                     (c)  applying the data collected for TSPs and PSPs within the boundary of the unaffected stratum to calculate Vj.
           (12)  A full inventory of each unaffected stratum must be conducted within 5 years after the last full inventory of the original stratum.
Closing carbon stock in affected stratum
           (13)  Subsection 85(4) does not apply to an affected stratum.
Note:          The effect is that a full inventory is not required for the current reporting period, and the project proponent can choose instead to conduct no assessment (giving a zero carbon stock change).
           (14)  If a full inventory is not conducted within an affected stratum within 5 years after the disturbance event, it becomes a superseded stratum.
20  Effect of change in stratum boundaries
             (1)  This section applies if a revision, or cumulative revisions, of the boundaries of a stratum change the stratum area by more than 5% between any reporting periods.
             (2)  This section does not apply to a stratum that is required to be revised in accordance with section 19.
             (3)  The stratum is superseded.
             (4)  If the stratum area is not reduced to zero by the revisions, a new stratum may be defined which consists of the remainder of that area.
21  Reporting on newly established and superseded strata
             (1)  If a stratum is defined during a reporting period, initial and closing carbon stocks for the stratum must be reported in the offsets report for the reporting period.
Note:          See section 93 for the initial carbon stock.
             (2)  The stratum identifier associated with that stratum must continue to be reported in subsequent offsets reports as having been associated with the project area even if the stratum is superseded.
             (3)  For a superseded stratum:
                     (a)  values of zero must be recorded against the stratum identifier for the closing carbon stock and standard error for closing carbon stock for the reporting period in which it becomes superseded; and
                     (b)  the carbon stock change and standard error for carbon stock change for the stratum must be calculated using those zero values, and recorded against the stratum identifier.
Note:          Superseded strata must have the carbon stock change calculated in accordance with this determination for the reporting period in which they are superseded.
Division 2—Estimating project removals
Subdivision 1—General
22  General
                   This Division sets out processes that must be conducted when undertaking activities in relation to estimating the carbon dioxide equivalent net abatement amount for an eligible offsets project to which this determination applies.
Subdivision 2—Outline—conducting full inventory or PSP assessment
23  Outline of steps—conducting full inventory or PSP assessment
             (1)  To conduct a full inventory within a stratum, the project proponent must undertake the following steps:
                     (a)  develop and document an appropriate sampling plan, in accordance with Subdivision 3;
                     (b)  estimate ex ante, in accordance with Subdivision 4, the minimum number of:
                              (i)  TSPs that will be needed to conduct the full inventory; and
                             (ii)  if relevant—PSPs that will be needed to conduct any PSP assessment;
                     (c)  determine the intended location coordinates of the TSPs and, if relevant, PSPs, in accordance with Subdivision 5;
                     (d)  establish TSPs and, if relevant, PSPs, in the stratum, in accordance with Subdivision 6;
                     (e)  visit TSPs and collect data, in accordance with Subdivision 7;
                      (f)  estimate biomass and calculate mean plot carbon stock, in accordance with Subdivision 8;
                     (g)  conduct an ex post analysis, in accordance with Subdivision 9;
                     (h)  if the requirements of the ex post analysis are met—calculate carbon stock for the stratum in accordance with Subdivision 10;
                      (i)  if the requirements of the ex post analysis are not met—revise the full inventory in accordance with Subdivision 11.
             (2)  A PSP assessment may only be undertaken if PSPs have been established in accordance with subsection (1) as part of a full inventory.
             (3)  To conduct a PSP assessment within a stratum, the project proponent must undertake the following steps:
                     (a)  develop and document an appropriate sampling plan, in accordance with Subdivision 3;
                     (b)  visit PSPs and collect data, in accordance with Subdivision 7;
                     (c)  estimate biomass and calculate mean plot carbon stock, in accordance with Subdivision 8;
                     (d)  conduct an ex post analysis, in accordance with Subdivision 9;
                     (e)  if the requirements of the ex post analysis are met—calculate carbon stock for the stratum in accordance with Subdivision 10;
                      (f)  if the requirements of the ex post analysis are not met—revise the PSP assessment or conduct a full inventory, in accordance with Subdivision 11.
             (4)  When conducting a full inventory or a PSP assessment, the most recent map of the stratum and the most recent stratum area estimate generated in accordance with Division 1 must be used.
Subdivision 3—Sampling plans
24  Developing and documenting a sampling plan
             (1)  A sampling plan must be developed when one or more of the following occurs:
                     (a)  a full inventory is conducted;
                     (b)  a PSP assessment is conducted;
                     (c)  PSPs are established;
                     (d)  an allometric function is developed, updated, or validated in accordance with Subdivision 12 to Subdivision 16.
             (2)  A sampling plan must include:
                     (a)  a description of the activity to which the sampling plan relates; and
                     (b)  the dates during which the activity was or is to be conducted; and
                     (c)  the information specified in this Subdivision.
25  Sampling plan information for full inventory and PSP assessment
             (1)  This section applies if a sampling plan is developed as part of a full inventory or a PSP assessment.
             (2)  The sampling plan must include each of the following:
                     (a)  a description of the stratum to which the sampling plan relates, including the stratum identifier;
                     (b)  maps showing the extant project forest boundary and the stratum boundary;
                     (c)  the target plot size to be applied within the stratum as determined in accordance with Subdivision 6;
                     (d)  a description of the plots, including whether they are to be centroid, consistent edge or constant position;
                     (e)  the plot layouts for plantings in the stratum as follows:
                              (i)  for block plantings—the proponent must select either the centroid option or constant position option;
                             (ii)  for belt plantings—the proponent must use the consistent edge option;
                      (f)  outcomes from the following processes conducted to determine plot establishment rates and the probable limit of error:
                              (i)  the ex ante estimate of the number of plots required to achieve the relevant target probable limit of error for each time the estimate was calculated;
                             (ii)  the ex post analysis confirming the relevant target probable limit of error has been achieved;
                            (iii)  if:
                                        (A)  the sampling plan relates to a PSP assessment; and
                                        (B)  closing carbon stock was calculated in accordance with subsection 56(1);
                                   details showing that the requirements of that subsection were met;
                     (g)  details of the selection process for plot locations, including seed numbers used by the pseudo-random number generator when generating any grid overlay and randomly selecting grid intersections as intended location coordinates of plots, as referred to in Subdivision 5;
                     (h)  if a commercial software product is used as described in subsection 32(1)—the name and version of the software;
                      (i)  the number of grid intersections that occur wholly within the stratum boundary;
                      (j)  maps that show the position of:
                              (i)  the grid overlay applied to the stratum referred to in Subdivision 5; and
                             (ii)  the randomly selected grid intersections defining the intended location coordinates of plots referred to in Subdivision 5; and
                            (iii)  the location of plots as established by actual location coordinates;
                     (k)  the intended location coordinates referred to in subparagraph (j)(ii) and the actual location coordinates of plots referred to in subparagraph (j)(iii);
                      (l)  details of any variation between the spatial coordinates specified in paragraph (k);
                    (m)  if the variation specified in paragraph (l) exceeds the threshold specified in section 53—details of the corrective measures that were taken; and
                     (n)  details of the selection referred to in section 33, including the seed number.
26  Sampling plan information for stratum specific functions
                   A sampling plan that is developed when a stratum specific function is developed, updated, or validated in accordance with Subdivision 12 to Subdivision 16 must include the following information:
                     (a)  a description of the stratum to which the sampling plan refers, including a reference to the stratum identifier;
                     (b)  maps showing the geographic boundaries of the stratum;
                     (c)  details of the selection process for biomass sample trees, including:
                              (i)  size classes; and
                             (ii)  the number of project trees within each size class; and
                            (iii)  seed numbers used by the pseudo-random number generator when randomly selecting biomass sample trees;
                     (d)  maps showing the position of TSPs from which biomass sample trees have been selected;
                     (e)  actual location coordinates for biomass sample trees.
27  Sampling plan information for regional functions
                   A sampling plan that is prepared when a regional function is developed, updated or validated in accordance with Subdivision 12 to Subdivision 16 must include the following information:
                     (a)  a description of the intended allometric domain to be sampled;
                     (b)  details of the selection process for biomass sample plots, including seed numbers used by the pseudo-random number generator when undertaking processes such as:
                              (i)  generating a grid overlay; and
                             (ii)  selecting grid intersections as intended location coordinates for biomass sample plots;
                     (c)  the number of grid intersections that occur wholly within the biomass sites;
                     (d)  details of the selection process for biomass sample trees, including:
                              (i)  size classes; and
                             (ii)  number of trees within each size class; and
                            (iii)  seed numbers used by the pseudo-random number generator when selecting biomass sample trees;
                     (e)  maps showing:
                              (i)  the location and extent of biomass sample sites; and
                             (ii)  the location of biomass sample plots as established by actual location coordinates and as sampled in accordance with section 70; and
                            (iii)  the grid overlay applied to the biomass sample sites; and
                            (iv)  the randomly selected grid intersections defining the intended location coordinates of biomass sample plots;
                      (f)  the intended location coordinates and actual location coordinates of biomass sample plots;
                     (g)  the actual location coordinates of biomass sample trees;
                     (h)  target and actual plot sizes for each biomass sample plot.
Subdivision 4—Ex ante estimate of minimum number of TSPs or PSPs
28  Operation of Subdivision
                   For paragraph 23(1)(b), this Subdivision sets out how to estimate ex ante the minimum number of:
                     (a)  TSPs that will be needed to conduct a full inventory; and
                     (b)  PSPs that will be needed to conduct a PSP assessment.
29  Target probable limits of error for full inventory and PSP assessment
             (1)  The target probable limit of error for a full inventory is no more than 10% at the 90% confidence level around the estimated mean carbon stock for plots within the stratum, calculated using Equation 28.
             (2)  The target probable limit of error for a PSP assessment is no more than 20% at the 90% confidence level around the estimated mean carbon stock for plots within the stratum, calculated using Equation 28.
30  Ex ante estimate of minimum number of TSPs or PSPs
             (1)  This section sets out how to make, for a stratum (the assessed stratum), an ex ante estimate of the minimum number of TSPs or PSPs needed for a full inventory or a PSP assessment.
             (2)  First, the project proponent must collect data from an assessment:
                     (a)  that consists of:
                              (i)  a full inventory or a PSP assessment that was conducted prior to working out the ex ante number in accordance with this section; or
                             (ii)  a pilot inventory; and
                     (b)  that was conducted in:
                              (i)  the assessed stratum; or
                             (ii)  another stratum that is analogous to the assessed stratum; and
                     (c)  in which at least 5 plots were established and assessed.
Note:          Section 50 limits the use of data that has been obtained when conducting a pilot inventory.
             (3)  Then, the project proponent must use this data and Equations 29a and 29b to make an ex ante estimate of the minimum number of plots required, using:
                     (a)  for the minimum number of TSPs—the target probable limit of error for a full inventory; and
                     (b)  for the minimum number of PSPs—the target probable limit of error for a PSP assessment.
             (4)  In this section:
pilot inventory means the collection and assessment of data in relation to project trees primarily for calculating the number of plots required to achieve a specified probable limit of error.
Subdivision 5—Determining the location of TSPs and PSPs
31  Operation of Subdivision
                   For paragraph 23(1)(c), this Subdivision sets out how to determine the intended location coordinates of:
                     (a)  TSPs that will be needed to conduct a full inventory; and
                     (b)  PSPs that will be needed to conduct a PSP assessment.
32  Determining potential plot locations
             (1)  Where this determination requires a set of potential plot locations to be established for a particular area of land, a grid overlay must be established on a map of the area using:
                     (a)  the method set out in subsection (2); or
                     (b)  a commercial software package that generates a suitable grid of square cells by a process that does not allow the user to set the angle or anchor point.
             (2)  For subsection (1), the method is to use a geographic information system to establish the grid overlay as follows:
                     (a)  the grid must be composed of square cells;
                     (b)  the grid must be initially located with grid lines running:
                              (i)  north to south (vertical grid lines); and
                             (ii)  east to west;
                     (c)  the grid must be then be realigned as follows:
                              (i)  use a random process to generate a random angle value between 0 and 89 degrees; and
                             (ii)  rotate the grid orientation clockwise around the point of grid intersection so that the vertical grid lines move by that angle;
                     (d)  one grid intersection must then be aligned over:
                              (i)  one of the fixed anchor points described in subsection (5); or
                             (ii)  an anchor point obtained by randomly selecting an easting and a northing coordinate that are:
                                        (A)  within the ranges of easting and northing coordinates for the stratum; and
                                        (B)  from the current version of the Map Grid of Australia 1994 (MGA94).
Note:    The Map Grid of Australia 1994 (MGA94) is available at: http://www.ga.gov.au/earth-monitoring/geodesy/geodetic-datums/GDA.html
             (3)  Each grid intersection that lies within the area after completing this process is a potential plot location.
             (4)  The size of the cells of the grid must be selected to ensure that the number of potential plot locations for the area determined in accordance with this section is at least the number desired.
Note:       If an appropriate cell size is chosen, the same grid may be used for an area that is made up of all strata. However, see provisions when the existing set of potential plot locations is insufficient.
             (5)  For this section, the fixed anchor points are:
                     (a)  spatially projected using the ‘Lamberts’ conformal conic projection referencing the GDA94 datum; and
                     (b)  defined as having either of the following coordinates:
                              (i)  X = 1,277,100 metres, Y = ‑3,762,300 metres;
                             (ii)  X = ‑1,666,331 metres, Y = ‑3,482,739 metres.
33  Selecting a subset from the potential plot locations
                   Where this determination permits a subset to be selected from amongst a set of potential plot locations:
                     (a)  the potential plot locations must be numbered consecutively; and
                     (b)  the subset must be selected either:
                              (i)  randomly, using a pseudo-random number generator; or
                             (ii)  using a system:
                                        (A)  that is designed to ensure even coverage; and
Example:       Using even spacing throughout the potential plot locations.
                                        (B)  in which the starting points of the system are randomly selected using a pseudo-random number generator.
34  Determining intended location coordinates of TSPs and PSPs
             (1)  To determine the intended plot locations of TSPs within a stratum, the project proponent must select either:
                     (a)  all the potential plot locations in the stratum determined under section 32, using the map referred to in subsection 23(4); or
                     (b)  a subset selected from amongst them.
             (2)  The number of TSPs in the stratum must not be less than the ex ante estimate of the minimum number of TSPs from Subdivision 4.
             (3)  To determine the intended plot locations of any PSPs in the stratum, the project proponent must select plot locations as a subset of either:
                     (a)  the TSP locations already selected (so that these plots will be both PSPs and TSPs); or
                     (b)  another set of potential plot locations determined in accordance with section 32.
             (4)  The number of PSPs in the stratum must not be less than the ex ante estimate of the minimum number of PSPs from Subdivision 4.
             (5)  The intended location coordinates must be:
                     (a)  recorded in the sampling plan; and
                     (b)  uploaded into a global positioning system.
Subdivision 6—Establishing plots
35  Operation of Subdivision
             (1)  For paragraph 23(1)(d), this Subdivision sets out how to establish:
                     (a)  TSPs for a full inventory; and
                     (b)  PSPs for a PSP assessment.
             (2)  This Subdivision also sets out how to establish biomass sample plots for the purposes of section 70.
36  Establishing plots
             (1)  Subject to subsection (2), plots must be established at the intended location coordinates uploaded to the global positioning system under subsection 34(5) or subsection 70(7) without any deliberate on‑ground repositioning.
             (2)  If establishing a plot at the intended location coordinates would constitute a serious safety risk, the project proponent must:
                     (a)  relocate the plot to the nearest safe point to the intended location coordinates; and
                     (b)  document this relocation and the rationale for the relocation within a sampling plan in accordance with Subdivision 3.
37  Plot configuration
             (1)  Plots may be established in one of the following shapes:
                     (a)  circular;
                     (b)  rectangular.
             (2)  Once the plot shape is selected, all plots in the stratum must be of the same shape.
             (3)  In the case where rectangular plots are established in strata:
                     (a)  that are composed of block plantings; and
                     (b)  in which project tree planting follows a consistent planting pattern;
                   the project proponent may orientate the direction of the plot sides so that the longest plot sides run approximately parallel to the direction of planting lines.
             (4)  The plot actual location must not be deliberately shifted from the intended location coordinate as a result of the process specified in subsection (3).
38  Plot size
                   The following requirements must be met in relation to the size of plots in a stratum:
                     (a)  all plots within the stratum must be established according to a constant target plot size;
                     (b)  the target plot size must be at least:
                              (i)  for TSPs and PSPs—0.02 hectares; and
                             (ii)  for biomass sample plots—5 square metres;
                     (c)  the difference between the actual plot size and the target plot size must not be greater than 2.5%.
39  Identifying and marking plots
             (1)  Each plot must be given a unique identifier being numeric, alpha‑numeric or a text string.
             (2)  Subject to section 40 and section 41, the following parts of a plot must be marked:
                     (a)  the corners of a rectangular plot;
                     (b)  the centre point of a circular plot.
Note:          Section 40 and section 41 deal with plots that are located close to stratum boundaries.
             (3)  The plot parts specified in subsection (2) must be marked in a way that allows for the identification of:
                     (a)  a TSP and the project trees included within the TSP for at least 12 months from the completion of a full inventory assessment; and
                     (b)  a PSP and the project trees included within the PSP for at least the first 5 years following the date of the establishment or most recent assessment of the PSP; and
                     (c)  a biomass sample plot for at least 12 months after assessment.
             (4)  The boundary markers for a PSP must be fire and flood resistant to allow for the identification of the PSP if a growth disturbance event occurs within 5 years from the establishment, or most recent assessment, of the PSP.
40  Dealing with plots located close to stratum boundaries
             (1)  This section applies if the intended location coordinates for a plot fall close to the boundary of a stratum.
             (2)  Except where subsection 36(2), or subsections (4) to (6), apply, if the intended location coordinates are within the stratum boundary, a plot must be established so that the difference between the actual location coordinates and intended location coordinates is no greater than the location tolerance specified in subsection 53(2).
Note:          Subsection 36(2) requires the project proponent to relocate a plot to the nearest safe point if establishing a plot at the intended location coordinates would constitute a serious safety risk.
             (3)  If the intended location coordinates fall outside the stratum boundary, no plot is to be established at that location.
             (4)  If part of the boundary of a plot falls outside the stratum boundary, the location of the centre for the plot must be determined.
             (5)  If the location of the centre of the plot specified in subsection (4) falls outside the stratum boundary, then no plot is to be assessed at that location.
             (6)  If the location of the centre of the plot specified in subsection (4) falls inside the stratum boundary, then the plot is to be assessed.
41  Edge plots
             (1)  If part of the boundary of a plot falls outside the stratum boundary, the plot is to be known as an ‘edge plot’.
             (2)  Edge plots can be either circular or rectangular.
             (3)  Plot markers for rectangular edge plots must be either:
                     (a)  aligned with the limits of the stratum boundary; or
                     (b)  placed at all corners of the plot.
             (4)  Circular edge plots must be marked in accordance with paragraph 39(2)(b).
             (5)  The plot area for an edge plot is taken to be equivalent to the target plot size as established in accordance with section 38.
Subdivision 7—Visiting TSPs and PSPs and collecting data
42  Operation of Subdivision
                   For paragraph 23(1)(e) and paragraph 23(3)(b), this Subdivision sets out how to visit TSPs and PSPs and collect data when conducting a full inventory or a PSP assessment.
43  Plot visits during full inventory
                   All TSPs, and any PSPs that are not TSPs, must be visited during a full inventory.
44  Plot visits during PSP assessment
                   All PSPs must be visited during a PSP assessment.
45  Collection of information during plot visits
             (1)  The following information must be collected during visits to a plot:
                     (a)  the plot identifier and date of assessment;
                     (b)  the dimensions of the plot;
                     (c)  whether the plot falls wholly within the stratum boundary, or is an edge plot that is partially inclusive of land that falls outside the stratum boundary;
                     (d)  the following characteristics for each project tree in a plot:
                              (i)  tree status;
                             (ii)  species;
                            (iii)  predictor measure.
             (2)  The actual location coordinates for each plot must be logged on the ground using a global positioning system.
             (3)  Non‑project trees must not be assessed or included in any carbon stock calculations for the project.
             (4)  If the project proponent chooses to account for carbon contained in litter and fallen dead wood, the carbon must be assessed in accordance with Subdivision 17.
Subdivision 8—Estimation of biomass
46  Operation of Subdivision
                   For paragraph 23(1)(f) and paragraph 23(3)(c), this Subdivision sets out how to estimate biomass and calculate mean plot carbon stock when conducting a full inventory or a PSP assessment.
47  Estimation of biomass
             (1)  The biomass of project trees must be estimated using any of the following:
                     (a)  stratum specific functions;
                     (b)  regional functions;
                     (c)  CFI functions;
                   that have been developed, updated and validated, as appropriate, in accordance with Subdivision 12 to Subdivision 16.
             (2)  If the project proponent applies a CFI function to estimate the biomass in project trees occurring in each plot within the stratum, the function must have been:
                     (a)  applied in the project in a previous reporting period; and
                     (b)  reported in an offsets report for which a certificate of entitlement has been issued by the Regulator.
             (3)  If the project proponent chooses to account for carbon in the litter and fallen dead wood pools, the biomass within these pools must be assessed for each plot in the stratum in accordance with Subdivision 17.
48  Estimation of carbon stock
                   The project proponent must:
                     (a)  convert the biomass estimates calculated in accordance with section 47 into estimates of carbon stock within each plot by using Equations 12 to 22; and
                     (b)  calculate the mean plot carbon stock for the stratum, and the associated error, using Equations 11a and 11b.
49  Plot carbon stock for edge plots
             (1)  For an edge plot:
                     (a)  section 45 applies only in relation to project trees that are both within the plot boundary and the stratum boundary; and
                     (b)  sections 79 and 80 apply only in relation to litter and fallen dead wood that are both within the plot boundary and the stratum boundary.
             (2)  Plot carbon stock must be calculated using Equations 12 to 18, where the area of the plot is equivalent to the target plot size as specified in subsection 41(5) and as documented in the sampling plan.
50  Assessment of plots if pilot inventory was conducted
             (1)  This section applies if a pilot inventory was conducted in the stratum for the purposes of subparagraph 30(2)(a)(ii).
             (2)  Data collected from plots used in the pilot inventory may only be used in the full inventory if:
                     (a)  the locations of the plots used in the pilot inventory were selected in accordance with Subdivision 5; and
                     (b)  the size and configuration of the plots used in the pilot inventory is the same as the size and configuration of the plots used in the full inventory.
Subdivision 9—Ex post analysis of plots
51  Operation of Subdivision
                   For paragraph 23(1)(g) and paragraph 23(3)(d), this Subdivision sets out how to conduct an ex post analysis when conducting a full inventory or a PSP assessment.
52  Ex post analysis—probable limit of error
             (1)  When a full inventory or a PSP assessment is conducted, the project proponent must calculate the probable limit of error for mean plot carbon stock for the stratum using Equation 28.
             (2)  The probable limit of error must be no more than the target probable limit of error for a full inventory or the target probable limit of error for a PSP assessment, as appropriate.
53  Ex post analysis—plot location and size
             (1)  The project proponent must conduct an ex post comparison:
                     (a)  between:
                              (i)  the intended location coordinates generated in accordance with section 34; and
                             (ii)  the actual location coordinates logged in accordance with subsection 45(2); and
                     (b)  between:
                              (i)  the target plot size from paragraph 25(2)(c); and
                             (ii)  the measured plot size from paragraph 45(1)(b).
             (2)  Except where subsection 36(2) applies, the variation between the coordinates specified in subsection (1) must be no greater than 10 metres (the location tolerance).
Note:          Subsection 36(2) requires the project proponent to relocate a plot to the nearest safe point if establishing a plot at the intended location coordinates would constitute a serious safety risk.
             (3)  The variation between the target plot size and the measured plot size of each plot must be no greater than the minimum difference specified in paragraph 38(c).
Subdivision 10—Proceeding when requirements of ex post analysis met
54  Operation of Subdivision
                   For paragraph 23(1)(h) and paragraph 23(3)(e), this Subdivision sets out how to proceed if the requirements of the ex post analysis are met.
55  Estimation of carbon stock—full inventory
                   For a full inventory, the closing carbon stock for a stratum must be calculated using Equation 5a.
56  Estimation of carbon stock—PSP assessment
             (1)  If:
                     (a)  a PSP assessment has been conducted; and
                     (b)  the PSP assessment met the requirements of a full inventory; and
                     (c)  the target probable limit of error for a full inventory is achieved;
                   closing carbon stock for the stratum may be calculated using Equation 5a.
             (2)  If:
                     (a)  a PSP assessment has been conducted; and
                     (b)  the target probable limit of error for a PSP assessment is achieved; and
                     (c)  closing carbon stock is not calculated in accordance with subsection (1);
                   closing carbon stock for the stratum must be calculated using Equation 6a.
Subdivision 11—Proceeding when requirements of ex post analysis not met
57  Operation of Subdivision
                   For paragraph 23(1)(i) and paragraph 23(3)(f), this Subdivision sets out how to proceed if the requirements of the ex post analysis are not met.
58  How to proceed if target probable limit of error not met
             (1)  If, after conducting a full inventory, the requirement of subsection 52(2) is not met, the project proponent must:
                     (a)  select sufficient additional TSPs to ensure that the requirements can be met, by:
                              (i)  if there are sufficient potential plot locations left in the set from which the TSPs were drawn—selecting the additional TSPs as a subset of those locations in accordance with section 33; and
                             (ii)  otherwise:
                                        (A)  developing and documenting an appropriate sampling plan, in accordance with Subdivision 3; and
                                        (B)  establishing an additional set of potential plot locations and selecting the additional TSPs from it in accordance with Subdivision 5; and
                     (b)  establish plots at the associated intended location coordinates in accordance with Subdivision 6; and
                     (c)  visit those sites and collect data in accordance with Subdivision 7; and
                     (d)  proceed in accordance with paragraphs 23(1)(f) to (i).
             (2)  If, after conducting a PSP assessment, the requirement of subsection 52(2) is not met, the project proponent must conduct a full inventory in accordance with this Division.
             (3)  When conducting the full inventory, the project proponent:
                     (a)  may use the PSPs as TSPs; and
                     (b)  may use the data collected in relation to those PSPs for the full inventory.
59  How to proceed if plot location tolerance or size requirement not met
             (1)  This section applies if the requirement of subsection 53(2) or (3) is not met.
             (2)  Data collected from any non-compliant plot must not be included in any calculation in Part 5.
             (3)  The project proponent must:
                     (a)  re-establish any non-compliant plots to comply with Subdivision 6; and
                     (b)  visit the plots and collect data, in accordance with Subdivision 7; and
                     (c)  proceed in accordance with paragraphs 23(1)(f) to (i) or paragraphs 23(3)(c) to (f), as appropriate.
Note:          All ex post comparisons including, if applicable, the requirement to relocate plots, must be documented in a sampling plan in accordance with Subdivision 3.
Subdivision 12—Allometric functions
60  Applying allometric functions
             (1)  A project proponent may only apply an allometric function where:
                     (a)  the requirements set out in this Subdivision are met; and
                     (b)  the compatibility and validation tests specified in Subdivision 16 are satisfied.
             (2)  An allometric function may only be applied to project trees that have a predictor measure within or above the upper limit of the allometric domain for that allometric function.
             (3)  If the predictor measure of a project tree is above the upper limit of the allometric domain, that tree may be attributed the same result as a tree at the upper limit of the allometric domain.
             (4)  An allometric function must not be used in relation to a tree of a different species or status.
61  Allometric domain
             (1)  For each allometric function applied, the project proponent must clearly define the allometric domain for that function by recording and documenting the following in an allometric report in accordance with section 66:
                     (a)  the following information regarding the tree type from which the allometric dataset has been collected:
                              (i)  the species of tree;
                             (ii)  the tree status;
                            (iii)  the allometric data range;
                     (b)  the predictor measures referenced by the allometric function;
                     (c)  the procedures used to assess the predictor measures;
                     (d)  the geographic area over which the allometric function is assumed to apply.
             (2)  For a stratum specific function, the geographic limits of the allometric domain are defined as being the limits of the stratum boundary from which the allometric dataset was collected.    
62  Regression fitting
             (1)  A project proponent must undertake the processes specified in this section when conducting regression analyses for the purpose of developing allometric functions.
             (2)  An allometric function must not be used as part of an offsets project to which this determination applies unless the function has been derived by using regression analyses to relate predictor measures collected from biomass sample trees to biomass estimates obtained for the same set of biomass sample trees.
Allowable regression forms
             (3)  In cases where a project proponent uses either a single predictor measure or multiple predictor measures:
                     (a)  data must not be transformed; and
                     (b)  the weighted least squares method must be applied to estimate the line of best fit.
             (4)  In cases where a single predictor measure is used, linear or non‑linear regression techniques may be applied.
             (5)  In cases where multiple predictor measures are used, multiple linear or non‑linear regression techniques may be applied.
             (6)  An allometric function must take one of the following forms:
                     (a)   
                      or
                     (b) 
                   where:
 =
biomass for a tree in kilograms of dry matter.

 =
the ith of p predictor measure(s) for estimating biomass within a tree.

 
constants derived through regression analyses, .

 
the number of predictor measures.

63  Minimum data requirements
             (1)  This section specifies the minimum data requirements for conducting regression analyses for the purpose of deriving an allometric function.
             (2)  The regression analyses used to develop an allometric function must reference data collected from at least 20 individual biomass sample trees sampled from within the geographic limits of the relevant allometric domain.
             (3)  Both above‑ground and below‑ground biomass components of the biomass sample trees must be assessed in accordance with Subdivision 14.
64  Minimum regression fit requirements
             (1)  This section specifies the requirements that must be met before an allometric function can be used to estimate biomass from project trees.
             (2)  An allometric function may be used to estimate biomass within a particular allometric domain only if the allometric function is documented in an allometric report in accordance with section 66 and if:
                     (a)  the regression relationship upon which the allometric function is based:
                              (i)  is statistically significant; and
                             (ii)  achieves a coefficient of determination (r2) no less than 0.75; and
                     (b)  the mean of the weighted residuals calculated at Equation 32b is not statistically significant from zero, as determined through applying a student t‑test with two‑tailed probability level of
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